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Philip Attwood

(b Karlsruhe, Dec 11, 1870; d New York, Aug 8, 1952).

American sculptor and medallist of German birth. He was brought up in New York from the age of ten. He was apprenticed as a carver of wood and ivory under F. R. Kaldenberg, also studying at the Cooper Union School and later for five years at the studio of the sculptor Philip Martiny. From 1895 he served as assistant to Olin L. Warner and from Warner’s death in 1896 until 1898 he worked under Augustus Saint-Gaudens. There then followed five years in the studio of Charles H. Niehaus (1855–1935) and two years under Daniel C. French, with whom he worked on the figures of The Continents (1907) for the New York Customs House. In 1906 he set up his own studio.

Saint-Gaudens was without doubt the major influence on his work, and most of Weinman’s work was, like that of Saint-Gaudens, modelled to be cast in bronze. He belonged to the generation of sculptors working in the USA who continued the French tradition of naturalistic, Romantic bronzes well into the 20th century. His statue of ...

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Donna Corbin

(b Hereford, May 21, 1929; d 2000).

English industrial designer and silversmith . He trained as a silversmith at the Birmingham School of Art. In the summer of 1953, while a student at the Royal College of Art (1952–5), he won a travelling scholarship to Sweden where he participated in a design course organized by the Swedish Council of Industrial Design. In the following year he went to Norway and worked with the silversmith Theodor Olsen. It was in Scandinavia that the potential of stainless steel as a material was brought to Welch’s attention, and in his final year at the Royal College the topic of his thesis was stainless-steel tableware. In 1955 he was appointed design consultant to J. & J. Wiggin, a small manufacturer of stainless-steel hollow-ware who marketed their products under the name Old Hall, a position he held for the next 25 years. Among Welch’s designs for Old Hall is the ‘Alveston’ cutlery range (...

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Judith O’Callaghan

(b Dageling, ?June 1830; d Adelaide, Sept 7, 1917).

Australian silversmith and jeweller of Danish birth. He served his apprenticeship in Dageling, Denmark, before moving in 1854 to Adelaide, where he established a business that within a decade became one of the city’s two main retail outlets for silver and jewellery. Branches were subsequently opened at Mount Gambier in South Australia and Broken Hill in New South Wales. From 1862 the firm regularly exhibited at intercolonial and international exhibitions, receiving awards, for example at the Australian Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866–7 in Melbourne, Victoria, the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia and the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris. In 1867 Wendt was granted a royal warrant by Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh (1844–1900), during his visit to the colonies. He appears to have specialized in presentation pieces, ranging from standing cups and epergnes to mounted emu eggs. Many incorporate such local motifs as cast figures of aborigines, kangaroos and emus. The best of these pieces (e.g. the Schomburgk Cup, ...

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Silvia Glaser and Klaus Pechstein

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Hermann Maué

(b Altenburg, Dec 16, 1661; d Gotha, Dec 3, 1739).

German medallist . He trained in Dresden as a die-cutter with Ernst Caspar Dürr ( fl 1683–92) and as an engraver with a man named Pieler. In 1686 he became a die-cutter at the Mint of the House of Schwarzburg in Sondershausen, becoming Court Medallist to the House of Saxe-Gotha in 1688. He refused the post of die-cutter in Berlin offered to him in 1703. Although he remained in Gotha, he received the title of Royal Prussian Court Medallist. In 1699 he received an Imperial privilege that permitted him to strike medals in his own house and was intended to protect his work against unauthorized imitation. In his workshop he trained numerous apprentices, including his three sons and his eldest daughter, as expert die-cutters. More than 1300 medals were produced in this workshop, among them a series of 214 portraits of Roman and Holy Roman Emperors, about 100 satirical medals, numerous pieces for members of the European royal families (e.g. ...

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(b Melbourne, Aug 31, 1936).

Australian jeweller and teacher . In 1976 she graduated from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology with a Diploma of Art in gold- and silversmithing. From 1979 she lived in Sydney, where she taught jewellery and design at Sydney College of the Arts. Her early work is predominantly made in stainless steel, generally in sheet form using rivet construction. In the late 1970s she began to experiment with surface textures: hammering, abrading and painting the metal. The origins and symbolism of body adornment became a dominant and continuing concern in her work, and her jewellery was reduced to such basic formal elements as bibs (e.g. Bib for an Ostrich, c. 1982 (Protection Factor 5.6), 1982; Canberra, N.G.) and discs using not only steel but also lead, stone, wood and feathers. From the mid-1980s she began to produce work that questions ‘the contextual qualification of meaning’, as described in her ‘Work Statements’ (...

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(b Arizona, 1950).

American jeweler, sculptor, painter, and silversmith, of Mescalero Apache–Navajo descent. White Eagle began his career as a silversmith under the tutelage of legendary Navajo artisan Fred Peshlakai , at age five, learning by observation and developing an artistic understanding of Peshlakai’s aesthetic approach. At nine, he began making and selling his own jewelry at Union Square in Los Angeles. Later moving to Palm Springs, CA he continued to generate and sell his jewelry on the street under the date palms trees.

Always handmade, his jewelry pieces used the finest available quality of semi-precious stones. Singular details and features demonstrated his exclusive and unique artistic vision and styling. In 1973, the Yacqui artist, Art Tafoya, began a silversmith apprenticeship with White Eagle, studying the hand-stamped old style embossing skills of jewelry; he continued the historic creation of extraordinary designs.

Bold and substantial, White Eagle’s jewelry balanced a focal fluid turquoise stone against deeply carved flora and linear design lines. His pieces represented transcultural combinations of traditional Navajo silver interwoven with mainstream expectations of Native American style. He daringly counterbalanced mixed semi-precious stonework with irregular fusions of silver positive space. Smooth, amazingly detailed stamp work combined with bent offset features providing an overall asymmetrical daring quality....

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Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

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Sarah Yates

(bapt Bury St Edmunds, July 7, 1698; d Thurston, Suffolk, Aug 31, 1761).

English goldsmith. In 1712 he was apprenticed to the goldsmith Samuel Wastell, and in 1720 he gained the freedom of the Goldsmiths’ Company, London. He registered his first marks in 1721–2, giving his address as Threadneedle Street; his earliest known extant works, two silver mugs (priv. col., see Barr, fig.), date from this time. In 1730 he moved to Norris Street and entered into a partnership with John Craig, which continued until 1735, when Wickes moved to the King’s Arms, Panton Street, and began working independently. In that year he was appointed goldsmith to Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the ledgers of his business (London, Garrard & Co.; V&A) record the numerous commissions from royalty, aristocracy and gentry, and are the only surviving examples from the 18th century, indicating that Wickes built up a large and successful enterprise. Such members of the Prince’s circle as Francis, Lord North (later Earl of Guilford), who ordered tureens from Wickes in ...

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Philip Attwood

(b Heiligenstadt, Eichsfeld, March 24, 1872; d Apeldoorn, 1945).

Dutch medallist . He studied applied arts in Amsterdam and fine arts at the academies of Antwerp and Brussels, going on to the Académie Colarossi and the Académie Julian in Paris; he also trained with the sculptor Denys Puech. In 1898 he won a competition with a gold, silver, and bronze plaquette in low relief, which was presented by the City of Amsterdam to Queen Wilhelmina in commemoration of her coronation. This encouraged him to undertake more small-scale work, and he trained in Paris under the medallist Henri Auguste Jules Patey (1855–1930) before joining the Royal Mint, Utrecht. His early medal designs, such as those for the Java Syndicate of Sugar Refiners (gold) or the commemoration of the birth of the Princess Juliana in 1909 (silver), are usually symmetrical and of an extreme intricacy, with trees and flowers playing an important part. They won him international fame in the early 20th century; he was knighted in ...

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Stephen T. Clarke

(b Metz, June 7, 1658; d c. 1740).

English goldsmith of French origin. The son of a goldsmith, Adam Willaume, he arrived in London from France c. 1685 and became a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company by 1694. His first known mark was registered in 1697, but it is likely that he had been manufacturing articles for several years. He became one of the most successful Huguenot goldsmiths. By 1698 he had made a pair of single bottle wine-coolers (Chatsworth, Derbys) for William Cavendish, 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Devonshire. This is the earliest known pair of English wine-coolers, and they illustrate French influence. Willaume’s output was prolific, and his patrons included many of the nobility. Although he never achieved the office of Royal Goldsmith, a number of pieces made by him during the reigns of Queen Anne and George I are engraved with the royal arms, for example a large ewer and basin (1705) supplied to ...

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Eric J. Sluijter

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M. Hamilton-Phillips and R. P. Maccubbin

Term applied primarily to decorative arts produced in The Netherlands and England during the reign (1689–1702) of William III and Mary II ( see Orange Nassau, House of family §(5) ) and that spread also to North America at the end of the century. It covers a vocabulary of visual forms rather than a movement, and is represented by richly ornamented furniture, displays of wares from the Far East, embossed and engraved silver, ceramics, luxurious textiles, architectural ornament and garden design. The decorative arts of the 1690s reflect the blending of French, Dutch and English ornamental styles as well as an increased taste for exotica. Although at war with France, William III admired the sophistication of French culture and encouraged the immigration of Huguenot refugees, the French Protestants who fled from France after 1685 when Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had guaranteed them freedom of worship (...

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Douglas Bennett

(b c. 1770s; d Cork, April 17, 1845).

Irish silversmith . The daughter of Carden Terry , she had the distinction of being the only female silversmith in Cork during the late 18th century and the early 19th. She was married on 6 August 1791 in St Peter’s Church, Cork, to her father’s apprentice, John Williams (1771–1806), who entered into partnership as a silversmith with Carden Terry in 1795. Jane Williams, who lived at Grand Parade, Cork, continued business as a silversmith after her husband’s death and sent many silver pieces to be assayed in Dublin, where she registered a mark in 1806. She worked with her father from 1807. Their joint mark appears on a marrow scoop (Washington, DC, N. Mus. Women A.) made in 1810 and on a freedom box (Washington, DC, N. Mus. Women A.) made in 1814. The business was closed shortly after Carden Terry’s death in 1821.

D. Bennett: Collecting Irish Silver (London, 1984)...

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Gordon Campbell

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Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Warsaw, Sept 21, 1879; d Warsaw, March 3, 1941).

Polish sculptor . He studied at the medal workshop of Josef Tautenhayn (b 1868) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1897–1900), in the workshop of the medallist Hubert Ponscarme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1900–02), and also with Alexandre Charpentier. From 1903 onwards he exhibited at the Salon and at the Salon des Indépendants. In 1914 he returned to Poland, where he was appointed Professor of Sculpture at the School of Fine Arts, Warsaw (1915–20), and spent the next two years at the Faculty of Architecture of Warsaw Polytechnic. He was a member of the Rhythm group .

In Wittig’s first phase (up to c. 1907), his work was inspired by Symbolism and the ideas of Rodin, and it already shows the disciplined Maillol-like forms that started to predominate before World War I and reached their fullest expression in the stone sculpture ...

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Marianne Grivel

(b Neufchâteau, Vosges, 1532; d Damblain, Haute-Marne, 1599).

French goldsmith, painter, sculptor, medallist and engraver . He followed his father and grandfather in working as a goldsmith until c. 1555, after which he was primarily active as an engraver. In that year he received two privileges for the Pinax iconicus (Adhémar, 6), published in 1556, and the Livre d’anneaux d’orfèvrerie (Adhémar, 19), published in 1561 with a dedication to the poet Barthélemy Aneau. Around 1556 he executed three engravings with historical or mythological subject-matter, the Bull of Phalaris, Hasdrubal’s Wife Throwing Herself on the Pyre and Phocas Led Captive before Heraclius (Adhémar, 21–3). It was previously thought that Woeiriot went to Italy after 1550 and settled in Lyon on his return in 1554, but it now seems that he did not leave for Rome until c. 1559–60. At the end of 1561 he was in Nancy; he continued to make frequent visits to Lyon until 1571. On 1 December 1561...

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Richard Kerremans

(b Brussels, April 16, 1858; d Brussels, Dec 13, 1929).

Belgian jeweller, designer and sculptor . The son of the master goldsmith Louis Wolfers (1820–92), he graduated from the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1875 and entered his father’s workshop as an apprentice, where he acquired a comprehensive technical training. Influenced by the Rococo Revival and Japanese art, in the 1880s he created sensitively curved pieces in gold and silver decorated with asymmetrically distributed floral motifs, which heralded the Art Nouveau style (e.g. ewer, Le Maraudeur, c. 1880; Brussels, Musées Royaux A. & Hist.). After 1890 he produced two kinds of work: goldsmithing and jewellery designs for production by Wolfers Frères and one-off pieces that were produced to his own designs in the workshop that he had established c. 1890–92. Typical of the latter are Art Nouveau goldsmiths’ work and jewellery (e.g. orchid hair ornament, 1902; London, V&A), crystal vases carved into cameos and ivory pieces. Ivory was then in plentiful supply from the Congo, and from ...