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Jane Block

(b Brussels, Nov 26, 1865; d Brussels, July 5, 1916).

Belgian painter and decorative artist. He showed a precocious talent, first exhibiting in 1875. His only formal study was at a local school of drawing. Between 1884 and 1886 he showed at the Essor group in Brussels paintings that were based on Dürer and Holbein and closely related to those of Lemmen’s contemporary, Khnopff. When Lemmen became a member of Les XX in 1888 his style developed quickly, influenced principally by French Neo-Impressionism and the English Arts and Crafts Movement. Lemmen adopted the pointillist technique following Seurat’s first showing with Les XX in 1887. His best pointillist canvases include The Carousel (1890–91; priv. col., see Belgian Art, 1880–1914, exh. cat., New York, Brooklyn Mus., 1980, p. 118, fig.) as well as portraits of Julie (1891; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) and Mme Lemmen (1894–5; Paris, Mus. Orsay).

In the early 1890s Lemmen became a leader in the burgeoning decorative arts movement. In ...


Thalie Goetz

(b Algiers, Sept 30, 1865; d Le Vésinet, Sept 24, 1953).

French painter and potter. From 1879 he studied at the Ecole Supérieure de Dessin et de Sculpture in Paris. In his first exhibition at the Salon in 1882 he showed a small porcelain plaque depicting the Birth of Venus in the style of Alexandre Cabanel and he continued to exhibit there regularly. From 1886 to 1895 he worked as a decorator of earthenware and then as artistic director of the studio of Clément Massier at Golfe Juan, near Cannes. Around 1892 he signed his first pieces of earthenware inspired by Islamic ceramics and made a name for himself primarily as a potter at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1895. An innovator in ceramic shapes, techniques and glazes, he participated in the revival of the decorative arts at the end of the 19th century. During this period he spent some time in Italy, notably in Venice where he familiarized himself with 15th-century Italian art. In ...


Bettina Brand

(b Berlin, July 20, 1847; d Berlin, Feb 8, 1935).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and collector. He dominated the German art world from the 1890s to the 1930s. Although at first a highly controversial figure, after the turn of the century he was showered with honours. His Naturalist and Impressionist works have been consistently admired, despite being banned during the Nazi period. Liebermann’s approach was that of a liberal cosmopolitan, and his work is distinguished by its honesty and commitment to social reform. Influenced by Dutch and French painting, he led the modernist movement in Germany away from the literary art of the 19th century.

The son of a Jewish businessman from Berlin, Liebermann initially studied philosophy, but in 1866 he became a pupil of Carl Steffeck, who had given him occasional drawing tuition. In 1868–72 he studied under Ferdinand Wilhelm Pauwels (1830–1904), Charles Verlat and Paul Thumann (1834–1908) at the Kunsthochschule in Weimar. In 1871...


Peter J. Flagg

(b Paris, March 13, 1858; d Paris, Feb 7, 1941).

French painter and printmaker. He was born and brought up in the working-class surroundings of Montparnasse, and an interest in the daily routines and labours of the petit peuple of Paris informs much of his art. After an apprenticeship with the wood-engraver Henri Théophile Hildebrand (b 1824), in 1876 he entered the studio of the wood-engraver Eugène Froment where he assisted in the production of engravings for various French and foreign publications such as L’Illustration and The Graphic. He also sporadically attended classes at the Académie Suisse and in the studio of Carolus-Duran. In Froment’s studio he came into contact with the artists Léo Gausson and Emile-Gustave Péduzzi (Cavallo-Péduzzi; 1851–1917) and in their company began painting landscape subjects in and around the town of Lagny-sur-Marne.

At the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in 1887 Luce’s The Toilette (Geneva, Petit Pal.) caught the attention of Camille Pissarro, the critic Félix Fénéon and ...


Robbert Ruigrok

Term applied generally to Belgian Neo-Impressionism and more specifically to the work produced after 1904 by the movement’s exponents, in which they combined aspects of Realism, Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism; it was also applied from 1910 in the Netherlands to describe the late phase of Dutch Impressionism that is comparable stylistically with Fauvism. The term derives from Vie et Lumière, the name of a group formed by Emile Claus and others. After Georges Seurat’s death in 1891 some Belgian Neo-Impressionists turned away from the painting movement in favour of decorative arts. When the avant-garde group Les XX was superseded in 1894 by the Libre Esthétique (1894–1914), Claus and other Belgian Impressionists sought a more national, often Flemish identity, enhanced by the nationalist tendency to pay homage to the century-old Dutch Flemish tradition of landscape painting, and by the Romantic–Realist style taught at Belgian academies and practised by the schools of Kalmthout, Tervuren and Dendermonde....


Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Banyuls-sur-Mer, Oct 8, 1861; d Perpignan, Sept 24, 1944).

French sculptor, painter, designer and illustrator. He began his career as a painter and tapestry designer, but after c. 1900 devoted himself to three-dimensional work, becoming one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century. He concentrated almost exclusively on the nude female figure in the round, consciously wishing to strip form of all literary associations and architectural context. Although inspired by the Classical tradition of Greek and Roman sculpture, his figures have all the elemental sensuousness and dignity associated with the Mediterranean peasant.

Maillol first intended to become a painter and went to Paris in 1881, where he lived in extreme poverty. Three years later the Ecole des Beaux-Arts finally accepted him as a pupil, where he began studies under Alexandre Cabanel. He found the teaching there discouraging and his early painted work was more strongly influenced by Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Paul Gauguin, and the Nabis group which he joined around ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Radom, 15 or July 14, 1854; d Kraków, Oct 8, 1929).

Polish painter. He began his training in 1873 in Kraków’s School of Fine Arts on the instigation of the historical painter Jan Matejko (1838–93). Malczewski was initially taught by Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Feliks Szynalewski (1825–92) and from 1875 worked exclusively under Matejko’s supervision. In 1876–7 he studied under Ernest Lehmann (1814–82) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris; here he began to abandon Matejko’s historical subject-matter in order to tackle contemporary problems and give expression to his own experiences. He espoused the realism of, among others, Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon school. In 1877 he again studied under Matejko but broke away in 1879. In 1880 he travelled to Italy and in 1884 acted as draughtsman for an archaeological expedition to Asia Minor, visiting en route Vienna, Trieste, the Albanian coastline, Rhodes and Athens. His mature work dates from after a period spent in Munich in ...


[Oury, Jules]

(b Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, May 12, 1872; d Montricoux, Tarn-et-Garonne, Sept 7, 1931).

French painter, printmaker and poet. He was the son of a jeweller and at an early age learnt how to produce lithographs and etchings. He quickly established a reputation as a creator of illuminated Symbolist works such as the gouache The Monster (1897; Paris, Flamand-Charbonnier priv. col.; see 1972 exh. cat., p. 64). This was executed in an Art Nouveau style and depicted the common Symbolist theme of woman as the destructive temptress of man. Four works, including this, were shown at the sixth Salon de la Rose + Croix at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris (1897), and he had similar works published in periodicals such as L’Estampe moderne, L’Aube and Le Courrier français.

Marcel-Lenoir’s first paintings were produced with a palette knife or by using paint straight from the tube, as in A Review in the Cours Foucault in Montauban (1907; Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). He produced other townscapes also, such as ...


Taube G. Greenspan

(b Toulouse, Aug 5, 1860; d La Bastide-du-Vert, Lot, Nov 1943).

French painter. After winning the Grand Prix at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse, he moved to Paris (1879) to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts there under Jean-Paul Laurens, who encouraged his interest in Veronese and other Venetian painters. The literary inspiration of his early work was reflected in such paintings as Paolo de Malatesta and Francesca da Rimini in Hell (1883; Carcassonne, Mus. B.-A.) based on Dante, for which he won a medal at the Salon of 1883. During his subsequent study in Rome, however, on a fellowship awarded to him at the Salon, he was attracted both by the brilliant Italian light and by the paintings of Giotto and his contemporaries.

On his return to Paris (1889), Martin experimented with pointillism, which he sometimes applied to allegorical subjects, for example Festival of the Federation (1899; Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). In the 1890s his work showed links with Symbolism and the themes of dreams and reverie. A Baudelairean pessimism fills such paintings as ...


(b Oderzo, nr Treviso, Nov 24, 1876; d Milan, Nov 8, 1954).

Italian painter and engraver. His early paintings, such as the Sacred River Isonzo (1892; Milan, priv. col., see Bellini, p. 43), were not given serious consideration by critics at the time. He is more highly regarded for the vast number of drawings that he produced and that gained him his first recognition at the Venice Biennale in 1897, where he had on display 14 drawings from the anthology La corte dei miracoli. He concentrated mainly on illustrating famous literary works such as Pulci’s Morgante maggiore, Tassoni’s La secchia rapita (1895), the Divina commedia (1901–2) and the Tales of E. A. Poe, which occupied him until 1909. His drawings for these publications show the influence of Bosch, Pieter Bruegel I, Dürer, Lucas Cranach I and Albrecht Altdorfer, whose work he had studied in Munich. This is particularly noticeable in the recurrent depiction of a real world controlled by spirits and monstrous and deformed demonic beings. For these reasons critics have treated Martini, together with de Chirico and Alberto Savinio, as one of the precursors of Surrealism, though he never officially subscribed to it despite his lengthy stay in Paris from ...


[Faust, Séverin]

(b Paris, Dec 29, 1872; d Paris, April 23, 1945).

French writer, theorist and critic. Writing under the pseudonym of Camille Mauclair, his first book was Eleusis (1894). Though a comparative latecomer to Symbolism, he here expounded his version of its aesthetic. He broadly defined the symbol as ‘tout ce qui paraît’ and emphasized the importance of the dream. Mostly the work is influenced by Stéphane Mallarmé, whom he greatly admired, and is, in its philosophical aspects, derived from Arthur Schopenhauer. He was sympathetic to the Pre-Raphaelites, Edward Burne-Jones and others in England, and saw the Symbolists as achieving similar results in France.

Throughout his life Mauclair remained dogmatically entrenched within a Symbolist perspective. He admired the Impressionists whilst hoping that their stylistic innovations could be turned to Symbolist effect. In 1892 he took over the Mercure de France from Albert Aurier and rapidly used his column to attack Post-Impressionists such as Gauguin, Cézanne and others. Later he saw himself as engaged in a crusade against modern art and as a defender of the French tradition, ...


Kenneth Neal

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1871; d La Bernerie-en-Retz, Loire-Atlantique, 1954).

French painter. He was a pupil of Jules-Elie Delaunay and Gustave Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and helped to popularize Symbolism in the 1890s by applying a highly finished academic technique to Symbolist subjects. His best-known paintings, which include Girl with a Peacock (before 1896; Paris, G. Levy priv. col., see Jullian, p. 2) and the Soul of the Forest (c. 1897; Nantes, Mus. B.-A.), are decorative, vaguely religious or allegorical images of beautiful women in medieval dress, influenced by early Italian Renaissance and late English Pre-Raphaelite art. Maxence often enriched the surface of his works with gold or silver foil and gilt plaster relief and mounted them in elaborate frames of his own design. He also painted fashionable portraits such as Woman with an Orchid (1900; Paris, A. Lesieutre priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 29) and Impressionist landscapes. Though he participated in the avant-garde Salon de la Rose + Croix between ...


Marian Yoshiki-Kovinick

(b Placerville, CA, Dec 2, 1862; d Monterey, CA, May 6, 1948).

American painter. After settling in San Francisco in the late 1860s with her family, she attended the Irving Institute. She began her art training at the California School of Design under Virgil Williams (1830–86), Emil Carlsen and Raymond Dabb Yelland (1848–1900), earning an honourable mention (1886) and the prestigious Avery Gold Medal for oil painting (1888). She continued her studies at the Académie Julian in Paris (1889–91), with Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant and Jules LeFebvre. Travelling the French countryside to paint at Giverny (1890, 1891), she, along with other American Impressionists who frequented the Hotel Baudy, vicariously absorbed the spirit of Givernyés resident Impressionist, Claude Monet. On her return to the Bay Area, McCormick again resided in San Francisco but, as early as 1892, began sojourns to the Monterey Peninsula. By 1899, she had studios in both locations and became a full-time resident of Monterey by ...


Leigh Astbury

(b Melbourne, Feb 25, 1855; d Melbourne, Dec 20, 1917).

Australian painter and teacher. A baker’s son, he trained from 1869 at the local Artisans’ School of Design in Carlton and by 1872 was at the School of Design, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. It was not until the Munich-trained George Folingsby (1828–91) was appointed master of the Gallery Art School in 1882 that McCubbin received a thorough academic training in figure painting. Folingsby evoked McCubbin’s interest in large-scale history pieces with a pronounced national flavour. From the colonial artist and Swiss émigré Abram-Louis Buvelot, McCubbin absorbed a more intimate, Barbizon-style vision of the Australian landscape. Julian Ashton directed his attention to subjects from contemporary life and introduced him to plein-air painting. In the mid-1880s McCubbin’s growing adherence to plein-air Realism was strengthened by the influence of Portugueseborn Arthur Loureiro (1853–1912) and, more dramatically, by the impact of Tom Roberts, recently returned from Europe in 1885...


(b 1862; d 1943).

French critic. He was greatly interested in Symbolism, and in Le Mouvement idéaliste en peinture (Paris, 1896) he charted the rise of ‘idealist art’, claiming that the idealist movement had first publicly emerged at the Exposition des Peintres du Groupe Impressionniste et Synthétiste, organized by the Pont-Aven group at the Café Volpini, Paris, in 1889. This exhibition had included work by artists of several theoretical persuasions (Chromo-Luminarists, Neo-Impressionists, Synthetists, Mystics). According to Mellerio, the progenitors of ‘idealist’ painting were Gustave Moreau, Paul Gauguin, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Odilon Redon. He first met Redon in 1889 and soon became one of his closest friends and supporters, writing the preface to the catalogue for the Redon exhibition at the Durand Ruel galleries in 1894, in which he stated that Redon occupied a distinctive position in contemporary art as he belonged to no group. He compiled a catalogue of Redon’s graphic work (...


(b Paris, April 15, 1862; d Paris, Jan 13, 1930).

French painter. He was the son of the landscape painter René-Joseph Ménard (1827–87) and nephew of the philosopher and writer Louis Ménard. He spent his youth with the Barbizon school of painters. He trained in the studios of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and other artists, but his period at the Académie Julian (from 1880) influenced him to choose a Symbolist style of landscape painting. He combined the French classical tradition of Pierre Henri de Valenciennes and Jean-Victor Bertin with the rural poetry of Jean-François Millet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. In his frescoes he looked to the monumental classicism of Puvis de Chavannes.

Around 1898 Ménard travelled to the Classical sites of the Mediterranean, which inspired him to paint a visionary arcadia, silent and grand in its pantheistic solitude. These landscapes are peopled with gods and goddesses, naked nymphs and shepherds, drawn from life but worked into the texture of their rural background. He also used ...


Francesc Fontbona de Vallescar


(b Barcelona, Jan 6, 1873; d Barcelona, April 27, 1940).

Spanish Catalan painter. A pupil of Lluis Graner (1863–1929), he also studied at the Escola de Belles Arts (Llotja) of Barcelona (1894–5). Mir was a member of la Colla del Safrà, a group of young artists who painted the fields in the countryside outside Barcelona. The Cathedral of the Poor (1898; priv. col., see Jardí, pl. 25, pp. 36–7) is among his most important works of this period: it is a realistic group portrait of beggars near Antoni Gaudí’s Temple de la Sagrada Familia during its construction in Barcelona. In 1899 Mir settled with Santiago Rusiñol in Mallorca, where he knew the Belgian symbolist painter William Degouve de Nuncques. However, preferring to live alone, he went to the area around the Torrent de Pareis, a canyon in the north of the island; there he painted a number of extraordinary works, for example the large-scale Enchanted Cove...


(b Amersfoort, March 7, 1872; d New York, Feb 1, 1944).

Dutch painter, theorist, and draughtsman. His work marks the transition at the start of the 20th century from the Hague school and Symbolism to Neo-Impressionism and Cubism. His key position within the international avant-garde is determined by works produced after 1920. He set out his theory in the periodical of Stijl, De, in a series of articles that were summarized in a separate booklet published in Paris in 1920 under the title Le Néo-plasticisme (see Neo-plasticism) by Léonce Rosenberg. The essence of Mondrian’s ideas is that painting, composed of the most fundamental aspects of line and colour, must set an example to the other arts for achieving a society in which art as such has no place but belongs instead to the total realization of ‘beauty’. The representation of the universal, dynamic pulse of life, also expressed in modern jazz and the metropolis, was Mondrian’s point of departure. Even in his lifetime he was regarded as the founder of the most ...


Joel Isaacson

(b Paris, Nov 14, 1840; d Giverny, Dec 6, 1926).

French painter. He was the leader of the Impressionist movement in France; indeed the movement’s name, Impressionism, is derived from his Impression, Sunrise (1873; Paris, Mus. Marmottan). Throughout his long career, and especially in his series from the 1890s onwards, he explored the constantly changing quality of light and colour in different atmospheric conditions and at various times of the day.

Although born in Paris, Monet grew up on the Normandy coast in Le Havre, where his father was a wholesale grocer serving the maritime industry. His mother died in 1857, whereupon his aunt, Marie-Jeanne Lecadre, supported his efforts to become an artist and encouraged him during his early career. By c. 1856 Monet had attained a local reputation as a caricaturist, attracting the interest of the landscape painter Eugène Boudin, who succeeded in turning Monet’s attention to plein-air painting. After a year of military service in Algeria in ...


Piero Pacini

(b Bologna, July 20, 1890; d Bologna, June 18, 1964).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. At the age of 17 he enrolled at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna and discovered contemporary art in books on Impressionism, Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat and Henri Rousseau. He read with interest the articles by Ardengo Soffici in La voce and saw the Venice Biennale of 1910, where he first came across the painting of Auguste Renoir. During this period he often went to Florence to study the works of Giotto, Masaccio and Paolo Uccello. Between 1911 and 1914, when he was in Rome, he was impressed by the work of Claude Monet and, especially, Paul Cézanne. At the Futurist exhibition Lacerba, held in the Libreria Gonnelli, Florence, in 1913–14, he met Umberto Boccioni. Shortly afterwards he showed his first paintings at the Albergo Baglioni in Bologna and the Galleria Sprovieri in Rome. When he was not painting, he taught drawing in primary schools. As an adolescent he associated with those most receptive to new ideas in Bologna, including the painter Osvaldo Licini and the writer Mario Bacchelli. In ...