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(b nr Vigevano, ?1495; d after Aug 14, 1567).

Italian architect, engraver and writer. He is thought to have been in Rome by 1507, but the first specific record of him dates from 1526 when, together with Antonio da Sangallo (ii), Pier Francesco da Viterbo and Michele Sanmicheli, he worked for Pope Clement VII on the fortifications of Parma and Piacenza. After the sack of Rome in 1527, he was as much involved with restoration efforts as he was with recording antique monuments and participating in new building projects. Many existing drawings, some of them from the collection of Vasari (Florence, Uffizi), relate Labacco’s work to that of Sangallo, who commissioned him in 1539 to execute the large wooden model, now in the Vatican Museum, of his design for St Peter’s, Rome. The model required at least seven years to execute, and it was finished only after Sangallo’s death in 1546. Between 1546 and 1548 Labacco also published three engravings of Sangallo’s design....


Janet Southorn

(b Cremona, 1555; d Cremona, Oct 13, 1612).

Italian writer. His Discorso … intorno alla scoltura, e pittura is a primary source for the history of 16th-century Cremonese painting. He was an established writer and poet as early as 1572, the date of his Sogno non meno piacevole che morale, and the Discorso too was probably written before 1573. It is based on the author’s close acquaintance with the works of local artists, including Camillo Boccaccino, the Campi family and Sofonisba Anguissola. The Discorso is an early affirmation of the values of the Lombard school of painting, influenced by Venetian emphasis on colore, in response to the theory of the supremacy of Florentine disegno disseminated by Giorgio Vasari, whom Lamo considered the ‘enemy of Lombard painters’ (Discorso, p. 31). Much of the Discorso is devoted in particular to the work of the Cremonese painter Bernardino Campi, for whose life it is the principal source of information. Campi’s ...


Olimpia Theodoli

(b Bologna, April 17, 1518; d May 8, 1578).

Italian painter and art historian. He described himself as a pupil of Innocenzo da Imola and is documented working in the church of S Francesco and in the cloister of the Santa Trinità, where he is buried. In 1571 he joined the painters’ guild in Bologna. He is known to posterity not as a painter, however, but as the author of the earliest guide to the city: Graticola di Bologna …, which was probably written in the 1560s but not published until 1844, although it was already circulating in manuscript copies.

The published version is probably based on a manuscript that was revised by A. M. Biancori (Bologna, Bib. U. MS. 74, busta II, n. 19); there is an unrevised MS in the library of the Archiginnasio, Bologna (MS.B. 3198). The title of the book derives from the author’s division of the city into sections, like those of a ‘graticola’ (grid), as a means of structuring his description. The work is dedicated to Messer Pastorino, to whom the author acts as guide, showing him buildings, monuments and paintings. His cautious attributions made Lamo’s guide a fairly reliable source of information, and it is especially interesting on contemporary events....


(b Florence, c. 1436; d Florence, 1515; bur June 2, 1516).

Italian writer. His diary (Florence, Pal. Marucelli; Siena, Bib. Com. Intronati) spans the years 1450 to 1515; in it, he observed and commented on a variety of current events, mostly political and military, as well as daily occurrences in the city, and it is an invaluable document of life in Florence in the second half of the 15th century. Luca began his chronicle with a list of notable Florentine contemporaries, including the artists Donatello, Desiderio da Settignano, Andrea del Castagno, Bernardo Rossellino, Antonio Pollaiuolo and Piero Pollaiuolo. Several of Luca’s diary entries refer to notable works of art, from the display of the St Jerome reliquary in Florence Cathedral (30 Sept 1487) to a description of the major building project of the Palazzo Strozzi (20 Aug 1489), which was situated opposite his premises at the Canto de’ Tornaquinci. Luca also recorded the unveiling of the Tornabuoni Chapel in S Maria Novella by ...


Lon R. Shelby

(b c. 1460; d after 1516).

German architect, sculptor, and military engineer.

On 23 June 1489 the Milan City Council rejected a recommendation from Simon Brunus, German, that ‘Master Laurentius, engineer’ should come to Milan for the task of completing the tiburium (?ciborium, baldacchino) for the cathedral. It has generally been thought that this letter referred to Lorenz Lechler, for on 25 August 1489 the City Council of Esslingen (near Stuttgart) also recommended Lechler to the Milanese for the completion of their cathedral. Lechler had constructed the sacrament house and choir-screen for St Dionysius, Esslingen, and he was commended to the Milanese for his ‘ingenuity, industry, and art’.

Circumstantial evidence suggests that Lechler may have been involved with the construction of the sacrament house and choir-screen at Speyer Cathedral in the late 1490s. In 1509 he was called back to Speyer to supervise the completion of the Mount of Olives located just outside and south of the cathedral nave, which had been begun by ...


Alison Stones

Legends and myths in medieval art are often symbolic rather than narrative, appearing as isolated representations on monuments and portable objects and following the tradition of Greek vase painting where individual subjects are depicted and rely on prior knowledge of the stories for recognition and understanding. World histories celebrated great heroes of the past, starting with Creation and biblical history, then the ancient and medieval world with the exploits of the Trojan heroes, Alexander the Great, King Arthur and the campaigns of Charlemagne and his nephew Roland. Northern gods such as Thor were depicted in cult statues (c. 1000; Reykjavík, N. Mus.) or through such ornamental hammers as those from north Jutland in the Copenhagen Nationalmuseum, and Freya, head of the Valkyries, was painted riding a cat on the walls of Schleswig Cathedral.

The Fall of Troy is most celebrated in the early 13th-century copy of Heinrich von Veldecke’s ...


John Hopkins

(b London, c. 1503; d 1552).

English topographer, antiquary and poet. He was educated at St Paul’s School, London, Christ’s College, Cambridge, and All Souls College, Oxford, completing his studies in Paris. A Classics scholar with some knowledge of French, Italian and Spanish, he became Library Keeper to Henry VIII and was appointed King’s Antiquary. He was commissioned in 1533 to search monastic and college libraries for lost and forgotten records and English antiquities; his commission was extended to obtaining for the King’s Library books and manuscripts from libraries despoiled at the Dissolution of the monasteries. Leland’s itineraries, undertaken from 1534 to 1543, covered England and Wales from Carlisle and Berwick in the north to Caernarfon, St David’s and Land’s End in the south. Leland intended his notes to form the basis of a great work on the topography and antiquities of the nation. He had some talent as a Latin poet and his Cygnae Canto...


Pierre Jodogne

(b Bavay, Hainault, 1473; d after 1515).

Franco-Flemish writer. He studied in Valenciennes with the poet and chronicler Jean Molinet and probably completed his education in Paris. In 1498 he was in Villefranche-sur-Saône, in the service of Peter II, Duke of Bourbon. In 1504 he went to Annecy to Margaret of Austria, then Duchess of Savoy, for whom he wrote La Plaincte du désiré (1503/4; pubd Lyon, 1509) on the death of her husband. In the poem, Lemaire discussed the art of painting—in particular the use of colour—and referred to several Italian Renaissance artists, as well as those of northern Europe. He also wrote the Couronne Margaritique (1504–5; pubd 1549) for the Duchess, a work in verse and prose in which he alluded to many contemporary painters, goldsmiths and sculptors. When Margaret became Governor of the Netherlands in 1507, Lemaire followed her to Mechelen and became her chronicler, occasionally acting as her diplomatic envoy in France and Italy. In Mechelen Lemaire began to work on the ...


(fl Pesaro, late 15th century to early 16th).

Italian scientist and writer. He is mentioned in 1480 as an astrologer with Costanzo Sforza in Pesaro. He published two works on astrology in 1496 and 1508. In 1502, in Venice, he published a Speculum lapidum, dedicated to Cesare Borgia. This volume enjoyed considerable popularity, partly because of the vernacular version that Lodovico Dolce printed in 1565 as his own work. Based largely on Aristotle and Albertus Magnus (c. 1190–1280), the Speculum is divided into three books, which deal respectively with the material aspect of stones, their virtue, and the magical figures that can be incised on them. Numerous passages in this treatise are of interest for the better understanding of contemporary artistic theory. For example, red, green and yellow are presented as the fundamental colours between black and white. The historical importance of the text, however, lies in the long list of contemporary artists which Leonardi gives in the second chapter of the third book. He turns his attention first to gem engravers such as Francesco Anichini and Jacopo Tagliacarne, but later he also mentions numerous painters, from Piero della Francesca and Melozzo da Forlì to Perugino and Mantegna. Leonardi’s literary model is Pliny, who not only provided a direct precedent for incorporating art history within the context of a scientific treatise, but also gave precise critical formulae for the appreciation of artists....


David R. Coffin

(b Naples, c. 1513; d Ferrara, Oct 26, 1583).

Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art.

He was presumably born into a noble family and probably moved to Rome in 1534. At first he was active producing decorative paintings for palaces: Giovanni Baglione recorded numerous houses in Rome with façades frescoed by Ligorio in a distinctive yellow monochrome in the manner of Polidoro da Caravaggio or Baldassare Peruzzi. The only extant example of his figurative painting is a fresco depicting the Dance of Salome (c. 1544; Rome, Oratory of S Giovanni Decollato). In ...


Martin Kemp


(b Milan, April 26, 1538; d Milan, Jan 27, 1592).

Italian writer, painter and draughtsman. He is best known for his writings, which include metaphysical discussions of the philosophy of artistic creation at levels of complexity to rival those from any period. He was a conspicuous figure in artistic and intellectual circles in northern Italy and a painter of some reputation beyond Milan, but those of his works that survive do not suggest a talent of a higher order than that of a skilled late Mannerist working in an eclectic version of the Lombard style.

Born to a family of some social status, Lomazzo appears to have received a better education than most painters. Early indications of his artistic abilities led to his studying with the little-known Giovanni Battista della Cerva (fl ?1540–48), an assistant of Gaudenzio Ferrari (whom Lomazzo appears to have regarded as his real master). Lomazzo’s autobiography, published with his Rime in 1587, indicates that he received a steady stream of commissions for murals and altarpieces, once he became an independent master. His many connections, among whom was Giuliano Goselini (...


Rosemarie Bergmann

(b Eisleben, Saxony, Nov 10, 1483; d Eisleben, Feb 18, 1564).

German theologian and writer. He had begun law studies in 1505 when, following a sudden conversion, he entered an Augustinian monastery in Erfurt and was ordained in 1507. Five years later he obtained a doctorate in theology and a professorship in scripture in Wittenberg. His profound spiritual anxieties over the question of the justice of God were allayed during the course of his lectures on Psalms and Romans (1513, 1515–16), when he came to understand that sinful man becomes just before God only through belief in his mercy. From this conception he developed his doctrine of the Justification by Faith Alone. Luther’s 95 theses against indulgences (1517) found wide popular support but were judged heretical. At Augsburg he refused to retract before the papal legate Cajetan (1518), and during the Leipzig disputation with Johann Eck (1519) he attacked Church doctrine. His reform tracts of ...


(fl c. 1537–57).

Italian writer. The only known work by this anonymous writer is a manuscript (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Magl. XVII, 17), including biographies of major artists active in Florence from the late 13th century to the 16th, which was discovered in 1755 in the Magliabechiano collection of manuscripts and first published in 1892 (Frey). Its provenance can be traced back to descendants of the Gaddi family of artists, hence its alternative title. The provenance and the accuracy of the accounts of Gaddo, Taddeo, and Agnolo Gaddi suggest that the family was known to the writer who was evidently a Florentine citizen, although probably not an artist. The manuscript begins with a list of artists of Classical antiquity and continues with biographies of artists in Florence from Cimabue to Michelangelo, but not in strict chronological order. There is also a brief section on Sienese artists. It ends with a list of artists’ names, including Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, so arranged as to suggest that the work was to be continued. Bound with the main text is an account of buildings and works of art in Rome, written ...


Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....


Philip J. Jacks

(b Robbio, territory of Lomellina, 1488; d Rome, 1566).

Italian antiquarian. Marliani left his native Milan to study at the University of Padua, where he came in contact with Giovanni Morone, later Cardinal. In Rome he became a friar at S Agostino and member of a religious confraternity (Compagnia di S Apollonia). He published works on Roman law, history, topography and numismatics, among which the most significant was his archaeological guidebook, Topographia antiquae Romae (Rome, 1534; see also Rome, §III, 1). A revised text with woodcut illustrations and dedicated to Francis I of France, Urbis Romae topographia, followed in 1544. For various reconstructions of ancient monuments in plan, elevation and section, Marliani relied on the Libro terzo dell’architettura of Sebastiano Serlio, published in Venice in 1540. The Urbis Romae topographia was republished with Fulvio Orsini’s commentary by J. G. Graevius in Thesaurus antiquitatum Romanarum (Leiden, 1694–9). Another copy (Modena, Bib. Estense) is bound with other treatises by Marliani, including ...


Naomi Miller

(d 1553).

French writer, translator and diplomat. He was secretary, first to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Milan, and then in 1530 to Robert, Cardinal de Lenoncourt. He was renowned as a popularizer in France of Italian Renaissance architecture. To disseminate this new style he translated, into French, the Italian and Latin treatises of Serlio (Books I and II, 1545), Vitruvius (1547) and Alberti (1553) and such works as Colonna’s Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1546). Martin rendered into French the Latin funerary oration for Francis I and collaborated with Jean Goujon and Jean Cousin (i) on organizing the decorations for the triumphal entry of Henry II into Paris (1549). It is not certain whether he ever visited Italy. He is known to have frequented humanist circles, where his friends included Serlio, who supervised the translations of his works. As a writer Martin was admired by his contemporaries, among them Joachim Du Bellay, and by Ronsard, who wrote a Pindaric ode in his honour and also an epitaph, which appeared posthumously in Martin’s edition of Alberti’s work on architecture....


Esin Atil

[Naṣūḥ al-Silāḥī al-Matrāqī; Naṣūḥ ibn Qaragöz ibn ‛Abdallāh al-Būsnawī]

(b Visoko, Bosnia; fl 1517; d April 28, 1564).

Ottoman soldier, writer, copyist and illustrator. He initiated the topographical style of painting that became characteristic of the illustrated histories produced at the Ottoman court in the 1550s (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(e)). As a youth he was recruited into the imperial service in a forced levy (devşirme) and was trained as a page in the household of Sultan Bayezid II (reg 1481–1512). He later served as an officer in the Ottoman army, where he was noted as a swordsman. He was also celebrated as the inventor of new forms of the game of matrak, played by throwing sticks or weapons as a form of military training.

Nasuh was a prolific writer on mathematics, swordsmanship and history. In 1520 he began the translation from Arabic into Turkish of al-Tabari’s Majura‛ al-tawārīkh (‘Compendium of histories’), to which he added a section covering the history of the Ottomans to ...


Fritz-Eugen Keller

(b Ferrara, c. 1480; d Rome, Nov 17, 1549).

Italian administrator and architect. He was the son of a notary and chancellor of the episcopal curia in Ferrara and was educated in law and languages. Around 1520 he entered the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese in Parma as treasurer, a position of trust that made him indispensable to Farnese as a general organizer and expert in architectural and antiquarian matters. Once Farnese had ascended the papal throne as Paul III in 1534, Meleghino became supervisor of the Belvedere and its antiquities in the Vatican. He organized and oversaw the restoration of the Belvedere corridor and the extension of the gardens by Baldassare Peruzzi, who bequeathed him some of his drawings and papers on architectural theory. Paul III appointed Meleghino his chief accountant and, later, the architect for the construction of St Peter’s, Rome, as well as general administrator of papal buildings. As such, in 1538–40, together with the architect ...


Anthony Hughes and Caroline Elam

(Buonarroti ) [Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni ]

(b Caprese, ?March 6, 1475; d Rome, Feb 18, 1564).

Italian sculptor, painter, draughtsman and architect. The elaborate exequies held in Florence after Michelangelo’s death celebrated him as the greatest practitioner of the three visual arts of sculpture, painting and architecture and as a respected poet. He is a central figure in the history of art: one of the chief creators of the Roman High Renaissance, and the supreme representative of the Florentine valuation of disegno (see Disegno e colore). As a poet and a student of anatomy, he is often cited as an example of the ‘universal genius’ supposedly typical of the period. His professional career lasted over 70 years, during which he participated in, and often stimulated, great stylistic changes. The characteristic most closely associated with him is terribilità, a term indicative of heroic and awe-inspiring grandeur. Reproductions of the Creation of Adam from the Sistine Chapel Ceiling (Rome, Vatican) or the Moses from the tomb of ...


Helen Geddes

(b Venice, c. 1484; d Venice, May 9, 1552).

Italian writer and collector. He was an important Venetian dilettante and connoisseur whose surviving writings constitute a valuable source of information on 16th-century art patronage in the Veneto. He received his education from the renowned scholar Giovanni Battista Egnazio (1473/8–1553), Canon of S Marina, whose own active interest in the arts and literature no doubt had a formative influence on him. In his youth Michiel travelled to Dalmatia and Corfu; in 1514 he visited Florence and in 1516 Bergamo, of which he wrote a Latin description, his only work published in his lifetime. In 1518 he travelled to Rome, where he stayed for two years.

Michiel’s diary, which he kept from 1511, reveals his increasing interest in art and architecture, no doubt stimulated by his experience of the papal court, where he came into contact with Baldassare Peruzzi and possibly Sebastiano del Piombo and Raphael. Michiel also explored the ancient ruins of Rome and Naples. While in Rome, he maintained contact with his Venetian friends, to whom he wrote about current affairs and major events in the city’s art life, such as Raphael’s death, the decoration of the Vatican Loggie, the display of seven of Raphael’s tapestries, and the praise received by Sebastiano del Piombo’s ...