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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

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Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

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Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

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Nigel J. Morgan

Benedictine abbey in Carinthia, Austria, founded in 1091 by Count Engelbert von Spanheim. The present abbey church, dating from c. 1175–1210, has a triple-apse east end with shallow apsidal chapels flanking a one-bay sanctuary. The sanctuary, transept, and first bay of the four-bay nave are covered by quadripartite vaults erected after a fire in 1367. The façade has two towers, the upper parts of which were rebuilt in 1367–75 after the fire. The sculpted capitals in the nave and transept show a transition from Romanesque to Early Gothic forms; the round arches and heavy shafted piers in the nave, however, are entirely Romanesque in appearance. Three bays of the nave and both aisles were given elaborate net and star-ribbed vaults c. 1468. The south and west portals have late Romanesque sculpted tympana of the Adoration of the Magi and an Abbot and St Paul before Christ Enthroned. In the Baroque period a sacristy, a chapel of the Virgin and many conventual buildings were added; there are four Rococo altarpieces (...

Article

Masayuki Miura

[Jap. Itsukushima jinja]

Japanese Shinto shrine in Miyajima, Saeki Province, Hiroshima Prefecture. It is 15 km south-west of Hiroshima on the island of Itsukushima, one island among many in the Seto Inland Sea. The island has traditionally been included among the three most beautiful sites in Japan. The name Itsukushima (Majestic Island) denotes a place where kami (Shinto deities) are worshipped, and in ancient times the entire island was acknowledged as a sacred site. The shrine is dedicated to the worship of the goddess Ichikishima hime no mikoto, who ensures safety at sea, and her two sisters, as well as to the five male ‘cousin’ deities who are collectively called Marōdo no kami (‘guest gods’). At the shrine, there are two honden (‘main sanctuaries’); Honsha (‘head’ or ‘main shrine’) for the worship of the three goddesses; and the Marōdo Jinja (‘guest shrine’) for the worship of the male guest deities. Many of the buildings of the Itsukushima Shrine, which are constructed of wood, are located on the sandy beach of Itsukushima cove. During high tide the sea-water flows under the floor of the buildings, making the shrine appear to float on water. Itsukushima is the only shrine in Japan sited in such a manner. Conceptually and architecturally, its closest parallels are in Amida Halls such as the Phoenix Hall (Hōōdō) at Byōdōin....

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Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

Article

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

In 

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

Article

Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens

In 

Article

Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick

In 

Article

Richard Fawcett

Twelfth-century Augustinian abbey in the Scottish Borders. Dating back to the 9th century, by the early 12th century Jedburgh was a royal burgh and the site of a royal castle. The southern end of the small town is dominated by the well-preserved ruins of its abbey, which was doubtless always intended to present an impressive image of Scotland to those travelling on a principal route from England. The abbey was established in about 1138 for Augustinian Canons, with the first colony probably brought from St Quentin at Beauvais. The founders were King David I (reg 1124–53) and Bishop John of Glasgow, who were perhaps marking a reconciliation with the papacy following disagreements over the Archbishop of York’s claims to authority in Scotland.

The church was planned with an aisleless flat-ended presbytery, a two-bay aisled choir, transepts with single eastern apses, and a nine-bay aisled nave; there is a crossing tower. The earliest surviving parts, erected soon after ...

Article

Ernst Ullmann

Former Premonstratensian abbey, dedicated to SS Mary and Nicholas, north-east of Magdeburg, Germany. Jerichow Abbey is the most important early brick building in northern Germany. It was founded in 1144 by Hartwig von Stade, canon of Magdeburg Cathedral, on a site near his castle; the first community came from the Abbey of Our Lady in Magdeburg. Jerichow was originally established as the temporary seat of the diocese of Havelberg, which had not then been re-Christianized after the Slavic uprising in 983. The canons found the riotous population disturbing, and in 1148 Bishop Anselm of Havelberg, in agreement with Archbishop Friedrich of Magdeburg, transferred the abbey to a site north of the town. Construction of the church and monastery began at this time. The papal confirmation of 1159 mentions the abbey as well as the old parish church, and archiepiscopal documents of 1172 and 1178 mention abbey buildings and a church. Construction began with the apse, choir, transepts and eastern parts of the nave, using small basalt blocks. Further construction was in brick, only the imposts of the piers being worked in sandstone. In a second building campaign ...

Article

Jaroslav Folda and Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

[Crusader States]

One of four Crusader States that were established on mainland Syria-Palestine during and after the First Crusade (see Crusades), which was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II (reg 1088–99) to protect the Holy Land against the Muslims. Besides the Latin Kingdom itself, three main states at least nominally recognized the suzerainty of the king who resided in Jerusalem: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch and the County of Tripoli, whose lords lived in the title city. The Crusader States came to an end in 1291.

Located mainly in south-east Anatolia, it was both the first Crusader State to be established in 1098 and the first to be eliminated, between 1144 and 1151. The County was considerably smaller than the Latin Kingdom, measuring only slightly over 240 km across its longest dimension. It had a large population of Armenians, who had invited in and supported the Franks, and Syrian Jacobites, who favoured the Muslims. Baldwin I of Boulogne (...

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Susan Pinto Madigan

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Bruce A. Coats

[Kūtaiji; Kūdaiji; Kubonji]

Buddhist temple and garden near Nara in the Sōraku District, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is a temple of the Pure Land (Jōdo) sect of Esoteric Buddhism. The present compound contains a honden (main hall), a pagoda and a pond garden. Alone among Pure Land temples, Jōruriji retains its original 12th-century garden designed to look like the Western Paradise. Temple records indicate that the temple was established in 1047 with the construction of a honden dedicated to Yakushi (Skt Bhaishajyaguru; the Buddha of healing). It was reconstructed in 1107 as a hall for the worship of Amida (Skt Amitabha; Buddha of the Western Paradise) and moved to its present position in 1157.

The Amida Hall (Amidadō) stands on the western side of the pond. It is a wooden post-and-beam structure in the yosemune zukuri (‘hipped-gable roof construction’) format, 11 bays long and 4 bays deep, and is the only extant example of a ...

Article

Maylis Baylé

Former Benedictine monastery in Normandy, France.

Founded in 654 by Saint Philibert, Jumièges Abbey was ruined in the Norman invasions from 841. In 942 William I, Duke of Normandy, brought 12 monks from Poitiers to refound it. The church of St Pierre was rebuilt towards the end of the 10th century. At the beginning of the 11th century William of Volpiano, Abbot of St Bénigne, Dijon, was called to Normandy by Duke Richard II to reform the monasteries of the duchy. His disciple Thierry, Abbot of Jumièges, envisaged the reconstruction of the great Carolingian abbey church of Notre-Dame and probably began the work but died (1027) before he was able to finish the project. Notre-Dame was built between 1040 and 1067 under abbots Robert Champart (d 1052), Geoffroy, and Robert III and was consecrated by Maurille, Archbishop of Rouen, in the presence of William the Conqueror. The Romanesque chapter house, with one straight rib-vaulted bay terminating in an apse, was built ...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...

Article

Susan Young

[St John Lampadistis]

Byzantine monastery in Cyprus, c. 50 km west of Nicosia. The only information concerning its foundation is that which can be gleaned from the three adjoining churches of the katholikon and their decoration. All are of different date with a narthex common to the central and southern churches. A massive, pitched, timber roof, of a type common among the Cypriot mountain churches, covers the complex.

The south church, dedicated to St Herakleidius, has a conventional cross-in-square plan, and probably dates from the 11th century. A painting, possibly of the 12th century, on the dado of the central apse, depicts two monks, possibly donors, in proskenesis; there are traces of an earlier painting beneath. A particularly interesting group of paintings (c. 1250–1300) comprises the Pantokrator, the Sacrifice of Isaac, the Entry into Jerusalem, the Raising of Lazarus, the Crucifixion, the Ascension, individual figures of Christ and the Virgin, prophets and saints. The ...

Article

Richard Fawcett

Twelfth-century abbey in the Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. The charming small town of Kelso developed around the abbey at its southern end, within a loop of the River Tweed. It originated as a satellite of the royal burgh of Roxburgh, of which only a fragment of the castle survives. The abbey was first established in about 1113 at Selkirk by the future King David I (reg 1124–53), and was relocated to Kelso in 1128. It was one of the earliest houses in Britain of the reformed Benedictine order, the Tironensians, an order that was to be particularly favoured by the Scottish royal house.

A description of 1517 in the Vatican describes the church as having a double-cross plan, with towers over two crossings, and this has been confirmed through excavation. The plan was presumably inspired by the double-cross plans of eastern England, with which David would have been familiar, rather than by those of Ottonian and Romanesque Germany. But Kelso is distinctive in the way the central space of the nave runs through the western crossing into a full height vestibule. The chief remains are of the two west bays of the south arcade wall, the south-west transept, parts of the north-west transept, two sides of the west crossing tower and parts of the west vestibule....