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Dora Vallier

(b Saint-Ouen, nr Amiens, Dec 5, 1911; d Orléans-La Source, Aug 1, 1993).

French painter and decorative artist. His earliest training was at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Amiens. In 1929 he moved to Paris, where he registered to study architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, although he did not complete the course. He made copies of Old Master paintings at the Louvre and frequented the Académies Libres. At the Académie Ranson in 1935 he met Roger Bissière, who was teaching there, and became friendly with a small group of his students: Jean Le Moal (1909–96), Jean Bertholle (b 1909) and the sculptor Etienne-Martin. He exhibited for the first time with them in 1938 at the Galerie Breteau in Paris. In 1943 he went on a Trappist retreat and became a believer, an event that was to leave its mark on all his work. He executed several commissions for stained-glass windows for churches in France and abroad, in 1948–50...


John Steen

(b Meppel, Aug 15, 1889; d Eerbeek, April 23, 1920).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and printmaker. Between 1904 and 1908 he studied at the stained-glass studio of J. L. Schouten in Delft; he also took evening classes at the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. He was taught by Hermanus Veldhuis (1878–1952). At the suggestion of Antoon Derkzen van Angeren, he decided to become an independent artist. In 1909 he moved with his parents to De Knijpe near Heerenveen. From 1909 until 1915 he had business contacts with the art dealer J. C. Schüller (1871–1915) in The Hague who, until his death, bought everything that he produced. From 1910 he made penetrating self-portraits (e.g. Self-portrait with Owl, 1911; Arnhem, Gemeentemus.), as well as a great number of small-scale precisely observed scenes of animals from his immediate environment. The landscapes breathe a dreamy atmosphere. Mankes started etching in 1912. In the same year Schüller organized a successful exhibition of Mankes’s work at the Larense Kunsthandel, Amsterdam. In this period Mankes saw exhibitions of the work of van Gogh and Katsushika Hokusai, whose influences are evident in his work. He also began to make woodcuts in ...


Michel Hoog

(b Troyes, March 20, 1882; d Troyes, Feb 8, 1960).

French glassmaker and painter. Although he trained as a painter and exhibited with the Fauves at the Salon d’Automne in 1905, he developed an enthusiasm for glass after visiting a glass factory at Bar-sur-Seine in 1911. At first he designed wares and enamelled plain glass with graceful figures and floral designs combined with such decorative motifs as rosettes and palmettes. He considered himself an opponent of the Art Nouveau style and was closely associated with the international trend towards an austere, decorative style. The architect André Mare (1887–1932) invited him to take part in the Maison Cubiste organized by the Puteaux group, which was presented at the Salon d’Automne of 1912, in which such artists as Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Roger de La Fresnaye and Marie Laurencin participated. His work was noticed by the art dealer André Hébrard who regularly exhibited Marinot’s glass at his gallery in the Rue Royale, Paris. From ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Ropczyce, nr Rzeszów, March 19, 1869; d Wadowice, nr Kraków, July 8, 1946).

Polish painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From 1887 he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański, as the two most talented pupils of the School, were engaged to assist Matejko in his decorative wall paintings for the Gothic Church of St Mary in Kraków. This work aroused Mehoffer’s interest in both fresco and stained glass. In 1889–90 he studied at the Kunstakademie, Vienna, and in 1891 he travelled through Salzburg, Innsbruck and Basle (where the work of Arnold Böcklin caught his imagination), eventually going to Paris. There he studied at the Académie Colarossi, at the Ecole Nationale des Arts Décoratifs and, from 1892, in the atelier of Léon Bonnat at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. During his stay in Paris (1891–6) he devoted much time to studying works by the Old Masters in the Louvre; he also studied architecture, making a tour of medieval cathedrals in France in ...


Angela Schneider

(b Solingen, June 16, 1911; d Cologne, June 12, 1990).

German painter, stained-glass artist and teacher. He left school a year before the Abitur to train as a painter. From 1928 to 1933 he studied at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf, with Heinrich Nauen and Ewald Mataré. In 1933 he was banned from studying and exhibiting and was consequently forced to work in secret. Nevertheless, during this period he managed to lay the foundations for his later work, which after World War II included painting and the design of stained-glass windows. Many of his early works were, however, lost in a bombing raid in 1944. The first windows he designed (see 1977 exh. cat.), for St Engelbertkirche in Solingen in 1938, were also destroyed in the war. He was exempted from military service and worked intermittently as a drawing teacher at his old school. Through journeys to Paris and Chartres between 1937 and 1939 he became familiar with contemporary French art, the influence of which was reflected in his work in the later 1940s....



Ruth Rosengarten

[Maria Inês Carmona Ribeiro da Fonseca]

(b Lisbon, Sept 6, 1926; d 1995).

Portuguese painter. Her early paintings are atmospheric and luminous lyrical abstractions that demonstrate a taste for Bonnard. By 1954, in works evoking views of the city seen through a window, the reference to the visible is accompanied by a more rigorous structure. She spent 1960 in Paris and was in London in 1964–5. Shortly after her return she painted Henry VIII (1966; Lisbon, Mus. Gulbenkian). Her frequent use of watercolours is reflected in the fluid oil washes that permit great luminosity in the larger works. After a brief period of experimentation with painted ceramics and the depiction of imaginary figures using a more strident palette in the 1960s, Menez’s works consistently dealt with intimist and landscape themes, flirting on the boundaries between figuration and abstraction and allowing for the play of colour and light which is perhaps her real subject.

S. Tavares: Menez (Vila da Maia, 1983)

Portugal, §iii, 3: Painting and graphic arts, after c 1800...


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(b Kazanlŭk, Feb 19, 1897; d Sofia, Jan 25, 1927).

Bulgarian painter, stage designer, printmaker and stained-glass designer. At the time of his graduation in 1925 from the National Academy of Arts, Sofia, he had already had three successful solo exhibitions in which his interest in decorative paintings of ethnic themes was already apparent. He continued to work in a rather avant-garde style, painting Bulgarian folk themes that avoided the excesses of academic realism and ethnographic detail. He worked in a wide variety of media, executing figure compositions, portraits and landscapes that depict the romance and fantasy of Bulgarian folklore and mythology, as in St Elijah (distemper and ink, 1923; Sofia, priv. col.), a Rebec-player (watercolour, 1924; Sofia, N.A.G.) and Shepherds (India ink, 1926; Sofia, N.A.G.). He also painted frescoes and designed stained glass. In 1926, after returning from Italy and Austria, he held a further exhibition in Sofia and worked as senior scene-painter at the National Theatre (Naroden Teatâr Ivan Vazov) in Sofia, a position he held until his death in ...


Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Hamburg, 1936).

German glass artist active in Australia. He was initially apprenticed as a glass grinder and cutter in the family glass workshop and then went on to study at the Staatliche Glasfachschule, Rheinbach, and at Hadamar, Germany. In 1960 he established a joint studio in Hamburg with his first wife, Isgard Moje-Wohlgemuth (b 1941). After 1974 he was closely associated with the Pilchuck School founded in Seattle, USA, by his colleague and friend, the American glass artist, Dale Chihuly (b 1941). In 1980 Moje went to the Canberra School of Art, Australia, where he established the Glass Workshop of which he was head from 1983.

Moje’s work continues the tradition of Roman intricate mosaic vessels of the 1st century ad. It reveals a fastidious approach to technique and can be considered as parallel, albeit on a reduced scale, to such critical mainstream movements of the modern period as colour field painting, optical art and minimalism. Indeed, there are potent elements of each of these styles in Moje’s vessels and free-standing forms, which are based, almost without exception, on dynamic fields of regular pattern rendered with a pure and resonant palette. Moje’s adaptation of the ancient process of developing mosaic patterns with tiny slices of multi-coloured glass ‘canes’ reached new heights in his most recent work, which interposes fine expanses of softly opalescent, herringbone patterns with tilting slabs of swirling, marbled colour. In Australia, Moje has been an unstinting advocate of the development of exacting kiln techniques that include fusing, casting and ...


Aude Pessey-Lux

(b Paris, March 14, 1856; d Corneilla-de-Conflent, Pyrénées-Orientales, Nov 26, 1929).

French painter, wood-engraver and stained-glass designer. He enrolled in Paris at the Académie Julian in 1874 and the Académie Colarossi in 1882, attending the latter until World War I in order to work from live models. In 1880 he unsuccessfully submitted a landscape to the Salon in Paris; consequently he did no serious painting for several years. Having built his own boat, he went sailing in the western Mediterranean (1882–5). During the voyage he wrote seafaring tales that appeared in Le Yacht (1883–5) accompanied by his own illustrations. After returning to Paris, in 1887 he met Gauguin, with whom he became close friends. That year he painted his first finished canvases, views of Catalonia and the Languedoc, inspired by Neo-Impressionism (e.g. Church at Angoustrine, 1887; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). At this time he also painted portraits of his first wife and of his friends. In 1894 he completed some interior designs with his friend ...


Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded in 1837 by Deming Jarves (1790–1869), who was also instrumental in establishing the New England Glass Co. and the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. Located in South Boston, the Mt Washington Glass Works was operated by Luther Russell until his death. Jarves’s son, George D. Jarves, was a partner in the firm with others from 1846 until it was sold in 1861 to William L. Libbey (1827–83) and Timothy Howe (d 1866). In 1866 Libbey became sole proprietor, and in 1870 he moved the works to a modern factory in New Bedford, MA. Although the early products were apparently mundane, including lamps, tubes for table lamps, shades and table glass, the art wares produced after 1880 established the firm’s reputation. Beginning in 1878 the company patented several types of opal and shaded effects including ‘Lava’, ‘Burmese’, ‘Peachblow’, ‘Albertine’, ‘Royal Flemish’ and ...


El Hadji Sy

(b Tivaouane, 1953).

Senegalese painter and teacher. He graduated in 1976 from the Institut National des Arts du Senegal, where he trained as an art educator. After building a collection of glass paintings, he began to explore this medium as a support for his art. He carefully studied the techniques of glass-painting masters, advancing the conventional subjects associated with the medium. Rather than representing traditional narrative and religious scenes, his paintings depict both human figures and organic forms resembling flora. The glass painting Aristot (1992, Dakar, Serigne Babacar Sy priv. col.) suggests his emphasis on the graphic potential of both line and colour. Closer examination reveals his use of tiny dots and thin lines to animate the composition. Ndiaye has exhibited in Senegal, Europe and the USA, and Senegalese television produced a short film about his work in the early 1990s. In addition to working in Switzerland and France, he has taught art in Dakar and St Louis, Senegal....


Peter Bermingham

(b Richmond, VA, Nov 10, 1827; d New York, March 31, 1912).

American painter and stained-glass designer. He grew up in Clarksville, TN, where his stepfather was a tailor and his mother a milliner. In 1846 his request to be accepted as Asher B. Durand’s pupil was turned down, but Newman managed three years later to exhibit in the American Art-Union in New York. In 1850 he studied with Thomas Couture in Paris for five months. On a second trip to Paris in 1854, he visited Jean-François Millet in Barbizon. He worked as a portrait painter and occasional teacher of drawing, before serving briefly as an artillery lieutenant in the Confederate Army. After the Civil War, he apparently remained in New York, apart from a trip to Barbizon in 1882 and to Paris in 1908.

Although in 1872–3 he advertised himself as a portrait painter in Nashville, TN, and in the 1870s worked briefly as a stained-glass designer, Newman was primarily a painter of small compositions with a few figures, usually with a well-known religious, literary, or secular theme. One of his favourite subjects was the Virgin and Child (e.g. ...


Olga Drahotová

[formerly Neuwelt]

Czech glassworks. They were founded on the estate of the counts of Harrach in the Krkonoše Mountains in 1712 by Elias Müller (1672–1730). In 1732 two cutting workshops were set up at the works, and high-quality tableware and coloured glass were introduced. In 1764 production was broadened to include painted, opaque-white glass, made to resemble porcelain, and blue, green and sealing-wax red glass. In the same year the works were bought by Graf Ernst Guido Harrach (d 1783). Between 1773 and 1795 the factory was under the direction of the highly skilled glassmaker Anton Erben (d 1795), who was at first administrator and from 1778 tenant of the factory. After 1796 the works were reorganized, and after 1808 they came under the direction of Johann Pohl (fl 1808–50), whose experience contributed greatly to the factory’s success. The factory became particularly well known during the Biedermeier period, and it was famed for its crystal glass and for the quality of its cut decoration, with the result that it was highly acclaimed at the industrial exhibitions of the late 1820s. In ...


Bailey Van Hook

(b Bergen Heights, NJ, June 10, 1874; d Philadelphia, PA, Feb 25, 1961).

American painter, illustrator, stained-glass artist and author. Although she worked as an illustrator early on, Oakley is remembered as a muralist. Oakley attended the Art Students League, New York, Académie Montparnasse, Paris, and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, but, most importantly, a class in illustration with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia. Pyle teamed her together with Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935) to illustrate an edition of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Evangeline (1897). Smith and Oakley and another illustrator, Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871–1954), rented adjoining studios in Philadelphia and subsequently lived together in a supportive camaraderie until Green’s marriage in 1911. During her brief career as an illustrator, Oakley completed over 100 illustrations, mostly for novels and short stories.

In 1900 she created a stained-glass window on speculation, which led to a major commission for stained-glass windows, mural decoration and a mosaic altarpiece for a church in Manhattan. That project brought her to the attention of architect Joseph Huston (...


Gordon Campbell

French glasshouse founded in 1850 by E. S. Monot at LaVillette; it moved to Pantin, near Paris, in 1855. The company specialized in clear glass with cut decorations, chandeliers, and glass tubes. In the 1860s it began to produce coloured glass. In 1878 Monot’s son and a M. Stumpf joined him as directors of the factory, and by ...


Gordon Campbell

German glass manufactory. In 1866 the German glassmaker Fritz Eckert (c. 1840–c. 1905) founded a factory in Petersdorf, Silesia (now Pieszków, Poland). At first the factory specialized in historical styles ranging from Islamic designs to enamelled 17th- and 18th-century German Humpen. In 1890 a group of original designs in opaque glass known as ‘Cyprus glass’ was introduced, and from ...


English ceramic manufactory. In 1892 the Pilkington family, which had been making window glass since 1826, founded Pilkington’s Royal Lancastrian Pottery and Tile Company in Clifton, near Manchester. It was managed by William Burton (formerly of Wedgwood) and his brother Joseph. Initially the factory made architectural tiles, but in 1897...


Charles T. Little

(b Paris, 1931; d May 1, 2009).

French art historian of medieval art. As Professor of the University of Paris IV (Paris-Sorbonne) from 1981 until 1998, she was a leading specialist in French architecture and stained glass. She was president of the French section of Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi from 1980 to 1988. Studying at the Ecole du Louvre, she wrote initially on the sculpture of Reims, followed by a study on Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux. Her doctoral dissertation for the Sorbonne, under the direction of Louis Grodecki (1910–82), became an important monograph on St Remi at Reims. This was later followed by several books on Chartres Cathedral that stand out as classic studies. Aside from technical studies of the origin and development of the flying buttress, she was able to determine building sequences for a number of monuments by utilizing dendrochonological analysis of wooden beams. Her interest in Gothic architecture lead to a new series devoted to the Gothic monuments of France by Editions Picard. Her important contribution to Zodiaque publications included books on the ...


Jean A. Follett

(b Boston, MA, 1842; d Boston, MA, 1910).

American architect, stained-glass designer, furniture designer, and photographer. Preston was the son of Jonathan Preston (1801–88), a successful builder in Boston. William completed a year’s study at the Lawrence Scientific School in Cambridge, MA (later incorporated into Harvard University), and then went to Paris where he enrolled briefly in the Atelier Douillard. He returned to Boston in 1861 to work with his father, with whom he remained in partnership until the latter’s death. William then practised independently until his own death.

Preston was a prolific architect, designing over 740 buildings in the course of a career spanning 50 years. His early work was in the French Renaissance style, as seen in his Boston Society of Natural History building (1861–4), a tripartite structure with its floor levels arranged to equate with the proportions of the base, shaft, and capital of a Classical column. It has monumental Corinthian columns and pilasters and a central pediment flanked by a balustraded parapet. He worked in a typically eclectic manner during the 1870s and became an extremely fine designer in the Queen Anne Revival style in the 1880s and early 1890s. The varied massing, stained-glass windows, terracotta, moulded brick, and carved-wood detail of the John D. Sturtevant House (...


(b Winchester, England, April 10, 1929).

Irish painter, printmaker and stained-glass artist. Of Irish and English parentage, he settled in Dublin with his family in 1932. He started painting in 1943, first under Oisín Kelly at St Columba’s College and later at the National College of Art, Dublin. His travels through Europe in 1954 brought him into contact with Romanesque sculpture and the paintings of Giotto, which together encouraged him to create a modern Christian iconography, increasingly influenced by the work of El Greco. He began to work in stained glass in 1956. A Mainie Jellett scholarship in painting in 1957 enabled him to study at the Jan van Eyck Akademie in Maastricht, after which he continued to produce paintings and stained glass; he made windows on commission for churches such as Donegal Square Church, Belfast, Milford Church, Donegal, and others in Dublin, Loughrea and Cookstown. Among his paintings are landscapes executed during a visit to Denmark and Norway in ...