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Michèle-Caroline Heck

[Grapp, Wendling]

(b Pfullendorf, nr Konstanz, 1550–51; d Strasbourg, 1599).

German painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of a Protestant pastor and spent his childhood in Lissenheim before moving to Strasbourg with his widowed mother. On 12 November 1570 he married Catherina Sprewer, and in 1571 he obtained Strasbourg citizenship. In 1575 he painted frescoes on the façade of the Brüderhof (destr. 1769). He was at Hagenau in 1583 and at Oberkirch in 1589. Also in 1589, he worked on the decoration of the Neu Bau (now Chambre de Commerce) in Strasbourg; the frescoes, known from engravings of the building (e.g. by Jean-Martin Weiss) and from descriptions, combined mythological and biblical scenes in an interesting iconographical relationship and emphasized the architectural structure of the façade. Dietterlin’s only authenticated easel painting is the signed and dated Raising of Lazarus (?1582 or ?1587; Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle), which has the characteristics of northern Mannerism: the centre of the composition, towards which the figures look, is deliberately brought out of symmetry to the right; the scene is viewed from below, and the ample gestures of the figures cause them to mingle and intertwine, creating arbitrary rhythmic connections. The intensity of these deliberately complicated movements and tensions is not accentuated by contrasted effects of light. The painting as a whole shows the influence of the Netherlands, while the bright colours are typically German, although some of the figures reveal an Italian influence, probably mediated through German art; others are taken directly from earlier German paintings or inspired by Tobias Stimmer. The only figure looking at the viewer may be a self-portrait (see Martin)....


Timothy Riggs


Dutch family of etchers. The brothers Jan [Johannes] van Doetechum (i) (b Deventer, fl 1554–c. 1600) and Lucas van Doetechum (b Deventer, fl 1554; d before March 1584) worked extensively for Antwerp print publishers, first Hieronymus Cock and later Gerard de Jode (i). They may have learnt etching from Cock, but their style is distinct from his; they combined firmly drawn, and frequently ruled, shading lines, the weight of which was controlled by variable biting, with the occasional use of an engraver’s burin. Their earliest signed work is the Funeral Procession of Charles V (1559), designed by Cock and published by Christoph Plantin. They appear to have worked entirely from the designs of other artists. They produced a few large figure compositions (e.g. the Resurrection, 1557, after Frans Floris) but specialized in landscape (after Pieter Bruegel, I and Hans Bol, among others), architectural and ornamental designs (especially after ...


Dorothy Limouze

Dutch family of artists. Zacharias Dolendo (b Leiden, between 1561 and 1573; d Leiden, before 1604) was an engraver. Only dated prints document the activity of this artist, whose early death was attributed by van Mander to drinking and wild behaviour. He was nevertheless a more accomplished engraver than his brother, Bartholomeus [Bartholomäus] (Willemsz.) Dolendo (b ?Leiden, c. 1571; d Leiden, c. 1629): Zacharias worked for many years with Jacques de Gheyn II and was one of Gerrit Dou’s first teachers. A series of prints after designs by Hendrick Goltzius, for example the Blind Leading the Blind (1586; Hollstein, no. 86), suggests early contact with this master. However, the strongest influence on Zacharias Dolendo’s work was de Gheyn, who often provided designs for and published his engravings. Zacharias’s manner of engraving is most characteristically a miniaturized version of the Goltzius manner as seen in de Gheyn prints, with finer, tighter, but nonetheless graceful, linear hatching and silvery modulations of tone. He could alter his burin technique with skill, for example in the series of ...


Antonio Manno


(b San Gimignano, 1533; d Naples, 1609).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman, antiquarian, engineer and decorator. He began his career as a goldsmith and engraver. He arrived in Rome in 1548 and the next year entered the workshop of the sculptor and architect Raffaele da Montelupo, where he worked mostly on wall decorations for mausoleums. Around this time he carved a statue of Hope for the tomb of Giulio del Vecchio in SS Apostoli, Rome. Between 1552 and 1564 he was in close contact with Michelangelo, and he may have participated with Guglielmo della Porta in the reconstruction of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome. Della Porta and Dosio associated with the artistic circle around the Carafa family, for whom they may have planned a chapel. In 1561 Dosio was working as a sculptor and stuccoist for the patrician Torquato de’ Conti. Other sculptural work in Rome includes a funerary monument with posthumous portrait bust for the poet Annibal Caro...


Frans Jozef van der Vaart

[de Hameel; de Hamel; Duhameel; Duhamel; du Hamel; Duhamiel; Dumeel; van Hameel]

(b c. 1449; d Antwerp, before Jan 27, 1507).

South Netherlandish architect and engraver. He is first mentioned in a contract drawn up on 19 October 1478 between the church-wardens of the St Janskerk, ’s Hertogenbosch, and Jan Quaywante, a stone supplier, which was witnessed by Loetsmeester (stone dresser) de Hameel. In the same year he joined the Brotherhood of Our Lady. His first wife, Margriet van Auweningen (d 1484), is commemorated on a gravestone possibly made by du Hameel in the St Janskerk. In late 1494 or early 1495 he moved to Leuven, where he was appointed ‘the town’s workman stone mason’ and master of the works of the St Pieterskerk. In 1496 he was imprisoned in Mechelen as a hostage for debts owed there by the city of Leuven. In 1500 he became an external citizen of Antwerp. On 12 December 1505 he made his will, and on 27 January 1507 masses were arranged in memory of the late (...


Dana Arnold

[Du Perac, Stefano]

(b Bordeaux, c. 1525; d Paris, 1601).

French painter, engraver and garden designer. He went to Rome in 1550 and stayed there for over 20 years, soon becoming acknowledged as a first-rate engraver and designer. His work provides an invaluable record of later 16th-century Rome, telling much about the state of the ancient ruins, contemporary architecture and urban planning, especially the work of Michelangelo. Many of Dupérac’s engravings were published by Antoine Lafréry. Those depicting the work of Michelangelo were published in 1569 after the latter’s death (1564); they give a useful insight into Michelangelo’s original, unrealized intentions for such projects in Rome as the Capitoline Hill and St Peter’s. It has been shown that Dupérac designed and painted part of the decoration of the loggia of Pope Pius IV in the Vatican. His work as a painter continued on his return to France in 1570 when, after the publication of his Vues perspectives des jardins de Tivoli...


Philippe Rouillard

(b Le Mans, c. 1545; d Paris, Sept 13, 1581).

French engraver and painter. He was the son of the painter and sculptor Bertin Duval (fl 1519–62). Although contemporary sources, including the Bibliothèque … (Paris, 1584) by François Grudé, Sieur de La Croix du Maine (1552–92), indicate that Marc Duval was active as a portrait painter at the courts of Charles IX and Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV), no authenticated painted work by him is known to survive. Dimier (1942) suggested that the 13 portraits he initially (1924–6) grouped under the name of the Master of Luxembourg-Martigues should be attributed to Duval. These works include Charlotte de Roye, Comtesse de La Rochefoucauld (c. 1555; Paris, Louvre). If this identification is correct, it would make Duval one of the most important French portrait painters in the generation after François Clouet.

Among Duval’s surviving signed engravings are the small, full-length portrait of the brothers ...


Henri Zerner


(b ?Dijon, c. 1485; d ?Langres, after 1561).

French goldsmith and engraver. He was the son of Drouhot Duvet, a goldsmith active in Dijon at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th. He was admitted as a master goldsmith in Dijon in 1509, but most of his career was in Langres. He is known to have participated in the preparation of the decorations for the entry of Francis I into Langres in 1521, and he designed and directed the decorations and floats for the entry of Francis in 1533. Nothing remains of his work as a goldsmith, but he is known to have completed a reliquary bust of St Mammes in 1524 for Langres Cathedral, to have sold a damascened basin to Francis I in 1528 when the King visited Dijon and to have made a number of other works.

Duvet is best known as one of the great printmakers of the French Renaissance. His engraved work comprises 72 sheets. The first dated print is an ...


(b Warburg, 1553–4; d Warburg, 1603).

German goldsmith, engraver and draughtsman. Probably from a long-established Warburg family of freemen, he is first fully named in 1578, in an engraving that shows his connections with scholars as an illustrator of academic works. One of these was Michele Mercati, for whom Eisenhoit worked during a stay in Rome c. 1580 on the Metallotheca Vaticana, a work cataloguing the Vatican’s scientific collections. His style draws principally on the Roman Late Renaissance. Back in Germany by c. 1582–5, Eisenhoit began to work primarily for patrons residing near Warburg, where he had settled by 1587 at the latest. Commissions of these years show work for the Hessian courts in Kassel and Marburg and the beginning of his cooperation with Jost Bürgi, instrument-maker and mathematician to the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. Between c. 1582 and 1594 Eisenhoit decorated Bürgi’s mechanical celestial globes with engravings and illustrated with etchings a treatise on engineering.

Eisenhoit’s first works in gold (...


Marina Garofoli

(b Bologna, c. 1562; d Bologna, April 1, 1602).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He began to paint around the age of 30 and produced only about a dozen paintings, datable between 1590 and 1602. Malvasia mentioned his training in the Carracci Academy in Bologna, which ended c. 1594 when Faccini, envious of Annibale Carracci’s rapid success, opened his own school. Until his last works, Faccini remained basically faithful to the tenets of the Carracci, and, gradually adding ideas gathered in diverse artistic circles, he developed a language of his own, characterized by great formal freedom and a lively, full-bodied use of colour.

The only surviving dated painting by Faccini is the Martyrdom of St Lawrence (1590; Bologna, S Giovanni in Monte). The warm, rich colour recalls the Carracci paintings in the Palazzi Fava and Magnani (now Salem) in Bologna, while the dense, thickly applied paint is reminiscent of Venetian painting. Faccini’s creation of a space teeming with bizarre humanity, with exaggerated facial expressions, however, shows a very personal taste already distanced from the academic idealizations of his early training. Venetian influence is even more striking in the light-saturated colour, reminiscent of Titian, of the ...


Henri Zerner

(b ?Bologna; fl Fontainebleau, 1537–50).

Italian painter and printmaker. He was one of Francesco Primaticcio’s main assistants at Fontainebleau. Although no painted work or drawing by him can be identified, he is recorded as having designed some of the grotesques for the vault of the Galerie d’Ulysse. From 1542 to 1545 he was one of the principal etchers of the Fontainebleau school, producing more than 100 etchings in that short time. Around 1542–3 he reproduced many drawings by Giulio Romano and Rosso Fiorentino, recording many of the latter’s compositions for the palace of Francis I. Because he always worked from preparatory drawings rather than from the frescoes themselves, Fantuzzi’s etchings are an invaluable source of information about lost drawings by Rosso. Later he worked from Primaticcio’s designs, especially his drawings after antique statues. While Fantuzzi’s earlier etchings are violent in their handling and light effects (e.g. his etching after Rosso’s The Sacrifice; see Zerner (...


Kristin Lohse Belkin

(b Heidelberg, 1527–8; d Frankfurt am Main, 1590).

German publisher and woodblock-cutter. He was the son of the painter and blockcutter Ägidius Feyerabend and his wife, Anna Brentlein (d 1568), daughter of a rabbi in Mainz. After an apprenticeship with Jörg Breu (ii) in Augsburg, begun on 19 July 1540, Feyerabend spent some time in Italy and perhaps also in Mainz. In 1559 he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he married the same year and acquired citizenship in 1560. After working as a block cutter and possibly also as a designer of book illustrations, he soon turned to the business side of publishing, which he managed with considerable success and, judging from numerous lawsuits, with shrewdness. He employed almost all the printers in Frankfurt am Main and attracted the best book illustrators in the country, foremost among them Virgil Solis from Nuremberg and Jost Amman from Zurich. One of his most successful collaborations with Solis resulted in a magnificent picture Bible in Martin Luther’s translation (...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Bologna, 1573; d Venice, 1638).

Italian painter and printmaker. He was apprenticed in Bologna to Giovanni Battista Cremonini (d 1610) and after a short period in Rome moved to Venice, where he entered Tintoretto’s workshop. By 1596 he was listed as a printmaker and from 1604 to 1612 is recorded as a member of the Venetian Fraglia dei Pittori. His work, although it reveals hints of the Carracci and the influence of Flemish art, remains within the tradition of late Mannerism. His works for Italian churches include St Agnes (Venice, S Nicolò da Tolentino) and scenes from the Life of St Dominic (Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, sacristy), which can be dated to the first decade of the 17th century. Four portraits of doges and a picture of the Sala del Collegio (London, Hampton Court, Royal Col.), which shows a session of the Doge’s council, demonstrate Fialetti’s interest in portraiture and in combining ...


(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...


Thomas Nichols

(b Vicenza, between 1483 and 1488; d after 1548).

Italian painter and printmaker. The son of Francisco, a painter from Friuli, he was trained in Vicenza, in the workshop of Bartolomeo Montagna. Although he was in Venice between c. 1508 and 1516, it was Montagna’s retardataire style belonging to the 15th century that proved the decisive influence in Fogolino’s early works, for example the Virgin and Child with Saints (c. 1513–15; The Hague, Mauritshuis). Between 1521 and 1524 he worked in Friuli, where his St Francis with SS Daniel and John the Baptist (c. 1522; Pordenone Cathedral), with its asymmetrical arrangement and bulky, powerfully modelled figure types, shows him responding quickly to Pordenone’s dynamic style.

In 1527 Fogolino and his brother Matteo were banished from Venetian territory for their complicity in a murder. They settled in Trent until they were reprieved by the Venetians. Fogolino won extensive court patronage in Trent. At the Castel Buonconsiglio he collaborated with ...


(b Kaufbeuren, c. 1590–95; d Ausburg, ?autumn 1675).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and organist. He was apprenticed to his father, the Kaufbeuren painter and town architect Daniel Erbe (‘Franckh’; b 1573; fl 1603). In 1630 he painted SS Cosmas and Damian (Kaufbeuren, Kirche bei Kauf), which he signed as a ‘painter and organist’. By 1637, at the latest, he had moved to Augsburg: on 30 October 1638 he acquired citizenship there and a work permit as a retailer. His early career in Augsburg was devoted mainly to portraits, both drawings and paintings, but one painting depicts the Baptism of St Augustine (1638; Beuerberg, Augustines-Chorherrenstift). His later work includes drawings of Foxhunting (1645) and Artists and Connoisseurs (c. 1665; both Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) and the painting Jacob’s Reconciliation with Esau (1660; Warsaw, N. Mus.)

The best-known example of Franck’s graphic work is a sequence of 25 engravings (1643–56), possibly inspired by Jacques Callot’s ...


[Baptista Veneziano; il Semolei]

(b Venice, ?1510; d Venice, 1561).

Italian painter, printmaker and draughtsman (see fig.). Giorgio Vasari, who knew Franco well and who is the chief source for his life, claimed that Franco was born in 1498; however, later writers placed his birth in 1510, and the latter date seems more likely. Although Venetian by birth, by the age of 20 Franco was in Rome, where he devoted himself to making drawings after the Antique and particularly after the works of Michelangelo; he was one of the first to copy the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. At this date he invariably worked in pen and made no original drawings. However, he subsequently made his own, more spontaneous studies, such as the Man in a Cloak (c. 1557–61; London, BM), in pen and wash over black chalk, and a total of about 100 drawings by his hand are now known. He also made many prints, often combining etching with engraving, as in ...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Benedictine lands at Ochsenhausen, nr Biberach, c. 1550–55; d Ingolstadt, 1599).

German draughtsman, painter, miniaturist and etcher. According to an allegorical Self-portrait drawing (Budapest, Mus. F.A.), he was in Ingolstadt by 1581. He acquired citizenship there and his master’s certificate in 1583 and married soon after. His style suggests a sojourn in Italy, presumably before 1581, as proposed by Stange. Thöne’s idea that he was trained in Munich by Christoph Schwarz cannot be justified on stylistic grounds. The question of Freisinger’s artistic origins revolves around his approximately 70 drawings, often fully signed and dated; these are, however, except for the Self-portrait, all later than 1589. Benesch drew attention to the influence of Parmigianino and later of Jacopo Bassano, but the predominant influence seems central Italian—the Zuccaro brothers, Cesare Nebbia etc. Freisinger must also have been familiar with the art of Venice. From the mid-1590s there are occasional traces of Rudolfine influence. The emphasis on landscape, the emotional expression of the figures and the liking for narrative embellishment seen, for instance, in ...


Frans Baudouin

(b Antwerp, Jan 10, 1610; d Antwerp, June 21, 1666).

Flemish painter, illuminator and printmaker. He is one of the rediscovered minor masters of the 17th-century Flemish school. He was educated in the humanities at the Jesuit college in Antwerp, but it is not known with whom he studied painting. In 1631–2 he was enrolled as a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp.

Until the 1960s Fruytiers was known only as the author of a few excellent miniature portraits in watercolour and gouache on paper or vellum. One of the earliest, Family on a Terrace (1638; sold, London, Sotheby’s, 25 Feb 1959, lot 15), includes a painter at work, which may be a self-portrait. The best-known miniature, Four Children of Rubens and Hélène Fourment with Two Servants (1638; Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.), is probably the portrait of the children mentioned in the inventory of Rubens’s estate in 1641, on which the costs of the frame and glass were still owing....


Annamaria Negro Spina

(b Florence, 1618; d after 1661).

Italian painter and engraver. He was a pupil of Francesco Furini (Bartsch). His most important work is a series of engravings for Leonardo Agostini’s book Le gemme antiche figurate (Rome, 1657–9). He also produced several collections of engravings of low reliefs and friezes by Polidoro da Caravaggio, published by Vincenzo Belly in Opere di Polidoro da Caravaggio (Rome, 1658). His engraving after Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi’s Triumph of Piety dates from the same year. He was an accomplished draughtsman and his attractive, light and sketchy engraving style is close to that of Stefano della Bella. He completed and signed the Sixth Death (see Vesme and Massar, no. 92), one of the latter’s uncompleted plates for the series the Dance of Death. There is only one known painting by Galestruzzi, a Magdalene owned by the Accademia di S Luca in Rome; the artist was a member of the Accademia from ...