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Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Pamela Reekie Robertson

(b Bearsden, nr Glasgow, March 20, 1875; d Kirkcudbright, Dumfries and Galloway, Aug 3, 1949).

Scottish illustrator, painter, designer and writer. She studied at Glasgow School of Art and taught book decoration there from 1899 to 1908. In 1908 King married the designer and painter Ernest Archibald Taylor (1874–1952) and moved to Manchester. They were in Paris from 1911 to 1915 and then in Kirkcudbright. One of the most successful and productive practitioners of the Glasgow style, she is best known for her book illustrations and covers. Designs are documented for over 130 publications. The most successful of these, such as an edition of William Morris’s The Defence of Guenevere (London, 1904), are delicate line drawings incorporating stylized figures and enriched with areas of intricate detail. These decorative works suggest an awareness of the work of Aubrey Beardsley, Edward Burne-Jones and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, as well as Sandro Botticelli and 19th-century Japanese woodblock prints. Her varied subject-matter included romantic legends, historic architecture and botanical studies. Following her contact in Paris with Léon Bakst’s ballet designs, and an introduction to batik printing, her style became more broadly handled and colourful. King also designed jewellery, silverware and fabrics for ...

Article

Rosamond Allwood

(fl c. 1790–c. 1839).

English furniture designer. In the mid-1830s he described himself as ‘an upholsterer of fourty five years experience’. He produced a series of pattern books containing designs for furniture and upholstery that was widely used by commercial cabinetmakers. The Modern Style of Cabinet Work Exemplified (1829) was reprinted in an improved version in 1835 and was still in demand in the trade as late as 1862, when it was reissued unaltered. King claimed that ‘as far as possible the English style is carefully blended with Parisian taste’ in the 227 designs, but he also included Grecian and Gothic furniture. King’s interpretation of the prevailing French taste is a typically confused mixture of bold Baroque scrolls and lighter Rococo curves. His Designs for Carving and Gilding (1830) contains both Greek and Rococo Revival designs, as does Modern Designs for Household Furniture (n.d.). In 1833 King published a book of full-size designs for makers of cabinets, chairs and sofas, turners and carvers entitled ...

Article

Charlotte Humphreys

(Yeliseyevich)

(b Olevka, Kherson province, 1886; d Moscow, 1968).

Russian poet and critic of Ukrainian birth. He is best known for his creation of Russian Futurist books between 1912 and 1916 in collaboration with the avant-garde artists Natal’ya Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov, Kazimir Malevich and Ol’ga Rozanova. These books, some of which were written with Velimir Khlebnikov, are characterized by deliberate mistakes and misprints, bold handwriting or irregular typefaces and printed on differently textured paper or wallpaper. The accompanying illustrations were executed in a coarse and primitive style to match the harsh and dissonant tones of the poetry. The books include Igra v adu (‘A game in Hell’; Moscow, 1912 and 1914), Mirskontsa (‘The world backwards’; Moscow, 1912), Pomada (Moscow, 1913), Utinoye gnezdyshko…durnykh slov (‘A duck’s nest…of bad words’; St Petersburg, 1913), Te Li Le (St Petersburg, 1914), Zaumnaya kniga (‘Transrational book’; Moscow, 1915), Voyna (‘War’; Petrograd, 1915) and Vselenskaya voyna (‘Universal war’; Petrograd, ...

Article

Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...

Article

N. A. Yevsina

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Nikol’skoye-Cherenchitsy estate, nr Torzhok, 1751; d Moscow, 2/Jan 3, 1804).

Russian architect, theorist, illustrator, poet, Musician and inventor. An enlightened dilettante and encyclopedist from a princely family, he studied architecture on his own and travelled in western Europe (1775, 1776–7), above all in France and Italy. On his return to Russia L’vov worked at the Foreign Ministry and acquired a reputation as an architect from the early 1780s. His earliest works—the Neva Gate (1780–87) of the Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, the single-domed cathedral of St Joseph (1780–98) in Mogilyov and the similar five-domed church (1785–96) at the monastery of SS Boris and Gleb in Torzhok—are characterized by their austere simplicity, spareness of form and pronounced monumentality. They became the model for many Russian Neo-classical churches of the late 18th century and the early 19th. L’vov’s works for St Petersburg include the Post Office (1782–9), unexecuted designs for the Cabinet on the Nevsky Prospect (...

Article

Roger White

(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.

Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...

Article

Anthony Parton

(Fyodorovich)

(b Tiraspol, Moldova, June 3, 1881; d Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, May 10, 1964).

Russian painter, stage designer, printmaker, illustrator, draughtsman and writer of Moldovan birth. He was a leader of the Russian avant-garde before World War I but came to prominence in the West through his work for Serge Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. During the 1920s he played a significant role within the Ecole de Paris and continued to live and work in France until his death.

He was the son of Fyodor Mikhailovich Larionov, a doctor and pharmacist, and Aleksandra Fyodorovna Petrovskaya, but he grew up in his grandparents’ home in Tiraspol. He completed his secondary education at the Voskresensky Technical High School in Moscow and in 1898 entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Here he studied under Valentin Serov and Konstantin Korovin, and he also became friendly with Natal’ya Goncharova who was to remain his lifelong companion and colleague. Larionov’s work soon caught the imagination of collectors and critics. In ...

Article

Rosamond D. McKitterick

(b Lagny-Thorigny, Seine-et-Marne, Dec 2, 1874; d Paris, Feb 3, 1953).

French art historian and medievalist. He was on the staff of the Department of Manuscripts of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris from 1900 and Conservateur en Chef from 1934 until his retirement in 1940. His output was prodigious. The direction of his work was influenced by his training at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and the Ecole des Chartes under Gabriel Monod (1844–1915) and Arthur Giry (1848–99), and resulted in impeccable editions of Carolingian historical narratives and of the charters of the 10th-century kings, facsimile editions of Merovingian and Carolingian royal diplomas and monographs on the later Carolingian rulers.

As well as being a leading Carolingian historian he contributed greatly to manuscript studies generally. As a consequence of his position at the Bibliothèque Nationale he compiled a number of important manuscript catalogues and inventories. The first two volumes of the current catalogue of Latin manuscripts in the ...

Article

(b Roermond, Aug 25, 1864; d Amsterdam, April 15, 1932).

Dutch architect, theorist, industrial designer, illustrator and teacher. He grew up in the artistic milieu around P. J. H. Cuypers and probably received most of his artistic education in this environment. Between 1880 and 1887 Lauweriks attended various drawing courses including in 1885–7 those at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Teekenonderwijzers in Amsterdam. In 1889 he became decoration draughtsman in Cuypers’s office. In 1891 he became a member of the architectural society Architectura et Amicitia and from 1893 was editor of the society’s journal Architectura. At the same time, together with his friends and colleagues K. P. C. de Bazel and Herman J. M. Walenkamp, he became involved with ethical–anarchist groups and produced illustrations for Licht en waarheid, the journal of the anarchist group Wie Denkt Overwint (Who thinks conquers).

On 31 May 1894, with de Bazel, Lauweriks joined the Theosophical Society. This brought him into strong conflict with Cuypers. He left the latter’s office in ...

Article

Briony Llewellyn

(b Holloway, London, May 12, 1812; d San Remo, Italy, Jan 29, 1888).

English painter, draughtsman, illustrator and writer. In the 1860s Lear described himself as ‘Greek Topographical Painter par excellence’, aspiring to the title of ‘Painter-Laureate and Boshproducing-Luminary forthwith’ (quoted in 1983 exh. cat., p. 14). This whimsical summary of his versatile activities as topographical draughtsman, oil painter, traveller, writer and illustrator of nonsense rhymes and stories is typical of Lear’s idiosyncratic literary style. It reflected his eccentric personality. He was epileptic and prone to fits of deep depression. In addition, owing to family misfortunes, he was brought up by his eldest sister Ann. The neglect of his mother, ill-health, weak sight and poverty all contributed to a lifelong sense of insecurity.

As an artist Lear was at first almost entirely self-taught. His earliest employment was as an ornithological draughtsman, notably for his Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots (1832. Between 1831 and 1837 he worked for Lord Stanley, later 14th Earl of Derby (...

Article

(b Rouen, Nov 11, 1738; d Paris, May 7, 1826).

French painter, illustrator and writer. He began his studies in Rouen and, at 17, won first prize for drawing at the city’s Académie. Shortly afterwards he travelled to Paris, entering the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture as a student of Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre. In 1767–8 he was in Rome, a fact confirmed by a number of dated and inscribed drawings and paintings, including the pen, ink and wash drawing Landscape Inspired by the Gardens of the Villa d’Este at Tivoli (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). He was in Switzerland in 1776, where he spent several years drawing illustrations for Beát Zurlauben’s Tableau de la Suisse ou voyage pittoresque fait dans les treize cantons du Corps Helvétique (Paris, 1780–86). In 1780, having returned to France, he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale and received (reçu) in 1785 with Jupiter Asleep on Mount Ida (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Thereafter he regularly exhibited moralistic pictures at the Salon until ...

Article

Alison Stones

Legends and myths in medieval art are often symbolic rather than narrative, appearing as isolated representations on monuments and portable objects and following the tradition of Greek vase painting where individual subjects are depicted and rely on prior knowledge of the stories for recognition and understanding. World histories celebrated great heroes of the past, starting with Creation and biblical history, then the ancient and medieval world with the exploits of the Trojan heroes, Alexander the Great, King Arthur and the campaigns of Charlemagne and his nephew Roland. Northern gods such as Thor were depicted in cult statues (c. 1000; Reykjavík, N. Mus.) or through such ornamental hammers as those from north Jutland in the Copenhagen Nationalmuseum, and Freya, head of the Valkyries, was painted riding a cat on the walls of Schleswig Cathedral.

The Fall of Troy is most celebrated in the early 13th-century copy of Heinrich von Veldecke’s ...

Article

Katrin Kogman-Appel

[Mahzor]

Illuminated Hebrew Machzor (Leipzig, Ubib., MS. Voller 1002/I–II)—prayer book for holy days—made c. 1310–20. Its two volumes contain the optional liturgical poems commonly recited according to the Ashkenazi rites. The text reflects the specific prayer rite of Worms and, even though this assumption cannot be confirmed by a colophon, it must have served this particular community up to the early 17th century when it was transferred to Poland.

Both volumes are richly illustrated in a style that recalls upper Rhenish schools of illumination and may have been decorated by artists trained in that region. At least two different hands, one of them most probably Christian, were involved in the layout of the book. The decorative programme includes elaborate initial panels and marginal images. The former display complex allegorical and symbolic compositions relating to the poems or the subject matter of the holy days. An example is the juxtaposition of various symbols related to the New Year showing a man with a Jewish hat blowing a ...

Article

Howard Caygill

(b Oberramstadt, nr Darmstadt, July 1, 1742; d Göttingen, Feb 24, 1799).

German writer and physicist. He studied mathematics, physics and astronomy at the University of Göttingen between 1763 and 1767. During this time he kept his famous ‘scribble books’, in which he jotted the thoughts on various subjects that were edited and published posthumously as his Aphorisms. In 1770 he made his first short visit to England and returned for a longer stay in 1774–5. From his experiences there he wrote Briefe aus England (published in Deutsches Museum, 1776, nos 6, 11; 1778, nos 1, 5), an exercise in the description of English manners that he later exploited in Ausführliche Erklärungen der Hogarth’schen Kupferstiche, first published in Göttingen Taschenkalender (1784–96), a publication he edited from 1777 until his death. In the early issues he commissioned engravings from Daniel Chodowiecki, to which he added commentaries; later he turned his attention to Hogarth. At the same time Lichtenberg pursued a successful career as Professor of Physics at the University of Göttingen....

Article

Nigel J. Morgan

(Adolf Frederik)

(b Askeby, Östergotland, Feb 8, 1889; d Stockholm, March 22, 1977).

Swedish art historian and museum official. He began his career as an assistant curator (1909–16) at the Statens Historiska Museum, Stockholm, during which time he published his first book (1916), which presented the first fully documented history of 13th- and 14th-century Scandinavian painting and remains a standard text. From 1917–19 he worked at the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm. After a period as art critic for Stockholms Dagblad he was professor of art history at the Högskola (1921–5) and at the Konsthögskola (1925–9), both in Stockholm. In 1929 he was appointed as the director of the Nordiska Museum och Skansen, a post that he held until his retirement in 1955. Lindblom’s many publications in Swedish cover a variety of aspects of medieval Swedish painting and sculpture, Vadstena Abbey, St Bridget (c. 1303–73; can 1391) and general Swedish art history.

Den heliga Birgitta: Bildverk i skulptur och maleri från Sveriges medeltid...

Article

John Milner

[Lisitsky, El’ ; Lisitsky, Lazar’ (Markovich )]

(b Pochinok, Smolensk province, Nov 23, 1890; d Moscow, Dec 30, 1941).

Russian draughtsman, architect, printmaker, painter, illustrator, designer, photographer, teacher, and theorist.

After attending school in Smolensk, he enrolled in 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, to study architecture and engineering. He also travelled extensively in Europe, however, and he made a tour of Italy to study art and architecture. He frequently made drawings of the architectural monuments he encountered on his travels. These early graphic works were executed in a restrained, decorative style reminiscent of Russian Art Nouveau book illustration. His drawings of Vitebsk and Smolensk (1910; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.), for example, show a professional interest in recording specific architectural structures and motifs, but they are simultaneously decorative graphic works in their own right and highly suitable for publication. This innate awareness of the importance of controlling the design of the page was to remain a feature of Lissitzky’s work throughout radical stylistic transformations. He also recorded buildings in Ravenna, Venice, and elsewhere in Italy in ...

Article

D. S. Chambers

(b San Severino Marche, Sept 25, 1857; d Mantua, Aug 20, 1946).

Italian writer, historian and archivist. His main contribution to art history lies in his copious research into the patronage and collections of the Gonzaga family. His book (1913) on the subject and on the Mantuan acquisitions of Charles I of England remains indispensable, though, like his work in general, it is essentially a miscellany of articles. He published prodigiously, citing original documents in abundance but not without errors of transcription and usually without exact archival references. He uncovered new material about numerous Renaissance humanists, literary figures and artists; thanks to his research, for instance, Tintoretto’s series of paintings of Gonzaga triumphs (Munich, Alte Pin.) was identified, and in 1919 the Gonzaga set of Raphael tapestries (Mantua, Pal. Ducale) was returned to Mantua from Austria. Above all, Luzio was ‘the great revealer of Isabella d’Este’ (Gabriele D’Annunzio; see Ad Alessandro Luzio, p. 31). Inspired to carry on the work of ...

Article

Stella Panayotova

English illuminated Psalter (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam, MS. 1–2005) from East Anglia, dating to the 1330s. The manuscript was discovered in the library of the Earl of Macclesfield at Shirburn Castle, Oxfordshire, and sold at Sotheby’s (22 June 2004, lot 587), and acquired by the Fitzwilliam Museum. Containing the 150 Psalms, the Office of the Dead, a Calendar, Litany and prayers, it is one of the most richly illuminated English manuscripts in existence. The Calendar and the prominent image of St Edmund of Bury place it in East Anglia, while the style and iconography combine local traditions with metropolitan fashions and Continental trends of the 1320s and 1330s.

The Psalter exemplifies the ‘Italianate’ tendencies in 14th-century English painting: the anatomically accurate depiction of the human body, the expressive rendering of emotions, and the three-dimensional simulation of volume and texture. It hints at the underexplored collaboration between manuscript illuminators and panel painters. The Macclesfield Master, who was responsible for most of the illumination, produced three other manuscripts of the 1330s: a copy of John of Fribourg’s ...

Article

Rowan Watson

(b ?Reims, c. 1300; d ?April 13, 1377).

French composer and poet. He was the most prolific and inventive poet and composer of his day. His texts and manuscripts characterize the taste of the royal court in mid-14th-century France. From c. 1323 to 1346 he was in the service of John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, after which he served members of the French royal family, among them Jean, Duc de Berry. Despite a peripatetic career, Machaut’s chief home was in Reims, where he finally became a canon in 1337, and where the Dauphin, the future Charles V, had him sought from his house during a visit to the city in 1361.

Machaut’s autobiographical poem Voir-dit (1362–5) shows his working methods. In his mature years at least, he dictated work to a secretary and could call on the services of copyists. Mention of Machaut’s Livre où je met toutes mes choses in the poem appears to refer to a personal copy of his works, possibly partly in his own hand, that was unbound to facilitate copying, re-ordering, and further additions. Miniatures showing the poet writing upon a roll refer to another means by which he transmitted texts, particularly suited for performance or reading aloud....