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Vittorio Casale

(b Rome, March 25, 1663; d Rome, June 6, 1731).

Italian painter. He was a prolific painter who created many altarpieces and frescoes and whose increasingly restrained art marks the transition from Late Baroque to Neo-classicism. After a brief and unimportant apprenticeship with the engraver Cornelius Bloemaert, he entered the workshop of Ciro Ferri, and after Ferri’s death (1689) became the pupil and assistant of Giovanni Battista Gaulli. He lived almost entirely in Rome and the Lazio. His art developed evenly, without abrupt changes of direction, continuing the traditions established by Ferri and Gaulli. Ferri encouraged the development of his natural facility in drawing, enabling him to create harmonious, although sometimes rather elementary, compositions for his many altarpieces.

His first independent works are three frescoes, showing King David, the Adoration of the Magi and the Flight into Egypt, above the nave arcade in S Maria d’Aracoeli in Rome. They are magniloquent Late Baroque works that, in their bold and energetic compositions and facial types, continue the traditions of Pietro da Cortona and Ferri. A little later the altarpiece with ...


Rotraut Krall

(b Pressburg [now Bratislava, Slovakia], Feb 17, 1717; d Leipzig, March 18, 1799).

Austrian painter, sculptor and teacher. After a two-year apprenticeship in Pressburg, Oeser moved in 1730 to Vienna, where he studied oil painting and enamel work with Jacob van Schuppen (1670–1751), Daniel Gran and Martin van Mytens II. He was introduced to architecture and painting by Francesco Galli-Bibiena, while Georg Raphael Donner, a close friend, provided lessons in sculpting and an introduction to the art of antiquity. Between 1739 and 1759 Oeser worked in Dresden, becoming a friend of the antiquarian and art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Oeser produced miniature paintings and portraits, which brought him wide recognition. He also carried out decorative commissions (mostly destr.)

From 1759 until his death Oeser worked in Leipzig, where he was appointed court painter and, in 1764, director of the newly founded Akademie. He was largely preoccupied with developing a flourishing practice as a decorative and ceiling painter. His principal commission of this kind was for the interior of the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig, where he painted scenes from the New Testament (...


Dominique Vautier

(b Oostakker, nr Ghent, March 20, 1781; d Brussels, June 19, 1839).

Flemish painter. The son of a farmer, he studied at the Academie in Ghent. He exhibited for the first time in 1802 at the Ghent Salon, then left for Paris where he was admitted into Jacques-Louis David’s studio. In 1804 his Judgement of Paris (Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.) obtained a prize at the Ghent Salon. The first of numerous commissions that followed was for St Colette (1806; Ghent, St Baaf), which was in keeping with the contemporary Historicist vogue. In 1808 he was commissioned to paint a portrait of the Empress Josephine (Ghent, Mus. S. Kst.), and in the same year the town of Ghent granted him an allowance for four years of study in Rome where, with other former pupils of David, he took part in the decoration of the Palazzo del Quirinale; his contribution, Augustus Ordering the Adornment of Rome, is untraced. While in Italy he also painted a Neo-classical ...


Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...


Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Marseille, Aug 12, 1815; d Marseille, Sept 20, 1849).

French painter. Son of a soap manufacturer, he received his first artistic training in Marseille under Augustin Aubert (1781–1857). In 1835 he moved to Paris and entered the atelier of Léon Cogniet at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He won the Prix de Rome in 1836 with Moses Striking the Rock (Paris, Ecole. N. Sup. B.-A.), and from 1836 to 1841 he was consequently at the Académie de France in Rome, which was then under the directorship of Ingres. This period in Rome was Papety’s most productive. He distinguished himself as a history painter of classical and religious subjects and as an orientalist. He also produced a number of utopian scenes in antique settings influenced by the socialist theories of the French philosopher Charles Fourier (1772–1837). The most famous painting of the latter category, and also his most significant work, is the Dream of Happiness (Compiègne, Mus. Mun. Vivenel), which he began in Rome in ...


M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco



Udolpho van de Sandt

(b Aix-en-Provence, Dec 15, 1744; d Paris, Jan 20, 1814).

French painter and draughtsman. He was the son of a provincial administrator and at the wish of his family studied law until the death of his father in 1765, when as a protégé of Michel-François Dandré-Bardon he enrolled in the Ecole de Dessin at Aix-en-Provence. In 1767 he moved to Paris as a pupil of Louis Lagrenée and also enrolled in the school of the Académie Royale de Peinture. In 1773 he won the Prix de Rome in competition with Jacques-Louis David. Peyron’s version of the prize subject, the Death of Seneca (untraced), is known through an engraving by the artist. In 1774, working to designs by Charles-Louis Clérisseau, he decorated the salon of the Hôtel Grimod de la Reynière, Paris, with the first examples of Neo-classical grotesque decoration in 18th-century France.

In 1775 Peyron left for Rome as a pensionnaire of the Académie de France of which Joseph-Marie Vien had just been appointed director. David, who had won the Prix de Rome competition in ...


Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Oct 17, 1786; d Paris, March 15, 1868).

French painter and lithographer. He was a pupil of François-André Vincent and of Jacques-Louis David. He received the Second Grand Prix de Rome in 1811 and then continued his studies in Rome. On his return from Italy he received the commission to paint the Death of Sapphira (1819) for the church of St Séverin in Paris (in situ) and at the Salon of 1819 he exhibited Love and Psyche (1817; Paris, Louvre), which was admired for its graceful and naive figures and was bought by the Duc d’Orléans (later Louis-Philippe, King of France). At the Salon of 1827 Picot exhibited the Annunciation (La Rochelle Cathedral), a richly painted work that shows the influence of Raphael. Working within the Neo-classical style, he specialized in history and genre subjects and portraits and continued to show at the Salon until 1839.

Picot received numerous commissions to decorate public buildings, including two ceiling decorations for the ...


[Eduardo ]

(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...


Philip Ward-Jackson


(b Geneva, May 23, 1790; d Bougival, June 4, 1852).

Swiss sculptor, painter and composer. Prompted by his early displays of artistic talent, Pradier’s parents placed him in the workshop of a jeweller, where he learnt engraving on metal. He attended drawing classes in Geneva, before leaving for Paris in 1807. By 1811 he was registered at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and subsequently entered its sculpture competitions as a pupil of François-Frédéric, Baron Lemot. A more significant contribution to his artistic formation around this time was the guidance of the painter François Gérard. Pradier won the Prix de Rome in 1813 and was resident at the French Academy in Rome, from 1814 until 1819. On his return to France, he showed at the Salon of 1819 a group Centaur and Bacchante (untraced) and a reclining Bacchante (marble; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.). The latter, borrowing an erotically significant torsion from the Antique Callipygean Venus, opens the series of sensuous Classical female subjects that were to become Pradier’s forte. In ...


Jesús Gutiérrez Burón



Simon Lee

(b Arles, June 11, 1760; d Arles, April 7, 1833).

French painter. It is likely that he received his first artistic training from his uncle, the painter Antoine Raspal. He then went to Paris, where he was probably a pupil of Simon Julien before entering the studio of Jean-Baptiste Regnault in 1778. Réattu also enrolled at the Académie Royale but progressed very slowly in the drawing school, not winning a first-class medal until October 1787. He first reached the final of the Prix de Rome in 1788 and won the prize in 1790 with Daniel Defending Susanna from the Accusations of the Elders (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). The influence of Regnault is apparent, both in the choice of warm colours and in the striking light effects, characteristics that differentiate Regnault’s school from that of Jacques-Louis David.

Réattu arrived in Rome in 1791 to study at the Académie de France, where his Neo-classicism became increasingly evident in his compositions of a few figures on a single plane within a stage-like setting. In ...


Christopher Sells

[Renaud de Rome]

(b Paris, ?Oct 17, 1754; d Paris, Nov 12, 1829).

French painter. His first teacher was the history painter Jean Bardin, who took him to Rome in 1768. Back in Paris in 1772, he transferred to the studio of Nicolas-Bernard Lépicié. In 1776 he won the Prix de Rome with Alexander and Diogenes (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.) and returned to Rome, where he was to spend the next four years at the Académie de France in the company of Jacques-Louis David and Jean-François-Pierre Peyron. While witnessing at first hand Peyron’s development of a manner indebted to Poussin and David’s conversion to Caravaggesque realism, Regnault inclined first towards a Late Baroque mode in a Baptism of Christ (untraced; recorded in two sketches and an etching), then, in Perseus Washing his Hands (1779; Louisville, KY, Speed A. Mus.), to the static Neo-classicism of Anton Raphael Mengs. Until 1787 he would sign his pictures Renaud de Rome, to disassociate himself from the mannered taste of French painting before the time of David....



(b Turin, May 18, 1742; d Packington Hall, nr Coleshill, Warwicks, Dec 6, 1810).

French painter, active in England. He studied in Turin, Florence and Bologna, and lived in Rome for two years from 1768. In 1771 he settled in London, becoming in the following year an Associate of the Royal Academy, and a full Academician in 1784. He received a steady stream of commissions for historical subjects, as well as decorative compositions and portraits. In 1775 he exhibited the Entry of the Black Prince into London with his Royal Prisoner (untraced, see Waterhouse, p. 311); its subject from national history was an original choice for the time. From 1778 he painted for Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery such small pictures as Scene from ‘Romeo and Juliet’ (untraced, see Waterhouse, p. 312). He also contributed to Macklin’s Poets’ Gallery. In 1794 he won what was probably his most important commission, the decoration of the four pendentives of the Common Council Chamber in the Guildhall, London, depicting ...


William Hauptman

(b Eplatures, May 13, 1794; d Venice, March 20, 1835).

Swiss painter, active also in France and Italy. Robert was the most widely known and respected Swiss painter of the early 19th century. His work blends Neo-classical rigour with Romantic sentimentality and subject-matter, and he was greatly admired by both contemporary and later critics, such as Charles Clément, Théophile Thoré and Louis Viardot (1880–83), who likened him to Poussin. His reputation waned towards the end of the century, and his work was not re-evaluated until the 1970s.

In 1810 Robert travelled with the engraver Charles-Samuel Girardet (1780–1863) to Paris, where he began to draw from engravings. He befriended two Swiss artists, Henri François Brandt (1789–1845) and François Forster, both of whom encouraged Robert to pursue his artistic inclinations. After working directly from models, in 1812 Robert presented himself to Jacques-Louis David, who agreed to take him on as a student. Such was David’s regard for Robert that he asked him to engrave his recently finished portrait of his wife ...


Ekhart Berckenhagen

(b Berlin, July 25, 1725; d Berlin, June 24, 1797).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the son of the goldsmith Christian Bernhard Rode (d 1755) and the pupil of N. Müller (fl 1740s) and Antoine Pesne. From 1750 to 1752 he studied with Carle Vanloo and Jean Restout in Paris, and between 1754 and 1756 he studied in Rome and in Venice, where he produced oil sketches after Titian, Tintoretto, Pordenone and Giordano. He was a fast and prolific worker with a talent for strong composition and use of colour. This last quality became especially evident after 1770, when he began to execute his works in bright, strong-toned colours. He painted several monumental wall and ceiling paintings, mainly in the castles and palaces of the aristocracy in the area of Berlin and Potsdam. In 1771–3 he produced a series of paintings (e.g. the Ploughman Cincinnatus Chosen to be Dictator) for the house of ...


Pamela H. Simpson

Term referring to the romantic character underlying the use of Roman and Greek forms in the art and architecture of the late 18th century and early 19th. First used by Sigfried Giedion in 1922 and later, in an important essay by Fiske Kimball in 1944, the term is most often applied to architecture. Henry-Russell Hitchcock used it extensively as a stylistic term that defined early Neo-classicism in his volume on 19th- and 20th-century architecture. But it also can be applied to painting, sculpture, and the decorative arts. The term recognizes the fundamental idea that the past evokes emotional associations. Even the seemingly rational and austere forms of Roman and Greek art could evoke sentiment.

One concept that helps explain Romantic Classicism is ‘associationism’, a principle that underlay much of the use of historical revival styles in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. When contemplating a building whose forms evoked a bygone era, the viewer made certain connections between the use of the style in the past and its appearance in the present. Thus when Thomas Jefferson chose the Roman temple, the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, as a model for the Virginia State House (...


Giovanna Uzzani

(b Florence, Feb 21, 1772; d Milan, Jan 29, 1850).

Italian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. After training in Florence in the Neo-classical tradition, he won a scholarship and settled in Rome between 1789 and 1794. His patron Tommaso Puccini was an intellectual and connoisseur who later became Director of the Gallerie Fiorentine. He was first attracted to the constructive rigour of François-Guillaume Ménageot, who taught at the Académie de France, but later he became interested in a more contemporary classicism in the style of David, and in particular in the rather austere variant represented by such pupils of David’s in Rome as François-Xavier Fabre. Sabatelli borrowed explicitly from Classical works, as can be seen in his reconstruction of the furnishings, clothing and hairstyles of the Roman period, and in his use of a type of drawing practised by the followers of David. His borrowings were more from the style of Classical art than from its philology, yet his paintings were nonetheless clearly liberated from tradition. There was an emphasis on severity and intensity, sparse, angular, compositions and pronounced contrasts. After a stay in Venice, he returned to Florence in ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Stuttgart, Aug 15, 1776; d Stuttgart, May 7, 1812).

German painter. He trained at the Höhe Karlsschule in Stuttgart (1795–7) under the classically-orientated painter Philipp Friedrich von Hetsch (1758–1839), a pupil of David. Schick also took private lessons (1797–8) with the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker. From 1799 to 1802 Schick studied in Paris under David, and he soon became one of David’s favourite students. He made two unsuccessful attempts to win the Prix de Rome with compositions that derived from the style of David. However, greater independence is seen in his life-size painting Eve (1800; Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz-Mus.), a magnificent allegory of Beauty synthesizing a classically-orientated reinterpretation of ancient art and a proto-Romantic interpretation of biblical subject-matter, inspired by Milton’s Paradise Lost. As Schick himself stated (letter to Dannecker, 10 July 1800), he had tried to emulate both the Medici Venus and the female figures of Raphael. In 1802, on a pension from Frederick II, Duke of Württemburg, Schick moved to Rome and for almost a decade played a leading role in Roman artistic life. His friendship with Joseph Anton Koch led to mutual influence in the work of the two artists. Koch was indebted to Schick for invaluable hints on oil painting and for choice of subjects. For a fortnight in ...


József Sisa

(b Biala, Galicia [now Bialsko-Biala, Poland], Oct 14, 1846; d Budapest, July 11, 1915).

Hungarian architect, painter and interior designer of German descent. He studied in Karlsruhe and Vienna, and in 1868 he went to Budapest where he worked first in the offices of Antal Szkalnitzky and Miklós Ybl. His designs included the sepulchral monument (1871–2) of Count Lajos Batthyány in the Kerepesi cemetery, Budapest, and other monuments and pedestals for statues. In 1894 he entered into partnership with Fülöp Herzog (1860–1925), with whom he designed the neo-classical architectural ensemble of Heroes’ Square, which terminates the 2.5 km long Radial Avenue (Sugár út, now Andrássy út). In the middle stands the Millenary Monument (1894–1900), a semicircular double colonnade with bronze figures of Hungarian sovereigns and a single, tall Corinthian column with sculpture by György Zala, which commemorates the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest. On opposite sides of the square they built the Art Hall (1895–6), a porticoed red-brick structure with multicoloured terracotta decoration, and the ...