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Kathryn Bonomi

(b Kingston, NY, Feb 25, 1856; d New York, Sept 25, 1919).

American manufacturer and collector. Born into poverty, he left school at the age of 14 to work, first in a cement factory and then as a clerk in a store. Soon afterwards, Frank J. Hecker, manager of the Kingston & Syracuse Railroad, noticed the young man’s business acumen and made him paymaster of the railroad. In 1880 the two men became partners and opened the first railway carriage factory in the Midwest, the Peninsular Car Works. However, by the age of 44, Freer was compelled to retire because of his frail constitution; already a wealthy man, he was on his way to becoming a major collector. He initially collected art to embellish his home in Detroit, MI, built by Wilson Eyre in 1890 and decorated by the American painters Dwight W. Tryon, Thomas Wilmer Dewing and Abbot Handerson Thayer in exchange for advice on investments. Freer valued the moral character of these artists’ work and shared their vision of pure and noble womanhood found in such paintings as Thayer’s ...

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Richard Wollheim

(b Freiberg, Moravia [now Příbor, Czech Republic], May 6, 1856; d London, Sept 23, 1939).

Austrian psychoanalyst and collector. After studying at the University of Vienna and working first in histology, then in neurology, he spent the winter of 1885–6 in the clinic of the great French pathologist, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–93). From Charcot Freud learnt that every hysterical symptom is ideogenic, in other words an idea plays a crucial part in its genesis. The bodily extent of the symptom corresponds not to any neuro-physiological unit but to what the idea denotes, and the symptom may be alleviated through talking out the idea, for example under hypnosis. The pathogenic idea is invariably unconscious, or inaccessible to consciousness. Over the years Freud, while maintaining a clinical practice in Vienna, elaborated and transformed this hypothesis, and out of it psychoanalytic theory emerged.

First, Freud extended the scope of the hypothesis from symptoms to bungled actions, slips of the tongue, dreams, jokes, and eventually the neurosis. Secondly, he recognized that the idea, originally held to be the core of a memory, represented a desire. Thirdly, Freud concluded that the idea was unconscious because the mind had defended itself against something unacceptable. For many years he equated defence with repression but he then admitted other mechanisms of defence, such as projection, introjection, denial and splitting. Fourthly, Freud identified the desires that provoked repression as being, ultimately, infantile and sexual. Having conceded infantile sexuality he gradually worked out an account of psychosexual development, consisting of the oral, anal, phallic and genital stages, complicated by regression. Freud’s theory of the ‘Oedipus complex’, a crucial occurrence in this development, postulated that the child, seeking the undivided sexual attentions of one parent, comes to desire the annihilation of the other, and its ‘dissolution’ through the introjection of the hated, hence feared, parent, led to a greater attention to the structure and internal functioning of the mind. In ...

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Sally Webster

(b West Overton, PA, Dec 19, 1849; d New York, Dec 2, 1919).

American industrialist, collector, and museum creator. Frick received little formal education and went to work at an early age as a bookkeeper. By the early 1870s he had earnt enough money to buy up coke fields in Western Pennsylvania, processing the coke in his own ovens. In a few short years he was the major supplier of fuel for Pittsburgh’s iron and steel industries and by the time he was 30 had earned his first million. In celebration he travelled to Europe with Andrew Mellon who, in 1937, would donate his collection and money for the establishment of Washington’s National Gallery of Art. In London they visited the Wallace Collection, which would later serve as prototype for Frick’s New York house–museum. After marrying Adelaide Howard Childs (1859–1931) on 15 December 1881, Frick bought and expanded Clayton, a 23-room home, now part of the Frick Art and Historical Center, Pittsburgh....

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Molly Dorkin

Place where works of art are displayed. In a commercial gallery, works of art are displayed for the purposes of sale (for information on non-commercial art galleries see Display of art and Museum, §I). Historically, artworks were commissioned by patrons directly from an artist and produced in his workshop. In the Netherlands, the economic boom following the conclusion of the Eighty Years’ War with Spain (1648) led to rising demand for art. Patrons began buying from dealers, some of whom produced illustrated catalogues. Antwerp became the centre of the art world. Galleries for the display and viewing of art appeared in paintings by Teniers family, §2 and Bruegel family, §3, although these were private not commercial spaces, or imaginary constructions.

The Paris Salon, which had been organized by the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture since 1667, was opened to the public for the first time in ...

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Lillian B. Miller

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b New York, April 14, 1840; d Boston, MA, July 17, 1924).

American patron, collector, and museum founder. The daughter of a wealthy New York merchant and wife of a prominent Boston banker, John L. Gardner jr (1837–98), she bought her first important painting in 1873—a small landscape by the Barbizon painter Charles Jacque. (All works cited are in Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.) In the 1870s she also began to collect rare books, manuscripts, autographs, and etchings, under the influence of Charles Eliot Norton. Although she continued to buy such pieces until her death, after the 1880s books took second place to art. During a trip to Europe in 1886, she visited the London studios of James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent, both of whom painted her portrait, and it was at that time that she decided to give serious thought to collecting art.

Gardner purchased her first Old Master painting in 1888—a Madonna by Francisco de Zurbarán, which became her personal altarpiece. A summer visit to Venice that year kindled her interest in Venetian architecture, and subsequent travels provided her with the opportunity to study important paintings in London and Paris, while strengthening her enthusiasm for collecting. She became friendly with Bernard Berenson, whom she had met when he was a young Harvard student in ...

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Gary A. Reynolds

(b Hingham, MA, Jan 22, 1856; d Le Bréau, Dammarie-les-Lys, nr Fontainebleau, July 13, 1937).

American painter and collector, active in France. Gay lived all his adult life in and around Paris. He sailed for France in 1876, after a successful exhibition and sale of his still-life paintings at the Williams and Everett Gallery, Boston, MA, which provided funds for his study abroad. Soon after arriving in Paris, Gay entered the atelier of Léon Bonnat, where he remained for about three years. At Bonnat’s suggestion, Gay made a trip to Spain in 1879 to study the work of Velázquez. These influences combined to form a style of painterly realism that emphasized fluid brushwork and a high-keyed tonal palette. Gay made his professional début in France in the Salon of 1879 with the Fencing Lesson (New York, priv. col.), an 18th-century costume piece in the manner of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal. The painting received favourable attention from French and American critics, encouraging Gay to continue this subject-matter for several years. During the late 1880s his summer trips to Brittany and Barbizon inspired a series of paintings of French peasants. One of the most successful of these, ...

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Peter Boutourline Young

(b Vienna, May 12, 1839; d Baden-Baden, Dec 19, 1909).

Austrian architect, engineer, architectural historian and writer. He studied engineering in Paris and in 1860 entered the Bauakademie, Berlin, where he was a pupil of Friedrich Adler. He made two study trips to Italy in his youth. He devoted himself mainly to historical research, renouncing his practical activities as an architect. Many of his numerous studies are still invaluable reference works for scholars of French and German architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries. Geymueller was profoundly influenced by the Swiss art historian Jacob Burckhardt. His Les Projets primitifs pour la basilique de Saint-Pierre de Rome (1875) was based on the discovery and study of previously unpublished drawings by Bramante and Raphael for St Peter’s in Rome. He collaborated with Karl Martin von Stegmann in writing, and then edited, Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana (1885–1907), a comprehensive work that had originally been the idea of four young German artists who had joined together to form the ...

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Walter B. Denny

(b Godalming, Jan 1834; d London, Feb 19, 1919).

English collector. Godman was among the first Western private collectors of medieval Islamic ceramics. With energy, an uncanny eye and the courage to invest considerable sums, Godman collected some of the most important and beautiful examples known as well as several important inscribed and dated works. Godman’s rivals in the highly competitive and expensive market for Ottoman and Hispano-Moresque ceramics included George Salting and John Henderson (1797–1878). Godman’s interest in Islamic ceramics doubtless led him to commission Morgan, William De to make a fireplace in the ‘Persian’ style for Godman’s residence, South Lodge, at Horsham, W. Sussex. After his death, Godman’s daughters loaned generously to major exhibitions of Islamic art and continued their father’s tradition of hospitality to scholars. Many of these, notably Arthur Lane, used examples from the Godman collection to forge the fundamental scholarship on Islamic ceramics. On the death in 1982 of Miss C. E. Godman, the collection was transferred to the ...

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(b Göttingen, June 26, 1848; d Berlin, May 11, 1904).

German architect. He started his architectural training at the Polytechnikum in Hannover in 1868. After the interruption of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) he completed his studies under the prominent Gothic Revival architects Conrad Wilhelm Hase in Hannover and Friedrich von Schmidt in Vienna before working (1876–9) under Johannes Otzen, another Gothic Revivalist, on his Bergkirche at Wiesbaden. In 1879 Grisebach embarked on tours of France, Spain and Italy, and on his return to Germany he settled in Berlin and set up his own practice, designing mainly private houses and commercial buildings. He received a number of commissions from the newly rich industrialists, for whom he designed large houses, for example the Villa Springmann (1890–91; destr.) at Elberfeld and the Villa Levin (1899–1900) at Michelstrasse 4, Göttingen. In these buildings he was influenced by English domestic design, the plan of Villa Springmann, for example, being an almost exact copy of an English country-house plan published in ...

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Stéphane Loire

(b Paris, 1837; d Paris, Jan 13, 1908).

French collector. Heir of a rich flour-milling family, he was one of the most considerable and original figures in the world of Parisian art collecting at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. He assembled an important collection of French paintings, drawings and pastels of the 18th century. Towards 1890 he almost completely abandoned this in favour of paintings of the 18th-century and early 19th-century English school, then relatively unknown in France, which he bought through London dealers. Groult was an ardent and sometimes eccentric enthusiast who was believed to have himself painted several of the ‘Turners’ in his collection. In addition to paintings, drawings and pastels by François Boucher, Jean-Marc Nattier, Maurice-Quentin de La Tour, George Romney, John Hoppner and Joshua Reynolds, his collection included J. M. W. Turner’s View of the Pont Neuf, Paris and Thomas Gainsborough’s Conversation in a Park (both Paris, Louvre). He also owned important paintings by ...

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(b Milan, Oct 15, 1851; d Milan, Aug 4, 1920).

Italian painter, dealer, critic and collector of Hungarian origin. Around 1870 he frequented the circle of Scapigliati, Gli and in 1870–71 visited London. Grubicy’s acquaintance with the art galleries there inspired him to start his own gallery in Milan, specializing in the Scapigliati artists, particularly Tranquillo Cremona and later Daniele Ranzoni. After Cremona’s death in 1878, Grubicy extended his interest to younger Lombard artists, primarily Giovanni Segantini (whose Choir of S Antonio impressed him at the 1879 annual exhibition at the Brera, Milan), Emilio Longoni (1859–1932) and later Angelo Morbelli. Grubicy became Segantini’s dealer and they were in close collaboration from this time. Between 1882 and 1885 Grubicy was in the Low Countries and probably informed Segantini of Millet and The Hague school. During his visit Grubicy also began to draw (e.g. Housemaid Washing, 1884; Milan, Castello Sforzesco) and to paint (e.g. The Hague: My First Work, 1884...

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(b Barcelona, Dec 15, 1847; d Barcelona, July 9, 1918).

Catalan industrialist and patron. After completing his studies in England, he returned to Barcelona to head the textile manufacturing company founded by his father, Joan Güell i Ferrer. He strongly supported Catalan nationalism and used his patronage of such Catalan Renaixença figures as the poet Ramón Picó i Campamar, the novelist Robles i Rodríguez Alcántara, the painter Alexis Clapés (1850–1920) and especially the architect Antoni Gaudí, whom he met in 1878, to promote his progressive and paternalist visions of society. The first work by Gaudí for Güell was the gate-house of his finca at Pedralbes, outside Barcelona (1884); the turrets covered with coloured ceramics show Gaudí’s interest in Islamic architecture. The Palau Güell, Güell’s residence in Barcelona (1886–91), is an extraordinary neo-Gothic palace, which contains some of Gaudí’s most innovative interiors. The elaborate wrought-iron ornament of the entrance arches and bay windows is one of the earliest examples of the Catalan ...

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(b Clontarf, Co. Dublin, Nov 10, 1847; d London, Oct 8, 1927).

Irish collector, resident in England. A great-grandson of Arthur Guinness, founder of the family brewery in Ireland, Lord Iveagh was responsible for the collection of paintings still displayed at Kenwood House, an 18th-century villa by Robert Adam (i) near Hampstead, London, which he purchased in 1925. The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood, opened as a public museum in 1928, one year after Lord Iveagh’s death, and contains many celebrated British portraits of the late 18th century and the early 19th, including works by Joshua Reynolds, George Romney, Thomas Gainsborough, Thomas Lawrence and others. The Old Master paintings at Kenwood, collected by Lord Iveagh, are dominated by the Dutch and Flemish schools. These include Self-portrait by Rembrandt (c. 1665) and Johannes Vermeer’s Guitar Player (c. 1672), with other works by Aelbert Cuyp, Frans Hals, Adriaen van Ostade, Anthony van Dyck and Frans Snyders. Lord Iveagh’s Protestant merchant taste extended to include paintings by ...

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Beate Stock, A. Gerhardt and Elisabeth Scheicher

Austrian dynasty of rulers, collectors and patrons. Lacking a male heir, Emperor Charles VI (see Habsburg, House of family §I, (20)) was succeeded in 1740 by his daughter Maria-Theresa in the Habsburg lands (see Habsburg, House of family §I, (21)). Her husband, Francis, Duke of Lorraine, was elected Holy Roman Emperor Francis I in 1745 (reg 1745–65), and since 1765 the imperial family has been designated the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Francis I favoured natural science but enriched the imperial collections with his valuable coin collection. By appointing Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey as court architect, he introduced a French element into Viennese architecture. His son, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90), ardently embraced the ideas of enlightened absolutism. Guided by reason and utility, he liberated the arts from the restricting guild system, so that competition could develop. In architecture he favoured a simpler style: the Josephinum (...

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Eva Helena Cassel-Pihl

Swedish industrialists, patrons and collectors. Walther, Count von Hallwyl (b Berne, Jan 26, 1839; d Stockholm, Feb 27, 1921), was from an old Romansch family in Switzerland, named after Hallwil Castle in the Swiss canton of Aargau. He became a Swedish citizen in 1874. His wife, Wilhelmina, Countess von Hallwyl [née Kempe] (b Stockholm, 1 Oct 1844; d Stockholm, 25 July 1930), was a keen collector whose interests were made possible by the wealth of her father, Wilhelm Kempe, the founder of the wood export firm Ljusne-Woxna Ltd based in northern Sweden. After their marriage in 1865, the couple settled in Sweden, where Walther took over the export business on the death of his father-in-law in 1883. Between 1893 and 1898 they had a private palace built in Stockholm by the architect Isak Gustaf Clason, where the Countess’s collection of Dutch and Flemish 17th-century paintings, silver, South-east Asian and European porcelain, ceramics, weapons, furniture and textiles were exhibited. With the intention of it becoming a public museum, in ...