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Article

Brian Austen

(fl 1804–45).

English architect, designer and drawing-master. He appears to have had strong connections during his early life with South Devon: his earliest known design, exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1804, was of a Villa with a Distant View of the Catwater, Plymouth, and other designs (1807–12) also relate to this county. However, Brown may have been living in London during this period as he ran an architectural academy at 4 Wells Street. There the importance of perspective drawing was taught, and in 1815 he published the Principles of Practical Perspective. He also became increasingly interested in furniture design, and in the need for designers in this discipline to master the art of perspective. Drawing is one of the main themes in his work the Rudiments of Drawing Cabinet Furniture (1820), which consists of 24 coloured plates, each accompanied by commentary. The designs are in the Classical style and acknowledge the work of Thomas Hope (ii), George Smith and Charles Percier. Brown also praised the quality of George Bullock’s cabinetmaking, and the plates appear to have been derived from Bullock’s designs. One plate depicts a sofa made in ...

Article

(b Glasgow, Sept 21, 1853; d Sambrook, Salop, June 15, 1939).

Scottish architect and writer. He was apprenticed to the Glasgow firm of Salmon, Son & Richie before joining Douglas & Sellars, also of Glasgow, in 1873. He worked in London (1875–8) for both J. J. Stevenson and Arthur William Blomfield (1829–99) and won the Pugin Travelling Scholarship, which enabled him to study in Paris and Belgium. In 1879 he returned to Scotland as chief assistant to Rowand Anderson, working as his junior partner (1881–5) after another brief spell in London with W. E. Nesfield, whose work influenced him profoundly. In 1887 Browne won the competition for Edinburgh Central Library with a scholarly and sophisticated early French Renaissance Revival design that launched his career. Early major commissions were the Flemish Late Gothic Revival Redfern’s Building (Messrs Radfern; 1891–2; destr.), 31-2 Princes Street, Edinburgh (a ladies’ fashion department store, and the Netherlandish Renaissance Revival Cranston’s Tearooms (...

Article

Kenneth G. Hay

(b Buntingford, Herts, April 28, 1913; d Berkhamsted, Herts, Oct 23, 1981).

English sculptor, draughtsman, architect and writer. After training as an architect from 1933 to 1936, he taught at the Architectural Association in London and practised as an architect as Cotterell Butler until 1939; among the buildings designed by him were two houses at Bushey (1935) and Great Munden, Herts (1939), as well as the clock-tower of Slough Town Hall (1936), designed while working for C. H. James & Bywaters & Roland Pierce (for illustrations, see exh. cat., p. 9). From 1941 to the end of World War II he worked as a blacksmith in Iping, West Sussex, as a conscientious objector; from 1946 until 1950 he worked as a technical editor for the Architectural Press, acted as consultant to various firms, including Ove Arup and Partners, and attended life-classes at Chelsea School of Art.

Butler began to sculpt in 1944, without having had any formal training, and held his first one-man show at the Hanover Gallery, London, in ...

Article

(b Mulhouse, 1844; d 1923).

French philanthropist, industrialist and writer. After studying as an engineer at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Métiers, Paris, he directed a chemical works in Mulhouse, one of the pioneering centres of social reform in France. He soon returned to Paris, however, where he married the daughter of a public works contractor and as a result became proprietor of 500 flats in the city. Shocked at the housing conditions he found in his properties, he began a lifelong involvement in housing reform, as a designer, builder, pamphleteer, writer and public campaigner. His aim was to enable every working family to become proprietor of a house and garden, an aim based on the avowed intentions of improving workers’ living conditions while simultaneously reinforcing the existing social order. Such housing was to be a bastion against Communism and stood at the opposite social pole to Fourierism, a cooperative theory of social organizations. The model for Cacheux’s conservative ideal of housing reform was the workers’ housing built in Mulhouse from ...

Article

Ugo Ruggeri

[il Cremonese]

(b ?Cremona, c. 1595; d Ferrara, 1660).

Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. His artistic formation was complex. He knew contemporary Emilian art, from Giacomo Cavedoni to Lionello Spada and Guercino, and was intensely interested in 16th-century painters from Venice and the Po Valley, ranging from Giorgione to Titian, from Altobello Meloni to Romanino and of course Dosso Dossi. Caletti was mainly interested, as was Pietro della Vecchia, in a revival of 16th-century Venetian art, and, like della Vecchia, although at times he produced forgeries of 16th-century pictures, he more often interpreted such sources with irony and powerful emotion, as in the St Sebastian (Cento, Taddei priv. col.), which is modelled on Titian’s figure of St Sebastian in the Averoldi polyptych of the Resurrection (1522; Brescia, SS Nazaro and Celso).

In a rare public commission, a depiction of St Mark (c. 1630; Ferrara, Pin. N.), Caletti grew closer to Guercino. He was attracted by the bold Venetian colour of Guercino’s early manner, the influence of which is apparent in this work and in ...

Article

[il Sordino]

(b Bologna, Feb 23, 1740; d Bologna, May 5, 1815).

Italian painter, biographer, draughtsman and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Varotti (1715–80). While a student at the Accademia Clementina, Bologna, he received two awards, including the Premio Marsili for the Sacrifice of Noah (1758; Bologna, Accad. B.A. & Liceo A.). He pursued literary interests throughout his life and became a member of the avant-garde Accademia Letteraria degli ‘Ingomiti’ in Bologna in 1763. His early paintings, notably the St Francis de Sales (1764; Bologna, Ospizio dei Preti), continue the strict classical strain within the Bolognese figurative tradition; they show the influences of Ercole Graziani, Marc Antonio Franceschini and Donato Creti. Calvi primarily painted sacred subjects, receiving numerous, mainly local, commissions. From about 1770 onwards many pictures, including his superb Self-portrait (1770; Bologna, Pin. N.), became increasingly austere and Raphaelesque in both style and design, anticipating 19th-century Bolognese Neo-classicism. In 1766 he frescoed an Assumption of the Virgin...

Article

T. P. Connor

(b 1676; d London, ?Sept 13, 1729).

Scottish architect and writer. He was the key propagandist for the Palladian revival in early 18th-century England (see Palladianism). First as an architectural publisher and then as an architect, he did as much as any contemporary to determine the lines of development of secular architecture for a generation.

Campbell was a nephew of Sir Hugh Campbell of Cawdor, Nairnshire, and his first career was as an advocate in Edinburgh, where he began to establish a reputation at the outset of the 18th century. Between c. 1708 and 1712 Campbell abandoned his legal practice to begin a career as an architect in London. By December 1708 he was in London hoping to become Master of the [Royal] Works in Scotland. This post, then unpaid, was currently held by James Smith, an architect by whom Campbell was to be significantly influenced. It is known that Campbell had been abroad before ...

Article

Valeria Farinati

(b Casale Monferrato, Oct 24, 1795; d Florence, Oct 17, 1856).

Italian architect, archaeologist and architectural historian. He studied architecture at the University of Turin (1810–12) under Ferdinando Bonsignore (1767–1843) and his assistant Giuseppe Talucchi (1782–1863). After serving (1812–14) in the fortress of Alessandria, he resumed his studies and obtained a degree in architecture in 1814. He served a period of apprenticeship under Talucchi, who helped him obtain a three-year grant from the Court of Turin for further study in Rome, where Canina settled in January 1818. He worked on engravings of Roman monuments under the antiquarian, scholar and publisher Mariano Vasi (1744–1820), and at the end of his three-year period as pensionato, he presented a survey of the Colosseum (Anfiteatro Flavio descritto, misurato e restaurato; dispersed) to the architects of the Accademia di S Luca, including Giuseppe Valadier, who were much impressed.

In 1824 Canina was appointed to execute his scheme for the expansion of the park of the ...

Article

(b Antalya, 1922).

Turkish architect and writer. He studied architecture at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul. As a student of Sedad Hakkı Eldem, and later as his teaching assistant, he was influenced by Eldem’s ideas on the nature of national architecture. Cansever began his career working in urban planning in Istanbul. During the 1950s, however, he began to attract attention with buildings and designs that incorporated new technology and materials but also referred to the past. His Karatepe Museum (1954–61) near Adana, for example, had slab roofs of poured concrete, but the open porches and corner windows refer to historical and regional architectural traditions. He adopted this approach for other buildings, including the Anadolu Club (1959; with Abdurrahman Hancı) at Büyükada, Istanbul, which combines a traditional T-plan with a meticulous treatment of details, particularly the windows; a block of flats in Çiftehavuzlar, Istanbul; and the partly realized Terakki Foundation School in Istanbul. This approach also inspired the ...

Article

Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...

Article

Zilah Quezado Deckker

(b Madrid, May 23, 1606; d Vigevano, Sept 7, 1682).

Spanish cleric, theorist, writer and architect. He was an eminent exponent of Counter-Reformation thought, who sought to bring all contemporary knowledge within a unified system. His career was marked by controversy, however, as his advocacy of Cartesian rationality—to which he was not fully committed—brought him into conflict with the Catholic Church. He was a prolific author, writing 260 works (69 of which were published) on theology, history, politics, law, language and music; his best-known contribution to architectural theory is his treatise Architectura civil, recta y obliqua (1678–9).

Caramuel’s father, Lorenzo Caramuel de Lobkowitz, was descended from a noble Flemish family and had been an astronomer to Charles V; his mother, Catarina Frisse, was related to the Danish royal family. Caramuel received his early education from his father. From the age of ten he studied under the Jesuits at the university of Alcalá de Henares, graduating in 1629; he then studied at Salamanca and Valladolid, where he became a Reader in theology. Because of his ecclesiastical connections he was able to travel extensively throughout the Holy Roman Empire, to Flanders, the Palatinate, Austria and Bohemia. In ...

Article

Giuliana Ricci

(b Viadana; d Mantua, 1700).

Italian architect, stage designer and writer. He was the brother-in-law of Giacomo Francesco Motta, superintendent of the Teatro Grande in Mantua, whose surname he adopted and who probably assisted him in his youth. He began working at the court of Mantua as a painter c. 1650, later becoming general superintendent of buildings and prefect of theatres. In 1668 he built a theatre (destr.) for Luigi Fedeli at Mantua, with a proscenium arch similar to that introduced by Giovanni Battista Aleotti at the Farnese Theatre (1618–19), Parma. It had a central space bounded by two stepped levels, three tiers of boxes and an upper balcony. This theatre was the site of Carini Motta’s only documented stage designs, those for the Torneo a’piedi (1674), recorded in engravings accompanying the libretto published in Mantua. In 1688 he designed the Teatro dei Comici, Mantua, with five tiers of boxes as well as the parterre. Carini Motta also produced a considerable number of stage devices and machines; firework displays and ceremonial structures for the coronations of Popes Clement IX (...

Article

Richard John

[Carrogis, Louis]

(b Paris, Aug 15, 1717; d Paris, Dec 26, 1806).

French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for Pons de Saint-Maurice and made portraits and caricatures of the soldiers in his regiment. Pons de Saint-Maurice recommended him to Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), who in 1763 appointed him lecteur to his son Philippe, Duc de Chartres. Carmontelle quickly became involved in all aspects of the ducal household, notably in the theatre; he wrote ‘proverbes’ (playlets illustrating a moral point) for it and supervised their production to his own designs. His texts were published as Proverbes dramatiques between 1768 and 1787, but his illustrations to them remained unpublished until 1933 (original drawings at Chantilly, Mus. Condé). He also recorded the members of the ducal household at the Palais Royal and at Villers-Cotterets in a series of portrait drawings, in pencil and watercolour or gouache. These were made rapidly, often in less than two hours, and almost all show the sitter full-length in profile. They are an invaluable record of both courtiers and distinguished visitors, such as the young ...

Article

Alessandra Anselmi

(b Melide, Ticino, c. 1582; d Rome, Oct 12, 1657).

Italian architect, surveyor and writer. The earliest documents on him concern his work in Rome as superintendent, together with Giovanni Fontana, of the construction of the Acqua Paola and the monumental fountain on the Janiculum (1607–14; see Fontana family, §1). Between 1614 and 1621 he was employed as superintendent architect on drainage works in the Romagna. In 1619 he also designed the monumental fountain (completed 1621) in the main square of Faenza and in 1620 the iron gate that was meant to complete it; this was made by Domenico Gamberini but never installed. When Castelli returned to Rome his technical knowledge together with the backing of the Barberini family enabled him to obtain numerous public and private commissions. In 1621 he was appointed curator of the Acqua Paola, and in 1624 he became superintendent of the Camera Apostolica, the papal office of works, serving there until 1657...

Article

Matilde Baffa Rivolta

(b Busto Arsizio, Varese, Jan 29, 1914; d Busto Arsizio, Varese, Nov 6, 2000).

Italian architect, writer and engineer. He graduated in 1934 from the Politecnico di Ingegneria, Milan, after which his work became characterized by a search for unusual spatial solutions by means of structures with a reinforced concrete membrane. Among his first important projects were the buildings for the Esposizione Internazionale del Tessile (1952). The experimental nature of his approach is best expressed in buildings requiring the complex articulation of large undivided spaces, such as churches, which were a recurrent interest. Examples include a design (1953) for a church at Montecatini Terme, the project (1957) for the sanctuary of the Madonna delle Lacrime, Syracuse, and the parish church (1963), Prospiano, Gorla Minore, Varese. The accent on plastic qualities and the focus on the role played by light in the configuration of spaces are also recurrent features of his works and are in some respects attributable to the influence of Brutalism, as in the Istituto Tecnico Industriale and Istituto Professionale di Stato complex (...

Article

Ian Campbell

(b c. 1510; d after 1571).

Italian architect, engineer, theorist and writer. He was the son of Giacopo Cataneo, a stationer from Novara. The earliest secure date for his activity (23 March 1533) occurs in his sketchbook (Florence, Uffizi, U 3275-3391 A), which has the general character of an exercise-book and hence of a youthful work. Virtually every drawing in it is copied from the treatises of Francesco di Giorgio Martini. The first 42 folios include drawings of ornaments and civil architecture from Francesco’s codices Ashburnham (Florence, Bib. Laurenziana) and Saluzziano (Turin, Bib. Reale), while the remaining 64 folios contain drawings of fortifications and machines derived from the Codex Magliabechiano (Florence, Bib. N.). A peculiarity of the drawings of fortifications is their frequent juxtaposition with calligraphic exercises, the intention of which seems primarily decorative. It is as a ‘scrittore’ that Cataneo first appears in Sienese communal records in 1539, and also as ‘computista’, which looks forward to his first publication, ...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Giuliana Mazzi

(b Mason, nr Vicenza, ?4 ?Aug 1715; d Padua, May 30, 1792).

Italian theorist and architect. He was adopted by his probable natural father, Conte Francesco Cerato Loschi, who had him educated by the Jesuits in Vicenza and from 1733 at the Padua Seminario. Although destined for a career in the church, he established a school (1748) open to young skilled workers of all social classes to teach them the fundamental rudiments of architecture within ten months. His teaching method was based on the ‘intrinsic rules of building’. At the same time his own career as an architect seems to have been devoted to minor alterations in layout and restorations in which he employed architectural solutions influenced by Palladio. He altered a doorway of the Palazzo Civena Trissino, Vicenza, and carried out alterations to the Seminario Vecchio, the church and convent of the Jesuits and the convent of S Felice, all in Vicenza. In the region of Vicenza he worked at the Villa Appollani (now Zordan), Altavilla Vicentino, and at the Villa Piovene (now da Schio), at Castelgomberto, among others....

Article

Josep Maria Rovira

(b Cerdà de la Garga, nr Barcelona, 1815; d Caldas de Besaya, Santander, 1876).

Catalan engineer, urban planner, theorist and politician. Born into a family with a long liberal tradition, he moved in 1835 to Madrid, where he entered the Escuela de Ingenieros de Camino. After graduating in 1841, he settled in Barcelona in 1849. Having made links with progressive intellectuals of the time, he became a Member of Parliament in the Progressive Party in 1850, and also held the posts of commander of the national militia and Síndico of the city of Barcelona. In 1854 he was given responsibility by the central government in Madrid for drawing up a topographical plan of the plain of Barcelona and producing a development scheme. His proposals were accepted in 1859, against the wishes of the local authorities and the public, who supported an alternative scheme by Rovira Tríes, Antonio. Cerdà’s plan, in keeping with his progressive opinions, strove to be both egalitarian in its distribution of services and rational in its organization. Its grid-plan layout enhanced transport and industrialization but paid less heed to the existing fabric of the city (for further discussion ...

Article

Francesco Paolo Fiore

(b 1476–8; d Milan, 1543).

Italian architect, theorist and painter. He was active mainly in Milan and is famous for publishing the first Italian translation, with commentary and illustrations, of Vitruvius (1521). The brief autobiography that this contains is also the principal source of information regarding Cesariano’s own life, education and aims.

Cesariano’s date of birth has been disputed, but it is now thought to be 1476–8, following the documentation from the time of his father’s death in 1482. In 1482 Cesariano was introduced to the court of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, where he came into contact with courtiers and artists and met Bramante, whom he named as his chief teacher. He doubtless observed the preparatory phases and building of S Maria presso S Satiro, the only work by Bramante in Milan to which he refers specifically in his commentary on Vitruvius. He could not have followed Bramante’s subsequent career, for he was forced to leave his home town ...