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Bernt von Hagen

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( Ludwig )

(b Offenbach am Main, Oct 29, 1905; d London, July 5, 1989).

German typographic designer and teacher active in England . Following an early apprenticeship with a firm of metalworkers, from 1924 to 1928 he studied with the typographical designer Rudolf Koch (1876–1934) at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach, and later in Pforzheim, where he trained as a goldsmith. In 1929–33 he taught lettering at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildenden Künste in Frankfurt and at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Offenbach. He designed book jackets, posters, trademarks and jewellery, as well as tapestries and metalwork (Offenbach am Main, Klingspor Mus.) in a manner rooted in medieval styles. He designed his first new typeface, Hyperion, in 1932. On a trip to London in that year he met Stanley Morison, who commissioned from him a new typeface for the Monotype Corporation (Albertus, 1935–7; bold and light versions, 1940). His other type designs include Tempest (1936), Pegasus Roman (1938) and Decorata (...

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Philip Attwood

Irish family of medallists . William Woodhouse (b Dublin, 1805; d Woodville, Co. Wicklow, 6 Dec 1878), son of John Woodhouse (i) (d 1836), a Dublin die-sinker, trained in Birmingham with the medallist Thomas Halliday ( fl 1810–54). His medal of George Gordon, 6th Baron Byron (bronze and white metal; see Brown, i, no. 1222), engraved on the poet’s death in 1824, won a Society of Arts prize. In 1828 he executed a medal of Daniel O’Connell (silver, white metal and brass; see Brown, i, nos 1325–6). Having returned to Dublin, where he set up his own business, throughout the 1830s and 1840s he produced medals for a wide range of societies and institutions. When he retired in the 1850s his son John Woodhouse (ii) (b Dublin, 1835; d Dublin, May 1892) took over the unfinished work. He had studied at the art schools of the Royal Dublin Society and cut his first die in ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

Austrian family of goldsmiths , active in Vienna. Joseph Worth ( fl 1733–57) made ecclesiastical and domestic plate, but his best-known work is the silver tomb of St John Nepomuk in Prague Cathedral. Joseph Ignaz Würth ( fl 1770–1800), who may have been Joseph’s son, became a court goldsmith; his works for the court included the ‘Polish Service’ commissioned by Albert Casimir, Duke of Sachsen-Teschen (...

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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b Nuremberg, Sept 25, 1548; d Nuremberg, Oct 2, 1620).

German metal-founder . He was among the last of Nuremberg’s famous metal-founders, following the Vischer and the Labenwolf families. His mother Barbara was the daughter of Pankraz Labenwolf, and he trained with and later worked for his uncle Georg Labenwolf. Two misconceptions exist in most literature on Wurzelbauer and the Labenwolfs. Firstly, although numerous statuettes and reliefs have been attributed to them by Bange and other scholars, these artists were metal-founders not sculptors. In virtually every case, their role was to cast the image in metal; the design and the carving of the model were tasks executed by sculptors, such as Hans Peisser and Johann Gregor van der Schardt. As their portion of the project was the last and most expensive, Wurzelbauer and the Labenwolfs were frequently mentioned in the documents. Proud of their achievements, they occasionally signed the completed work. Secondly, Wurzelbauer and the other Nuremberg metal-casters used brass, rather than bronze as has been thought by previous scholars. Recent research has demonstrated that the Nuremberg artists included a much higher percentage of zinc in their copper alloy, thus making brass, than most other German founders who blended more tin with their copper to form bronze....

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Mark Stocker

English family of medallists and sculptors . Thomas Wyon (i) (1767–1830) was Chief Engraver of His Majesty’s Seals; his elder son, Thomas Wyon (ii) (1792–1817), was Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint. The latter’s cousin and the most important artist of the family, William Wyon (1795–1851), expected to succeed him at the Mint in 1817, but instead the position went to Benedetto Pistrucci. However, from 1822, when Pistrucci refused to use Francis Chantrey’s bust of George IV as a basis for the coinage, Wyon, as Second Engraver, assumed responsibility for the coinage and became de facto Chief Engraver.

The accurate, clear portraits, the quality of design and the technically perfect engraving of Wyon’s work make him the definitive medallist of 19th-century England. His portraits of Queen Victoria were used on all British coinage until 1887 and for all postage stamps until 1902. Medallic design, however, provided Wyon with greater opportunity for artistic creativity. His lifelong admiration for John Flaxman is reflected in the ...

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Catherine M. Grant

(b London, May 12, 1963).

English photographer. She studied in London at the Slade School of Fine Art (1982–6) and at Goldsmiths’ College (1988–90), graduating with an MFA. In her early photographs she turned the camera on the institutions that support the visual arts, making portraits of the people who commissioned or curated her work in the period from 1984 to 1995. One such work, Portrait: Selection Committee for the Arts Council of England (1995; London, AC England Col.), was acquired by the very people represented in it. Her colour images are given a strong presence as a result of being mounted on light boxes; the use of solarization around the figures’ heads, like auras, further enhances their luminosity. In a project for Springfield Hospital, London, Yass took portraits of the clients and carers as well as shots of the empty interiors, all of which were displayed in the hospital in ...

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Philip Attwood

(b c. 1720; d London, Dec 3, 1779).

English medallist. He may have been responsible for engraving some admission tickets for the entertainments at Vauxhall Gardens, London, in the 1730s. His first known medals, and his best, are those commemorating the Battle of Culloden of 1746. Both the official medal (gold and bronze; see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, no. 283) and the larger medal portraying William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, as Hercules (gold, silver and bronze; hfg, ii, 278) demonstrate Yeo’s mastery as an engraver, while the imaginative allegorical reverses combine effectively with decorative Rococo flourishes. In 1749 he was appointed Assistant Engraver to the Royal Mint, London, and in 1775 he was promoted to the position of Chief Engraver, a post he retained until his death. In the 1760s and 1770s he made the dies for a number of coins of George III. His relatively small number of known medals includes the exquisite Cambridge University Chancellor’s medal of ...

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Stephen K. Scher

(b Bologna or Volterra, 1512–15; d ?Rome, c. 1565).

Italian medallist and sculptor . Son of the sculptor Zaccaria Zacchi (1473–1544) of Volterra, he spent almost his entire career in Bologna, working primarily for the Farnese family. One of his earliest and best-known medals (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1292) was modelled in 1536 and shows the 82-year-old Venetian Doge Andrea Gritti. It is signed IO. zacchus. f. on the reverse, which has a figure of Fortune holding a cornucopia and a tiller and standing on a globe encircled by a three-headed serpent. On only one other medal, that of Fantino Cornaro of Episcopia (Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant.), does Zacchi give this full signature.

Other medals, signed either IO. f. or simply IO, are attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds, but such attributions make sense both chronologically and geographically. One of these, signed IO. f. (e.g. Florence, Bargello; see Pollard, p. 1293), is of ...

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Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

( fl Nuremberg, 1580s).

German goldsmith and engraver . He was recorded as a goldsmith’s apprentice in Nuremberg in 1580 but became known through his two collections of engravings, published in 1580 and 1581 (2nd edn 1584), which are essentially pattern books for goldsmiths. These engravings illustrate goblets, cups, ewers and basins decorated with sculptural animal and human heads, foliage and flowers, bunches of fruit, scrollwork and arabesques. He was probably the first to apply the goldsmith’s technique of punching to printmaking. Zan was influenced by the Netherlandish ornamental style and especially by the etchings of Georg Wechter I, which had been published shortly before. Zan was also a propagator of the type of scrollwork that gradually replaced the arabesque. His engravings acted as an important stimulus to the art of goldsmithing in the late 16th century and continued to be valued as craftsmen’s patterns until the end of the 19th century. Zan’s signature is ...

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Zinc  

Hard, bluish-white metal. Its ores frequently occur with those of lead. Metallic zinc was produced in antiquity but was not isolated as a metal in modern Europe (which imported it from the East) until c. 1740. Zinc is a major constituent of brass. Objects cast from pure zinc are generally known as spelter. The metal is also used as an inexpensive alternative to copper in printmaking....

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Tabitha Barber

(b Dresden, 1683–5; d London, March 24, 1767).

German painter, active in England. He was the son of a Dresden goldsmith and trained in that profession, but he also studied with the portrait painter Heinrich-Christoph Fehling. In 1706 he moved to England on the invitation of the Swedish enamellist Charles Boit, to collaborate on a very large enamel commemorating the Battle of Blenheim, a project that was never completed. Zincke continued as Boit’s pupil but soon outstripped his master and at some time after 1714 set up on his own as a miniaturist. Promoted by Godfrey Kneller, he won himself a distinguished clientele and royal patronage, culminating in his appointment in 1732 as Cabinet Painter to Frederick, Prince of Wales. Vertue, the main source for Zincke’s life, wrote that at this time he ‘was so fully employed that for some years he has had more persons of distinction sitting to him than any other Painter living’. His prodigious output meant that not all his miniatures were of equal quality; even in his heyday he was criticized for portraits that were too much alike. Failing eyesight and a need to cut productivity caused him in ...

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(b May 28, 1952).

British performance artist, sculptor, photographer and writer. She studied Russian and Arabic at Leeds University (1970–72), and completed her foundation studies at Croydon College of Art (1972–3). She then studied fine art at Goldsmith’s College, London (1973–6), where the progressive approach to contemporary art led her to design her own course of study, which focused on all aspects of performance art. Influences upon her work include Yves Klein and Bruce McLean. Her ability to deflate the pretentious and absurd in daily life was demonstrated in unrehearsed, highly skilled displays of intuitive stagecraft. These are extended monologues that engage the audience with a mesmerising mixture of mimicry, metaphors, verbal and visual clichés and that explore the conventions of suburban existence and the domestic role of women (e.g. Rubbergloverama-Drama; 1980, London, ICA). Although known primarily as a performance artist, she also made sculptural works and ‘costume constructions’ initially created in connection with a performance, but which later existed as autonomous objects. Ziranek also took photographs, wrote (e.g. ...

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Ilse O’Dell-Franke

(b ?1498; d Nuremberg, Feb 25, 1572).

German goldsmith, etcher and draughtsman . He was documented in Nuremberg in 1554, when he applied for citizenship, but was probably there earlier, as his main ornamental work, Novum opus craterographicum (a series of 31 etchings of vessels, attributed to him on stylistic grounds), was printed there in 1551. The ornamental details (such as castings from nature) in these prints suggest a goldsmith’s training. A smaller series of 22 etchings also contains models for brooches, daggers etc. The separate scrollwork title page bears the date 1553 and his full name.

In 1559 Zündt was recorded as an assistant of Wenzel Jamnitzer, who sent him to Prague to work on a table fountain, noting in a letter to Archduke Ferdinand of the Tyrol (1529–95) that Zündt was industrious but used foul language. Nothing is known of Zündt’s work for Ferdinand, nor of any other goldsmith’s work by him, though in ...