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(b Chesham, Bucks, Aug 13, 1843; d The Lee, Bucks, May 11, 1917).

English merchant. In 1862 he joined Farmer & Rogers’s Oriental Warehouse in Regent Street, London. In 1875 he left to set up on his own and on 15 May 1875 he opened his first shop, East India House, at 218A Regent Street, London, which was an immediate success. His imported coloured Eastern silks were an important element in the Aesthetic Movement and their weaves and dyes were later produced for him in ‘Liberty colours’ by English textile converters. He imported a wide range of furnishings from Japan and the Far East, soon supplemented by the products of the Arts and Crafts Movement. In 1884 he opened a dress department managed by E. W. Godwin, a crusader for dress reform, and Liberty gowns soon became high fashion (see fig.). The Paris branch, set up in 1890, helped to introduce the English version of the Art Nouveau style to the Continent. Liberty’s became a public company in ...


Asko Salokorpi


(b Helsinki, May 19, 1867; d Helsinki, May 17, 1939).

Finnish architect. He studied architecture (1884–8) at the Polytechnic Institute, Helsinki, and with F. A. Sjöström (1840–85), an architect who designed several important Neo-classical buildings in Helsinki and elsewhere in Finland. Sjöström’s influence is clearly evident in Lindqvist’s student projects and early independent designs. His first important work, the Merkurius Building (1888–90), 33 Pohjoisesplanadi, Helsinki, was designed when he was 21. The façade of this building, a residential block with shops and offices on the ground and mezzanine floors, demonstrates Lindqvist’s assured handling of Neo-classical forms. It is also notable for the use of modern construction techniques, whereby the upper storeys are supported on cast-iron pillars that allow the office storeys below to be fronted with large plate-glass windows. It is not clear whether this innovation, which represented a completely new approach in Finnish architecture, was the work of Lindqvist or the master builder ...


José Manuel Fernandes

(b Lisbon, Nov 21, 1879; d Lisbon, July 13, 1974).

Portuguese architect, graphic artist and writer. He was educated in England and then studied architecture (1893–7) at the Technische Hochschule, Hannover, under Albrecht Haupt. His grounding in Anglo-Saxon and German culture was unusual among Portuguese artists of the time, who tended to be orientated towards French influences, and it directed him to a search for the deeper and more spiritual roots of Portuguese architecture. From 1898 to 1901 he spent time travelling and drawing in southern Portugal and Morocco, observing the persistence of local traditions in Mozarabic and Islamic architectural forms and spatial planning. Some of these he later adopted in his designs for domestic buildings, particularly the use of the patio as a nucleus for rooms and the use of decorative elements (such as bricks, tiles and whitewash). He thus participated in the nationalist Casa Portuguesa style, but he also sought to modernize this tradition, integrating it with the innovative European currents of Art Nouveau; such houses as the Casa Roque Gameiro (...


Peter Rath

Bohemian glass factory. In 1836 a glass factory was founded by Johann Eisner von Eisenstein in Klostermühle in the Bohemian forest. In 1840 production was taken over by Eisenstein’s son-in-law Friedrich Hafenbrädl, who began making window and table glass. In 1851 Dr Franz Gerstner (1816–55) and his wife Susanne Lötz-Gerstner (b 1809), who had previously been married to Johann Lötz (1778–1848), bought the factory. From 1858 the company was named and in 1863 registered as Lötz Witwe (‘Lötz widow’). In 1878 the factory exhibited a range of coloured glass at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. The following year Lötz-Gerstner’s grandson Max Ritter von Spaun (1856–1909) took over the company and employed Eduard Prochaska (d 1922) as managing director. Over the next two decades the factory was substantially enlarged, and by 1891 the company employed 200 glassworkers, 36 cutters, and 30 glass painters. The company had representatives in various European cities, including ...


Pamela Reekie Robertson

British family of decorative artists and painters. Margaret Macdonald (b Tipton, nr Wolverhampton, 5 Nov 1864; d London, 10 Jan 1933) and her sister Frances (Eliza) Macdonald (b Kidsgrove, nr Stoke-on-Trent, 24 Aug 1873; d Glasgow, 12 Dec 1921) were two of the most original artists working in Glasgow in the 1890s. Together with Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Herbert MacNair they became known as The Four (see Mackintosh, Charles Rennie §2). The group created a distinctive decorative style that was disseminated internationally through exhibitions, in particular the fifth exhibition of the Arts and Crafts Society in London (1896), the eighth exhibition of the Vienna Secession (1900) and the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902), as well as through periodicals, notably The Studio, Dekorative Kunst, Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration and Ver Sacrum. In this way, though they had few direct imitators, they provided substantial impetus for the development and recognition in Britain and on the Continent of a distinctive ...


James Macaulay

(b Glasgow, June 7, 1868; d London, Dec 10, 1928).

Scottish architect, designer and painter. In the pantheon of heroes of the Modern Movement, he has been elevated to a cult figure, such that the importance of his late 19th-century background and training in Glasgow are often overlooked. He studied during a period of great artistic activity in the city that produced the distinctive Glasgow style. As a follower of A. W. N. Pugin and John Ruskin, he believed in the superiority of Gothic over Classical architecture and by implication that moral integrity in architecture could be achieved only through revealed construction. Although Mackintosh’s buildings refrain from overt classicism, they reflect its inherent discipline. His profound originality was evident by 1895, when he began the designs for the Glasgow School of Art. His decorative schemes, particularly the furniture, also formed an essential element in his buildings. During Mackintosh’s lifetime his influence was chiefly felt in Austria, in the work of such painters as Gustav Klimt and such architects as Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich. The revival of interest in his work was initiated by the publication of monographs by Pevsner (...


(b London, Dec 12, 1851; d Wickham Bishops, Essex, March 15, 1942).

English architect and social reformer. He was an important figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement. He trained as an architect first with T. Chatfield Clarke (1825–95) and then with the Gothic Revivalist James Brooks (i). He was greatly influenced by John Ruskin (they travelled to Italy together in 1874), particularly on social and economic issues. Mackmurdo believed that his work should be socially as well as artistically significant. In design he valued tradition but sought a contemporary relevance, and he promoted the unity of the arts, with architecture as the central discipline. By 1884 he had moved away from the Gothic Revival style and adopted an eclectic use of Renaissance sources. Some of his designs have been described as proto-Art Nouveau and are thought to have influenced the emergence of this style in architecture and the applied arts in Britain and Europe in the 1890s and 1900s. His pattern designs for wallpaper and textiles incorporated swirling organic motifs (e.g. ...


Sandra L. Tatman

(b Brooklyn, NY, Sept 28, 1863; d New York, March 22, 1937).

American sculptor and painter. Frederick MacMonnies, a leading figurative sculpture of the American Renaissance of the late 19th century, was trained in France and often produced public sculpture that translated a French sculptural style, not always understood by his American audience. Born in 1863 to William David MacMonnies and Juliana Eudora West, the young Frederick MacMonnies was so talented that he was accepted into the studio of Augustus Saint-Gaudens in 1880. There he rose from apprentice to assistant, and Saint-Gaudens introduced him to the American Renaissance painters and architects who would later provide commissions for his sculpture. In the evenings during this early period he studied at the Cooper Union (earning a prize in 1882) and the National Academy of Design; but in 1884, encouraged by Saint-Gaudens, he set out for Paris and further instruction. Initially, in Paris, he took classes at the Académie Colarossi, supplemented by sketching critiques at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Although he also spent time in Munich, drawing and painting, Paris would become his school, his workplace, and his home away from the USA. In Paris he studied with Alexandre Falguière, sculptor of the quadriga group, ...


Peter Trowles

(b Glasgow, 1868; d Innellan, Strathclyde, 1955).

Scottish designer and teacher. Having trained as an architect alongside Charles Rennie Mackintosh, he attended evening classes at the Glasgow School of Art between 1888 and 1894. After meeting the Macdonald family sisters (marrying Frances Macdonald in 1899) he began collaborating with them and Mackintosh (his future brother-in-law) on a number of designs which earned them the nickname ‘the Spook School’. Much of his early work, including furniture, book illustrations and watercolours, was inspired by Celtic and medieval imagery. He later set up his own studio, but an extensive workshop fire destroyed many of his designs; however, a number of these were reproduced in The Studio magazine.

In 1898 MacNair accepted a teaching post, in design, at University College, Liverpool, and thus avoided the likelihood of any competition with Mackintosh. While in Liverpool he continued to receive a number of small, private commissions through friends and colleagues. His newly decorated home in Liverpool was featured in ...


Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...


Donna Corbin

(b Toul, nr Nancy, Sept 27, 1859; d Nancy, Jan 15, 1926).

French cabinetmaker. His father, Auguste Majorelle (d 1879), was a cabinetmaker and potter who specialized in reproduction 18th-century furniture and ceramics. Majorelle trained as a painter and studied under Jean-François Millet at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1877–9). Following his father’s death in 1879 he abandoned painting and returned to Nancy to run the family business in partnership (until 1889) with his brother, Jules. They continued to produce furniture in Louis XV and Louis XVI revival styles but soon abandoned the production of ceramics.

Around 1894 Majorelle, under the influence of the Nancy glass- and cabinetmaker Emile Gallé, began to develop a more personal, Art Nouveau style and by 1897 he seems to have abandoned the revival styles altogether. The years between 1898 and 1908 were his most successful, and by 1910 he had retail stores in Nancy, as well as in Paris, Lyon and Lille. Along with furniture, a range of objects including lighting, metalwork and fabrics were produced in Majorelle’s workshops. His reputation as the pre-eminent French cabinetmaker of the time was established at the Exposition Universelle of ...


(b Moscow, Sept 22, 1859; d Moscow, Dec 6, 1937).

Russian painter and designer. He attended the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in 1881–90, studying under Vladimir Makovsky, Vasily Polenov and Illarion Pryanishnikov, and joined the Wanderers (Peredvizhniki) in 1891. At first Malyutin supported the traditions of narrative Realism, as is clear from paintings such as Peasant Girl (1890; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), although he quickly developed other interests in the popular arts and crafts, in history painting and in plein-air painting.

Like other Russian artists of his time such as Ivan Bilibin, Nicholas Roerich, the Vasnetsov brothers and Mikhail Vrubel’, Malyutin turned for inspiration to Russian folklore, ancient history and the domestic arts, as in his panoramic Battle of Kulikovo for the Historical Museum in Moscow (1898) and in his invention in 1889 of the matryoshka (Russian stacking doll), which, misleadingly, has now been accepted as an integral part of traditional Russian folk art. In the 1890s he worked at the ...


Vincenzo Fontana

(b Milan, Dec 30, 1865; d Milan, Jan 29, 1938).

Italian metalworker. His family were dealers in iron, and a change of financial circumstances forced him to give up his studies to work with the blacksmith Defendente Oriani in Milan, whose business he later took over (1891). He had great success in the first Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin in 1902. In 1903 he travelled throughout Europe with the cabinetmaker Eugenio Quarti and on his return began teaching in the crafts school of the Società Umanitaria in Milan. Mazzucotelli’s wrought-iron provides the distinguishing character in many buildings in the Stile Liberty style in Italy, Germany and Thailand, where he provided ironwork for Annibale Rigotti’s buildings (1907–26) in Bangkok. From 1902 to 1908 he worked in the firm Mazzucotelli-Engelmann and thereafter independently. From 1922 he ran the Scuola d’Arte Decorativa di Monza in Milan. He designed jewellery for Calderoni and fabrics for the weaving factory at Brembate (exh. ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Ropczyce, nr Rzeszów, March 19, 1869; d Wadowice, nr Kraków, July 8, 1946).

Polish painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From 1887 he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański, as the two most talented pupils of the School, were engaged to assist Matejko in his decorative wall paintings for the Gothic Church of St Mary in Kraków. This work aroused Mehoffer’s interest in both fresco and stained glass. In 1889–90 he studied at the Kunstakademie, Vienna, and in 1891 he travelled through Salzburg, Innsbruck and Basle (where the work of Arnold Böcklin caught his imagination), eventually going to Paris. There he studied at the Académie Colarossi, at the Ecole Nationale des Arts Décoratifs and, from 1892, in the atelier of Léon Bonnat at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. During his stay in Paris (1891–6) he devoted much time to studying works by the Old Masters in the Louvre; he also studied architecture, making a tour of medieval cathedrals in France in ...


Rhys W. Williams

(b Pesitza, Austria–Hungary, June 10, 1867; d Vevey, Switzerland, June 5, 1935).

German art historian. He studied engineering in Munich, Zurich and Liège, before moving to Berlin in 1890, where he attended the university and became involved in artistic circles. In 1894 he co-founded the periodical Pan, becoming its art editor and financial manager, though he was dismissed in April 1895 by wealthy and conservative patrons unhappy with the emphasis given to French art, after publication of the first issue. He moved in 1895 to Paris, where he had already met avant-garde artists, and in 1898 founded the periodical Dekorative Kunst, in which he championed Art Nouveau; he opened an Art Nouveau gallery, La Maison Moderne, in Paris in 1899, which closed in 1903. Returning to Berlin in 1904, he published his most significant contribution to art history, Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der modernen Kunst, in which he was concerned to define the specifically artistic (‘das Bildhafte’) in isolation from socio-economic or historical factors, to trace its development in the 19th century, and to offer a basis for a new aesthetic: 19th-century painting from Delacroix to the Post-Impressionists was presented as a series of solutions to formal problems. In further controversial essays on Arnold Böcklin and Adolf Friedrich Erdmann Menzel, Meier-Graefe questioned prevailing academic and nationalistic judgements. Subsequently he published studies devoted to Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Courbet, and to the French Impressionists. His ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

[Meltzer, Robert Friedrich]

(b 1860; d 1929).

Russian architect. He worked as court architect for Alexander III (reg 1881–94) and Nicholas II (reg 1894–1917) and was known as an outstanding draughtsman. Among his first commissions in St Petersburg were designs for grilles for the gates of the Winter Palace (1885–8; with Nikolay Gornostayev). Later he created a notable example of Art Nouveau in the railings (1898–1901) for the private garden along the west side of the Winter Palace (later the 9 January Children’s Park, Stachek Prospect). The flowing plant motifs harmonized well with Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli’s Baroque façade. Mel’tser also worked on the interiors of imperial residences: the Winter Palace and the Aleksandrovsky Palace in Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin), as well as the library of the Polovtsev Mansion (1911–13; by Ivan Fomin) on Stone Island (Kamenny ostrov). Space in his interiors is organized on a human scale, and the wood he used for the furniture creates a sense of comfort....


Sibylle Einholz

(b Wscherau, nr Pilsen, Nov 18, 1870; d Berlin, March 24, 1919).

German sculptor. After starting an apprenticeship in stonemasonry in Pilsen in 1886, he worked as an assistant to various sculptors (1890–94). He worked predominantly in Saxony, spending time in Zwickau and Dresden, where he attended an evening class at the Kunstgewerbeschule, as well as in Altenburg and Leipzig. He continued his training on study trips to Paris and Italy. In 1894 he went to Berlin, where he founded his own studio in 1896. He first worked predominantly for the royal porcelain factory. His designs were soon distinguished by a very personal style, which might be broadly defined as a combination of Symbolism and Jugendstil. At the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 Metzner achieved artistic recognition with these works. At the same time his sculptures were arousing the interest of the public and critics. Inspired by the work of Georg Minne, he produced sculptures couched in a peculiar idiom with tectonic and ...


Robert Hoozee

(b Ghent, Aug 30, 1866; d Laethem-Saint-Martin, Feb 18, 1941).

Belgian sculptor, draughtsman and illustrator. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Ghent (1879–86) and worked in Ghent (until 1895) and Brussels (1895–9) before settling in Laethem-Saint-Martin, a village near Ghent. His first works were delicate sculptures and sparse drawings of grieving and injured figures. The emotional power of these works was recognized by many Symbolist poets including Maurice Maeterlinck, Charles Van Lerberghe and Grégoire Le Roy, who saw in them an expression of their own pessimistic view of life. He illustrated several of their collections of poetry (e.g. Grégoire Le Roy: Mon Coeur pleure d’autrefois (Paris, 1889); Maurice Maeterlinck: Serres chaudes (Paris, 1889)). From 1890 he was involved with the progressive element among the artists and authors of Brussels. He exhibited for the first time that year under the auspices of the avant-garde society Les XX in Brussels, and two years later he participated in the ...


(b Königsberg [now Kaliningrad, Russia], Dec 11, 1863; d Berlin, March 26, 1929).

German architect and urban planner. He studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin, and spent most of his working life in Berlin. He and Alfred Grenander (1863–1931) were Berlin’s prime exponents of the Art Nouveau style. This was mainly expressed in the bridges and railway stations of Berlin’s elevated tram system, for example Möhring’s station at Bülowstrasse (1902). His individual artistic designs of iron constructions, in particular bridges, were the result of his attempts to express fully the structural forces at work. In the field of exhibition design he was also very prominent, being involved with the German exhibits at the international exhibitions in Paris (1900), St Louis (1904, where he was in charge of the whole German section), Brussels (1910) and San Francisco (1915). In Berlin he was a member of the Werkring, a group of artists promoting modern housing and living, and from ...


(b Sant Vincenç de Falç, Manresa, Feb 25, 1868; d Terrassa, April 15, 1931).

Spanish Catalan architect. His professional work in Terrassa coincided with the industrial expansion and growth of the town. The plastic quality of the arches in his Almacén Farnés (1905) anticipates his masterpiece, the Masía Freixa (1907–10) in Terrassa, where he achieved a perfect correlation between construction and expression, comparable to the effect obtained in the cornice of the Casa Battló (1904–6) and the façade of the Casa Milà (1906–10), both by Gaudí. In the Fábrica Aymerich (1907–8), Amat y Jover, Terrassa—now the Museo de la Ciència i de la Tècnica de Catalunya—he experimented satisfactorily with undulating roof-forms. His importance within Catalan Art Nouveau lies in the originality with which he adapted Gaudí’s inclined shapes and elliptical forms, producing expressive structures, stripped of all ornament.

M. Freixa: ‘Lluis Moncunill constructor de la civdad industrial’, Estudios pro arte, 5 (1976), pp. 6–20...