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Celia Carrington Riely

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Tung Ch’i-ch’ang; zi Xuanzai; hao Sibo, Siweng, Xiangguang, Xiangguang jushi; Wenmin]

(b Shanghai, Feb 10, 1555; d Dec 1636).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, connoisseur, theoretician, collector, and high official.

At the age of 12 Dong Qichang, the son of a local school teacher, passed the prefectural civil-service examination to qualify as a Government Student (shengyuan) and was awarded a coveted place in the prefectural school. Mortified, however, at being ranked below his younger kinsman Dong Chuanxu because of his clumsy calligraphy, from 1571 Dong resolved to study calligraphy in earnest. His initial models were rubbings of works by the Tang-period (618–907 ce) calligraphers Yan Zhenqing and Yu Shinan (558–638), but soon realizing the superior merits of the Six Dynasties (222–589 ce) calligraphers, he turned to the works of Zhong You (151–230 ce) and the great Wang Xizhi (see Wang family (i), (1)). After three years he was confident of having grasped their style, and no longer admired works by the Ming-period (...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Mei Ch’ing; zi Yuangong; hao Qushan, Xuelu Meichi]

(b Xuancheng, Anhui Province, 1623; d 1697).

Chinese painter and poet. He came from a family with a history of distinguished scholarship, but himself failed the examinations for an official career. His father died when he was young and his elder brothers saw to his education. In 1642 the family left Xuancheng to escape Manchu troops, and in 1649 they moved again. Some of Mei Qing’s poems reflect these experiences. He travelled widely to places such as Mt Tai, Shandong Province, in 1670 and to Mt Huang, Anhui Province, in 1671 and 1690, but returned to his birthplace where he spent the rest of his life, probably making his living as a scholar, poet and painter and helping to compile a local history in 1673.

He seems to have known various members of the Anhui school of landscape painting, notably Cheng Sui (?1605–?1691), Zha Shibiao and Dai Benxiao, but much of his reputation derives from his association with the great Individualist monk–painter ...


Karen M. Gerhart

[Ōtagaki Nobu]

(b Kyoto, 1791; d Kyoto, 1875).

Japanese poet, calligrapher, potter and painter. Shortly after her birth, she was adopted by Ōtagaki Mitsuhisa who worked at Chion’in, an important Jōdo (Pure Land) sect temple in Kyoto. In 1798 she was sent to serve at Kameoka Castle in Tanba, where she studied poetry, calligraphy and martial arts. She returned to Kyoto in 1807 and was married to a young samurai named Mochihisa. They had three children, all of whom died shortly after birth; in 1815 Mochihisa also died. In 1819 Nobu remarried, but her second husband died in 1823. After enduring the tragic loss of two husbands and all her children, Nobu, only 33 years old, cut her hair off and became a nun, at which time she adopted the name Rengetsu (‘lotus moon’). She lived with her stepfather, who had also taken vows, near Chion’in. After his death in 1832 Rengetsu began to make pottery, which she then inscribed with her own ...


Bent L. Pedersen

[Ch’en Jung; zi Gongchu; hao Suoweng]

(b Changle, Fujian Province; fl 1235–62).

Chinese painter and poet. He passed the national civil-service examination to obtain the title of jinshi in 1235 and held several official posts, the last of which was the governorship of Putian (Fujian Province). He specialized in monochrome-ink paintings of dragons, and he was also well known as the author of heroic poems during the 1250s. He is said to have studied the poems and paintings of flying dragons by Li Yu (reg 961–75), ruler of the Southern Tang period (937–75). Eleven paintings of dragons are attributed to Chen Rong, of which three may be genuine or accurate copies made during the Southern Song period (1127–1279). Nine Dragons Appearing through Clouds and Waves (handscroll, ink with touches of red on paper, 0.46×10.96 m; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) is inscribed by the artist and dated 1244. The dragons are drawn in calligraphic lines that stand out against the background of clouds, rocks and water. Their heads express their power and also betray a certain humour, two attributes of the ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[Chang Jui-t’u; zi Changgong; hao Ershui]

(b Jinjiang District, Fujian Province, 1570; d April/May ?1641).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, and poet. He received his jinshi degree in 1607, eventually becoming Grand Secretary in 1626. In 1629 Zhang was implicated in the crimes of the corrupt eunuch Wei Zhongxian, and was stripped of his ranks and sent home a commoner. He subsequently was devoted himself to calligraphy and poetry.

Zhang is usually classified as one of the four masters of late Ming (1368–1644) calligraphy, with Xing Tong (1551–1612), Mi Wanzhong (1570–1628), and Dong Qichang. Most of his writing is in running script (xingshu), cursive script (caoshu), and small regular script (xiaokai). The models he followed in early years were Wang Xizhi, Sun Guoting, and Su Shi. His individualistic approach, however, marks a great departure from the Two Wangs (Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi) tradition and presaged his eccentric juniors Wang Duo (1592–1652), Ni Yuanlu (...



Cecil H. Uyehara

(b Echigo Prov. [now Niigata Prefect.], 1758; d 1831).

Japanese Zen monk, calligrapher and poet. He became a monk at the age of 18 at the temple Kōshōji, Okayama Prefecture, but, being a wanderer for most of his life, never attained high monastic rank. He is known for his poetry in Japanese and Chinese and his individualistic, indeed idiosyncratic, swiftly brushed style of calligraphy and is one of the most respected calligraphers of the late Edo period, receiving more attention and study than his contemporaries Maki Ryōko and Ichikawa Beian. His modern popularity has given rise to an increasing number of Ryōkan forgeries. Most of his extant calligraphies consist of letters and poems in his own hand, much of the subject-matter deriving from his everyday experiences, as for example the letter brushed in ink on paper between 1806 and 1810 (Tokyo, N. Mus.). Ryōkan studied the 100-character text by the Chinese calligrapher Huaisu, the calligraphy of the legendary 4th-century ...


Elizabeth Horton Sharf

[Yinyuan Longqi]

(b Fuqing County, Fujian Province, 1592; d Uji, 1673).

Chinese monk, poet and calligrapher, active in Japan. Along with his disciples Mokuan Shōtō and Sokuhi Nyoitsu, he was extolled as one of the Ōbaku no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of Ōbaku’), the three principal calligraphers of the Ōbaku Zen school. He was a leading southern Chinese Buddhist master who, not long after the end of the Ming period (1368–1644), emigrated to Nagasaki where, in the early 17th century, a community of Chinese merchants had established three Chinese Buddhist temples. In Japan Ingen quickly became a religious figure of national reputation, and was later celebrated as the founding patriarch of the Japanese Ōbaku Zen lineage (see Buddhism §III 10.). A search for his father, who had disappeared when he was five, brought him at the age of 20 to a temple on Mt Putuo (Zhoushan Archipelago, off the coast of Zhejiang Prov.), where, it is recorded, he served tea to the monks. It was not until he was about 28, however, after the death of his mother, that he was able to be ordained as a Buddhist monk at his family temple, Wanfusi, on Mt Huangbo. He trained under the eminent monks Miyun Yuanwu (...



Samuel C. Morse

(b ad 786; reg 809–23; d 842).

Japanese emperor, poet, calligrapher and patron of the Shingon sect of Esoteric Buddhism. Along with Kūkai and Tachibana no Hayanari, he is regarded as one of the Sanpitsu (Three Brushes; master calligraphers) of the Heian period (ad 794–1185) (see Japan §VII 2., (ii)). He was the second son of Emperor Kanmu (reg 781–806), who founded the capital Heian (now Kyoto) in 794, and Empress Otomuro (ad 760–90). In 809 he succeeded his half-brother, Emperor Heizei (reg 806–9), to the throne as the 52nd emperor of Japan, and although he abdicated in 823, Saga remained the most powerful figure at court until his death. Politically the most significant event of his career occurred in 810 when Heizei attempted to return the centre of government to the old capital of Heijō (now Nara). Saga and his allies quickly crushed the rebellion, thereby assuring a pre-eminent cultural role for Kyoto in subsequent Japanese history. Saga had a deep passion for Chinese culture. He actively promoted the use of Chinese modes of dress and the adoption of Chinese nomenclature for the various structures of the imperial palace. He wrote accomplished poetry in Chinese and was responsible for the compilation of two imperial anthologies, the ...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Oct 1, 1927).

Argentine painter, graphic designer, teacher and critic. After studying in Japan from 1935 to 1951 he returned to Argentina, remaining there until his move to New York in 1963. His paintings from 1952 were in the style of Art informel, with a calligraphic emphasis demonstrating his sympathy with oriental art, but around 1960 he moved towards a more gestural abstraction in works such as Painting No. 20 (1961; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), using thicker paint and more subdued colours.

In 1964 Sakai began to use more geometric shapes in his pictures, and he continued to do so on moving in 1965 to Mexico, where he remained until 1977. His example opened the way to geometric abstraction in Mexico, where there was no real tradition of such work. In 1976, shortly before returning to New York, he began a series of paintings using the formal repetition of parallel undulating lines of strongly contrasting colour. From ...


Jean Robertson and Craig McDaniel

The final decades of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century witnessed an increasing propensity for artists to incorporate aspects of science in their own art. In many fields of scientific research—including the cloning of mammals, the genetic modification of crops, the creation of bioengineered organs and tissues, advances in nanotechnology and robotics, experimental research in how the human mind works and the study of artificial intelligence—the frontiers of knowledge pushed outward at an accelerated pace. In the spirit of creative inquiry, or in order to critique the goals and outcomes of scientific experimentation and application, artists regularly borrowed subjects, tools and approaches from science as a means to the production of art ( see fig. ).

In documenting and assessing the achievements of visual artists engaged with science, there was no broad consensus on the categorisation of artists’ work across the full range of activities, methods, motivations and use of materials. Assessments of artistic practice focused on artists’ work categorised by the traditional fields of science (e.g. artists who explore biology, artists who explore physical sciences). Other analyses of artistic practice focused on categories of art media (e.g. artists who use traditional means such as carving and casting to represent scientific discoveries, artists who explore and employ biological materials and scientific instruments)....


Pyŏn Yŏng-Sŏp

[cha Kwangji; ho P’yoam, P’yo’ong]

(b 1713; d 1791).

Korean painter, calligrapher and critic. He was born into a prominent literati family in Seoul and became the most influential connoisseur and critic of his time. At the age of 31 he moved to Ahnsan, near Seoul, where he lived for about 30 years. During this time he developed and completed his artistic identity, concentrating on producing various works of art–poetry, calligraphy and paintings. At the age of 61 he took up a civil service post for the first time. This presumably caused him to move back to Seoul, where he lived until his death. While he was in the service he did not lose his enthusiasm for creating art. His late works show a greater refinement and nobleness. In 1784 he travelled to China as an envoy to Beijing, where his paintings and calligraphy were greatly admired.

Kang Se-hwang played a pivotal role in the Korean artistic world of the late Chosŏn period through his comments and criticism and his innovations. He adapted the style of the Chinese Southern school, producing a Korean literati style (...


Fu Shan  

James Cahill

revised by Vyvyan Brunst

[zi Qingzhu; hao Selu]

(b Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, Jul 12, 1607; d Songzhuang, Shanxi Province, Jul 23, 1684).

Chinese calligrapher, painter, poet, and scholar–official. He was born in northern China to a scholarly family. When he was only 15 he passed the local examination, the first of three stages in the civil service examination ladder, to receive his xiucai degree and in 1625 became a stipendiary. Following his failure in the next stage—the provincial examinations—he went to study at the San Li Academy in Taiyuan. There he gained a reputation as a man of high moral character, in part because of his aversion to widespread official corruption in the late part of the Ming period (1368–1644); this may have hindered his advancement to an official career. After the Manchu conquest and the subsequent establishment of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), Fu Shan’s loyalty to the preceding dynasty led to his imprisonment and torture. In 1655, however, his students secured his release. During the 1660s and 1670s he traveled in the northern provinces, visiting famous mountains, including Mt. Hua in Shaanxi Province and Mt. Tai in Shandong Province. He worked as a physician and won renown as a poet in this period....


Ju-Hsi Chou

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1687; d 1773).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. His father died when Huang was young, and in order to support the family Huang was obliged to pursue a professional career in painting. Although he specialized in portraiture and figure painting, he was also skilled as a painter of landscapes, plants and birds. His versatility was a characteristic he shared with his teacher, Shangguan Zhou (b 1665), a leading Fujian painter whose surviving works include Wanxiao tang huazhuan (‘Painting record of the Wanxiao Hall’), a woodblock-printed work depicting historical characters. Huang was encouraged by his mother to aspire to a loftier goal than that of a mere craftsman, the status generally accorded professional painters. He began his education at the age of 18; asserting the oneness of painting and poetry, he studied both arts and in 1734 published the Jiaohu shichao (‘Poetic anthology by Jiaohu’), Jiao hu being a lake to the north of Ninghua. He often included elegantly phrased inscriptions on his paintings, thereby incorporating poetry, calligraphy and painting in a single work. His calligraphy was initially modelled after the ...


Su Shi  

Roderick Whitfield

[Su Shih; zi Zizhan; hao Dongpo jushi]

(b Meishan, Sichuan Province, 1036; d Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1101).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, poet, essayist and scholar–official. In the West he is best known as Su Dongpo (Su Tung-p’o.

As protégé of Ouyang Xiu, in 1057 Su Shi took the national civil service examination to become a jinshi and passed with flying colours, attaining instant celebrity. His brilliant essays combined morality with pragmatism in the analysis of contemporary problems. His outspokenness brought him into disagreement with both conservatives and reformers, the latter headed by Wang Anshi (1021–86), who introduced a programme of New Laws under Emperor Shenzong (reg 1068–86). Consequently Su Shi was exiled several times, initially in 1080 to Huangzhou in Hubei Province, where he built his study on the Eastern Slope (Dongpo). During this first period of exile he wrote masterpieces of poetry such as the Chibi fu (‘Ode on the Red Cliff’), which established him as the foremost literary figure of his time. Summoned back to the capital in ...


Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Cha Shih-piao; zi Erzhan; hao Meihe Sanren, Lanlao]

(b Haiyang, Anhui Province, 1615; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1698).

Chinese painter, connoisseur, calligrapher and poet . One of the Four Masters of Xin’an ( see Anhui school ), he was born to a wealthy family of connoisseurs and art collectors. He passed the first stage in the civil service examination ladder to receive his xiu cai (‘cultivated talent’) degree while in his 20s, but like many scholars after the fall of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) he abandoned all thought of an official career, turning instead to writing and painting. Later in life he referred to himself as an ‘inkstone-ploughing guest’, that is, one who has made a living with a brush. Forced to flee when the invading Manchus destroyed his home, Zha travelled to Nanjing and Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province and during the 1660s settled in Yangzhou. By nature he was easy-going and somewhat reclusive, given to drinking late into the night.

In his earliest extant paintings (dated ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Pao Shih-ch’en; zi Shenbo, hao Juanweng, Anwu xiansheng]

(b Jing Xian, Anhui Province, 1775; d 1855).

Chinese art historian, calligrapher and minor civil servant . He was born into an impoverished family of scholars and was sent to school in Nanjing, where he studied military tactics and administration. His first job was as an adviser in tactics to the governor of Anhui Province, Zhu Gui (1731–1807), who also oversaw the continuation of Bao’s studies in the classics. Bao passed the provincial civil service examinations to receive his juren degree in 1805 but never received his jinshi, even though he took the national examinations a dozen times. He spent the rest of his life in low-grade civil service posts: the highest position he held was a one-year posting as district magistrate at Xinyu in Jiangxi Province.

Although he never achieved high office, Bao Shichen was a famous connoisseur and theorist of calligraphy. He began to study the art at the age of 14, and his models included ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Bussai; Dokusō; Gakusen; Hanbutsu koji; Kyūsui Gyojin; Mandarakyo]

(b Kyoto, 1738; d Osaka, 1797).

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from Kō Fuyō and was so successful in absorbing the characteristics of the Archaic school that he was known as ‘Fuyō’s shadow’. Together with Maegawa Kyoshū and Katsu Shikin, he was an important advocate of the Archaic school in the Naniwa (now Osaka) area (see Japan §XVII 20.).

Albums of seals he carved include the Rekiken sanbō inpu, Dokusōan in’in and the Gakusen in’in. Shii also researched the background to seal scholarship and wrote the works Insekikō (‘Thoughts on borrowed seals’) and Ingosan (‘Outline of seal terms’). The Insekikō, published posthumously in 1802, is a catalogue raisonné of Japanese and Chinese seal albums introduced to Japan at that time. It also assesses the state and level of seal scholarship. No such catalogue had hitherto been compiled, even in China, and it was highly praised. The ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Shōen Gyofūrō, Toan.]

(b Osaka, 1739; d Osaka, 1784)

Japanese poet, seal-carver and doctor. He was born into a medical family; his father, Hashimoto Teijun, a famous doctor, had died young, and Shikin was brought up by one of Teijun’s pupils, Usui Itsuō. In his youth he studied in Kyoto, but he later succeeded to the family medical tradition in Osaka. He studied Confucianism under Suga Kankoku (1690–1764) and his pupil Enoraku Kō. Like the seal-carver Sō Shii, he was a member of Katayama Hokkai’s (1723–90) poetry group, the Konton shisha, and his fresh and technically adept verse was said to be the group’s finest. He studied seal-carving under Kō Fuyō, retaining the principal elements of Fuyō’s style while incorporating a graceful opulence, which fully exploited the special characteristics of the Archaic school, as seen in his extant five-volume seal album, Gyofūrō inpu (‘Gyofūrō seal album’; 1784). He ran the Gyofūrō inn in northern Osaka, which attracted cultured clients throughout the year. The name Gyofūrō (Honourable Mansion of the Wind) was, like Shikin, derived from the Chinese classic ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Xin yue; Shōun]

(b Puyang, nr Hangzhou, Zhejiang Prov., 1639; d Mito, Ibaragi Prefect., 1695).

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In 1681 the daimyo of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628–1700), hearing of this situation, invited Shin’etsu to his fiefdom, where in 1692 he became founding abbot of Mitsukuni’s temple, Jushōzan Gionji (formerly Tentokuji) in Mito, later the place of his burial. Shin’etsu’s school of Buddhism is known as the Jushō or Shin’etsu school of Sōtō Zen.

Shin’etsu is best known as an artist and true literatus. Together with Dokuryū Shōeki...


Kenneth Frampton

(b Shizuoka, April 2, 1925 d Kawasaki, July 15, 2006).

Japanese architect, teacher and writer. He studied mathematics before enrolling in architecture at the Tokyo Institute of Technology (B. Eng. 1953; D. Eng. 1967). He then opened his own office in Tokyo and also began a long teaching career at the Institute of Technology, becoming a full professor in 1970. He was thus first and foremost an intellectual before becoming by degrees an architect of international stature through the realization of some 30 houses between 1958 and 1978. Generally regarded as an ‘architect’s architect’, Shinohara was content in his early work to ring the changes on reductively modernized versions of the traditional Japanese house. This changed, however, with his so-called House with a Big Roof (1961), Tokyo. Thereafter his houses tended to be identified not by the place where they were built but by the single-minded image that was the basis of their design. He subsequently produced eccentric works with earthen floors (e.g. at Karuizawa, ...