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Mayching Kao

[Chou Lu-yün; Zhou Luyun]

(b Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, Jan 31, 1924; d July 1, 2011).

Chinese painter active in Hong Kong. Chou received a modern education, graduating from St John’s University in Shanghai in 1945. She left Shanghai in 1949 to settle in Hong Kong and a year later began to study Chinese painting with Zhao Shaoang (1905–98), a painter of the Lingnan school. She also became a student of Lui Shou-kwan, whose theories of New Ink Painting inspired her to move away from conventional Chinese styles and experiment with different media and techniques, to find her personal expression in the 1970s. Using forceful lines derived from the stone-drum inscriptions of the Warring States period (403–221 bc; see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (b)) and dense ink washes, she explored through her paintings the inner workings of the mind and its relationship to the mysteries of the universe. Her abstract paintings from the 1980s onwards exploded with cataclysmic energy derived as much from dense, textural strokes as from broad, slablike strokes of ink and colour. She is recognized as an original and innovative artist who crossed the boundaries between East and West....


Margo Machida

Asian American mixed-media and installation artist and cultural activist. Ken Chu came to the United States from Hong Kong in 1971, settling in California where he received a BFA in film studies from San Francisco Art Institute (1986). Relocating to New York City after graduation, his encounters with local Asian American artists, activists and cultural organizations supported his artistic efforts, in which he often drew upon subjects that emerged organically from personal experience in the US as a gay Asian man. Adopting popular cultural idioms from film and comics, while also drawing upon symbols and motifs from Chinese and other Asian cultures, his imagery from this pivotal period featured Asian men cast as prototypically American masculine figures, such as California surfers and cowboys, who populate colorful, imaginary scenarios of cross-cultural contact, mixing and desire. In Western societies, where the dominant norms are non-Asian and few viable role models for Asian men exist, Chu’s art strongly asserted their collective presence and place. His socially inspired work has since also engaged matters of anti-Asian violence, internalized racism, stereotyping, homophobia and the impact of AIDS on Asian diasporic communities....


Mayching Kao

revised by Fang-mei Chou

[Huang Junbi; zi Junweng; hao Baiyuntang]

(b Nanhai, Guangdong Province, Nov 12, 1898; d Taipei, Oct 29, 1991).

Chinese painter and art educator. Huang studied both Chinese and Western painting in his youth, but he came to concentrate on Chinese art, studying and copying the works of old masters in public and private collections, including his own. In his early days he excelled in emulating the style of Shixi, also known as Kuncan, and Shitao, also known as Daoji, both famous individualists in the early Qing. In 1921, through a recommendation from his Chinese art mentor Li Yaoping (1880–1938), he embarked upon an illustrious teaching career. He later held key positions in major art institutions, notably the National Central University from 1937 to 1948, and the National Normal University in Taipei, where he taught and served as Chairman for twenty years beginning in 1949. Huang, Zhang Daqian, and Pu Xinyu together were called the “Three Masters who Crossed the Strait” (duhai sanjia) for their achievements in promoting traditional Chinese painting in Taiwan after World War II. He maintained a lifelong friendship with Zhang Daqian, with whom he had traveled to Mt. Emei in Sichuan in 1939....


Kim Kumja Paik

[cha Uksang, Kongnip; ho Shimjŏn, Pulburong, Purija, Purong]

(b Sunhŭng, 1861; d 1919).

Korean painter. He excelled in landscapes, figures, flowers and birds, as well as in many styles of calligraphy, and was among the very last court painters of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ; see Korea §XI 1.) at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910). In 1881 he was sent as a draughtsman to Tianjin in China with a group of men to learn the technique of producing modern weapons. In 1900 he painted the royal portrait of Kojong (reg 1864–1907). Perhaps as a reward for this assignment he was appointed magistrate of the county of Yangch’ŏn and T’ongjin in Kyŏnggi Province. In 1911 he and his contemporary Cho Sŏk-chin were the leading teachers at the Sŏhwa misulwŏn (Academy of Calligraphy and Painting), newly established in Seoul to train artists, among whom were Yi Sang-bŏm, Pyŏn Kwan-sik, No Su-hyŏn (1899–1978) and Kim Ŭn-ho. An and Cho were also closely involved in the Sŏhwa misulhoe (Calligraphy and Painting Arts Group). An thus became a bridge between the late Chosŏn and the modern period....


Yi Sŏng-mi

(b Pyŏngwŏn, South Pyŏng’an Province, 1916; d Seoul, Sept 6, 1956).

Korean painter . He worked mainly in Western styles and media. He was taught by Im Yong-ryŏn (b 1901), who painted in the Western style, at Osan School in Chŏngju, North Chŏlla Province. In 1937 he was admitted to the Department of Western Painting in the Bunka Gakuin (Culture Academy), Tokyo, where he was introduced to new trends in Western painting. In 1940 he exhibited his work at a show sponsored by the Association of Creative Artists (Bijutsu Sōsakuka Kyōkai) in Tokyo, for which he was given a special award. In that year he and other Korean artists established the Korean Association of New Artists (Chosǒn Sin-Misulga Hyǒphoe) and continued to exhibit through that organization. He married a Japanese woman in 1945 and settled in Wŏnsan, Kangwŏn Province. During the Korean War (1950–53) his wife and two children went to Japan while he fought in the South Korean army. He died in ...


Roderick Whitfield

[ Yen Tz’u-p’ing ]

( fl 1163–89).

Chinese painter . He was the son of an Academy painter, Yan Zhong, originally from Shanxi Province; Yan Zhong served under Emperor Huizong (reg 1101–25) and moved south to serve under Emperor Gaozong (reg 1127–62). Yan Ciping served as daizhao (‘painter in attendance’) under the latter and his successor Xiaozong (reg 1163–90). Together with his brother, Yan Ciyu, he painted landscapes, figures and buffaloes, surpassing his father’s achievement. Towards the end of his career, Emperor Xiaozong rewarded him with distinctions and official positions. Both Yan Ciping and Yan Ciyu (album leaves by whom are in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, and the National Palace Museum, Taipei) are regarded as having made an important contribution to the transformation of landscape painting begun by Li Tang (see Edwards).

Yan Ciping’s work is known from a few paintings only. One is a signed circular fan painting, Villa by the Pine Path...


Hiroyuki Suzuki

(b London, Sept 28, 1852; d Tokyo, 1920).

English architect, active in Japan. He was articled to Roger Thomas Smith and then entered the office of William Burges. In 1876 he was awarded the Soane Medallion by the RIBA. In the next year he was appointed the first professor of architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering (now Tokyo University) in Japan, in which role he taught every aspect of architecture and building construction. During this period he was also active as an architect, designing such buildings as the Tokyo Imperial Museum (1877–80; now Tokyo National Museum) and a national banqueting house, Rokumeikan (Deer Cry Pavilion), for the Ministry of Public Works. After leaving his academic and governmental posts, Conder went into private practice and designed many residences, including the Iwasaki residence in Kayacho (1896; see Japan, §III, 5), the Shimazu residence (1915) and the Furukawa residence (1917). His style gradually changed from Gothic to more classical. He is often called the father of Western architecture in Japan, not only on account of his designs but also because of his role in establishing the Western method of architectural higher ...


Chu-Tsing Li

[Fang Ts’ung-i; zi Wuyu; hao Fanghu

(b Guixi, Jiangxi Province; fl c. 1340–80).

Chinese painter who became a Daoist priest in his youth; he joined the Zhengyi sect, whose main temples were situated in the Shangqing Temple (Shangqing si) on Mt Longhu in his home district, and studied under the priest Jin Pengtou. During the early 1340s, after the death of his teacher, he travelled from Xinzhou to many areas along the River Yangzi and in 1343 visited the capital, Dadu (Khanbaligh, now Beijing), where he became acquainted with many officials and scholarly men and established a reputation as a painter. He is reported to have visited many famous sites along the Great Wall and may have made several trips to the scenic mountains that were considered the home of the Daoist immortals; these included the Taihang range, on the border of Henan and Shanxi provinces, Mt Heng (Shanxi), Mt Tai and Mt Huafouju (Shandong), Mt Zhong in Nanjing (Jiangsu), Mt Kuanglu (Jiangxi) and Mt Wuyi (Fujian). During his time in the capital he seems to have attracted the attention of the Princess of Lu, known as a great patron of art, and of another Daoist painter, Zhang Yanfu (...


Martin Postle

(b Camborne, Cornwall, ?1768; d London, Oct 18, 1847).

English painter. He was brought up in Rotherhithe (London), where his father was a sailmaker. He worked initially painting china, first in Aldgate (London) and later in Shropshire, and was expected to become manager of a china works. Instead he chose an artistic career and in 1792 attended the Royal Academy Schools, London. By 1795 he was working as a professional artist. In the 1790s he also attended Dr Monro’s Drawing Academy where he met John and Cornelius Varley. In 1802 and 1803 he sketched in Wales with the Varleys and in 1805 co-founded with them the Society of Painters in Water-colours, where he exhibited regularly for the rest of his life. He was president of the Society in 1816 and 1819 and again between 1821 and 1831. He exhibited a portrait at the Royal Academy in 1803, but thereafter his work consisted mainly of landscapes and figure studies in watercolours as well as numerous pencil and ink sketches. He was also fond of classical subjects, particularly with a pastoral flavour (e.g. ...


Zhu Da  

Wen Fong

[ Chu Ta ; Chuanqi ; hao Bada Shanren, Pa-ta Shan-jen ]

(b 1626, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province; d 1705).

Chinese painter and poet . A descendant of the imperial Zhu family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and a leading artist of the early Qing period (1644–1911), Zhu Da painted flowers, birds and landscapes in a distinctive and highly dramatic calligraphic style ( see fig. ). His connections with the previous dynasty led him to flee Nanchang after the Manchu conquest of China in 1644. Adopting the sobriquet Chuanqi, Zhu Da became a Buddhist priest and soon a respected Buddhist master, quickly attaining the position of abbot. He also became an accomplished poet and painter; his earliest extant work is an album of 15 leaves (1659; Taipei, N. Pal. Mus.). In 1672, after the death of his Buddhist master, Abbot Hong min, Zhu Da reliquished his solitary monastic existence to pursue his fortune as an itinerant monk-artist. He joined the coterie of Hu Yitang, magistrate of Linchuan County, and participated in the splendid poetry parties held in ...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Wu Ta-ch’eng ; ming Dashun ; zi Zhijing, Qingqing ; hao Hengxian, Kezhai ]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, June 6, 1835; d March 6, 1902).

Chinese calligrapher, epigrapher and collector . Born into a rich and cultured merchant family, he entered the district school at 16 and at 17 began to study seal script (zhuanshu) under Chen Huan (1786–1863). He received his jinshi degree in 1868 and became a scholar at the Hanlin Academy in Beijing, followed by two years at the Suzhou Provincial Printing Office. In succeeding years, he distinguished himself as an army officer, diplomat and civil servant. He became Governor of Guangdong Province in 1887 and of Hunan in 1892, interrupted by a period as director-general of the conservancy of the Yellow River and the Grand Canal and followed by his directorship of the Longmen Academy in Shanghai in 1898.

Wu amassed a large collection of antiquities. He became renowned as an interpreter of written characters used before the Qin period (221–206 bc) and completed a dictionary of seal characters, the ...



Wen Fong

[Tao-chi; zi Shitao, Shih-t’ao]

(b Guilin, Guangxi Province, 1642; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1707).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. In modern Western writing he is most commonly referred to as Daoji or Shitao, although he himself preferred the name Yuanji. He was a descendant of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) imperial Zhu family. In 1645, in the face of invading Manchu troops, a family servant fled with Daoji to nearby Quanzhou, Guangxi Province, and in 1647 they found refuge in Buddhist monastic life. A large number of the many sobriquets Daoji adopted sprang from his connection with Buddhism.

Around 1650 Daoji and his servant left Quanzhou, travelling by boat and on foot around Hubei, Hunan, northern Jiangxi, Anhui and Zhejiang. At this time, c. 1655, Daoji began to paint, beginning with subjects such as orchids. In 1664, at Mt Kun, Songjiang, Jiangsu Province, he became the disciple of a powerful Chan Buddhist priest, Lüan Benyue, who in 1665 instructed him to resume his wandering life. After a visit to Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, Daoji visited Mt Huang, Anhui Province, in ...


Joan Stanley-Baker

[ Hsü Tao-ning ]

(b Chang’an [modern Xi’an], Shaanxi Province, c. ad 970; d c. 1052).

Chinese painter . Originally a vendor of medicinal herbs, he initially painted landscapes to attract potential customers. After attaining fame, he ‘frequented the manorial homes of princelings and officials’, for whom he painted murals, hanging scrolls and handscrolls. He was a familiar guest of the rich and powerful in both Chang’an and the capital, Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), in Henan Province. Famous clients included Huang Tingjian’s father, Huang Shu (1018–58). Huang Tingjian later eulogized one of Xu’s paintings:

I met Drunken Xu in Chang’an …

Quite tipsy, he would wield a worn brush dripping with ink,

With the force of an avalanche, his hand never stopping.

In a few feet, mountains and rivers would stretch over ten thousand miles,

And fill the hall with a bleak and chilly air.

A rustic monk returns to his temple, followed by the boy.

A fisherman is hailed by the traveller waiting to ford the stream....


Joan Stanley-Baker

[ Wu Daoxuan, Wu Tao-hsüan ; Wu Tao-tzu ]

(b Yangzhe [modern Yu xian, Henan Province]; fl c. ad 710–60).

Chinese painter . Later known as Wu Daoxuan, he is a legendary figure said to have depicted human beings, landscapes, architecture, Buddhist deities, demons, birds and animals. Reportedly, he derived his inspiration from wine and had a mercurial, responsive brushstyle, producing breathtaking vistas of natural scenery and figures across vast areas of temple wall.

Hearing of his extraordinary talents, the Emperor Xuanzong (Minghuang; reg 712–56) summoned Wu to his palace at Chang’an (modern Xi’an). Between 742 and 755 the emperor dispatched Wu to the Jialing River in Sichuan Province to paint the scenery. On his return, Wu stated, ‘I have made no draft, but have committed all to memory.’ He proceeded to paint the walls of the hall known as the Datong dian with 300 or more li (c. 150 km) of Jialing River scenery in a single day. Five dragons in the Inner Hall, painted by Wu on another occasion, supposedly had scales so lifelike that each time it was about to rain, they emitted misty vapours (the dragon symbolized imperial power over rain and irrigation). Contemporary accounts report that Wu covered 300–400 wall surfaces in Buddhist and Daoist temples in the two Tang-dynasty (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chang Ta-ch’ien ; Chang Dai–chien ; hao Dafengtang]

(b Neijiang, Sichuan Province, May 10, 1899; d Taipei, April 2, 1983).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, collector and forger . From an artistic family, he began to paint under the tutelage of his mother, Ceng Yi, and did his first paid painting for the local fortune-teller when he was 12 years old. Zhang’s elder sister gave him his first lessons in the classics. At 15 he embarked on three years of schooling at the Qiujing Academy in Chongqing. In 1917 he went to Kyoto in Japan to join his elder brother Zhang Shanzi (1882–1940). Here, Daqian learnt the art of textile painting, and the brothers collaborated in painting tigers: Shanzi painted the animals and Daqian the surroundings. Shanzi kept a pet tiger in the house, using it as his artistic model. In 1919 Zhang returned to China, where he continued his studies in Shanghai with the scholar Ceng Xi. He also studied with the artist Li Ruiqing (1867–1920) and was exposed to Li’s calligraphy in seal script (...


Roderick Whitfield

[ Chu Te-jun ]

(b Henan Province, 1294; d Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1365).

Chinese painter and calligrapher . He was active in Jiangsu Province and was favoured by the emperors Renzong (reg 1312–21) and Yingzong (reg 1321–3). In calligraphy he followed the Yuan-period (1279–1368) artists Xianyu Shu (1257–1302) and Zhao Mengfu (whose protégé he was at court), and in painting Guo Xi of the Northern Song period (960–1127). He formed a close friendship with the leading Koryŏ-period (918–1392) scholar and poet Yi Che-hyŏn, who spent many years in Beijing and who was instrumental in the transmission of Neo-Confucianism to Korea.

A contemporary of the Four Masters of the late Yuan period, Zhu Derun also created a landscape style of his own, although it was not to be so influential as theirs. His painting Xiuye tu (‘Refining the wilderness’; 1364; Beijing, Pal. Mus.; a close copy is in Washington, DC, Freer) is a short handscroll in ink and pale colours, followed by his own inscription explaining how the wilderness is refined through the presence of men of high moral character and wisdom. Against a setting of low background hills, two gentlemen are in earnest conversation in an isolated pavilion furnished only with a number of bronze vessels, a screen and the end of a hanging painting, just visible on the wall. The composition, with the landscape drifting away into the distance at one end of the scroll, recalls Zhao Mengfu’s short handscroll ...


Derrick R. Cartwright

(b Shanghai, China, Sept 18, 1933).

American sculptor of Italian and French parentage. He spent his early childhood in the Far East, before his family moved to San Francisco, CA, in 1941. He entered San Francisco City College in 1953 and attended the University of California at Santa Barbara from 1954 to 1955, completing his BA in Philosophy at Berkeley in 1956. It was during these years that he first took seriously his interest in art, and studied sculpture primarily. Moving to New York in 1957, he became aware of the work of the Abstract Expressionists and the associated sculpture of David Smith. A work-related accident in 1960 left his legs and spine permanently impaired and confined him to a wheelchair for nearly two years. Subsequently, the scale of his work shifted dramatically from smaller, ruggedly Expressionistic pieces in cast bronze and unhewn wood to monumental constructions in steel. The resultant sculpture necessarily exceeded the limits of museum and gallery walls, as did his aspiration for its exhibition. His favourite materials became synonymous with those of the modern construction industry: I-Beams, steel cables, wooden ties and scrap metal were used in di Suvero’s work of the mid-1960s....


Li Di  

Henrik H. Sørensen

[Li Ti]

(b Qiantang, near Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, c. 1125; d c. 1200).

Chinese painter. He was probably born around the time of the fall of the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127), after which the Song court moved to Lin’an (modern Hangzhou). Li Di’s activity as a court painter is documented in a small number of dated works from the period 1174–97. According to the Huaji buyi (‘Supplement to the succession of painters’; 1298), attributed to Zhuang Su (fl late 13th century), he worked in the Imperial Painting Academy under three emperors from 1163 until his death and is said to have served as the assistant director (fushi). Although he is known primarily for his paintings of flowers, bamboo and various animals, including birds, he also painted landscapes with figures in the style of the Northern Song academy. Surviving works ascribed to him include a number of album leaves as well as some painted fans; his favoured media were ink and colours on silk....


Tang Di  

Chu-Tsing Li

[T’ang Ti; zi Zihua]

(b Wuxing, Zhejiang Province, 1294; d 1362).

Chinese painter. He was born into a wealthy family and, recognized as a child prodigy, was tutored by some well-known teachers, becoming well-versed in the Confucian classics and adept at both poetry and painting. The great painter and calligrapher Zhao Mengfu instructed him in painting, and when he was 17 he became a protégé of Ma Xu, a commander of the Route Command of his native area, who later took him to Dadu (Khanbalik, now Beijing), the capital of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). He was recommended to the court, where he painted some wall paintings that won the praise of the emperor, Renzong (reg 1312–21). He went on to serve as an official in various parts of the empire, and his administrative capabilities won him high praise from the people under his jurisdiction.

Tang developed his own painting style from the tradition of Li Cheng and Guo Xi, both painters of the Northern Song period (...


Hiroko Nishida

[Nin’ami Dōhachi; Takahashi Mitsuoki]

(b Kyoto, 1783; d ?Fushimi, Kyoto Prefect., 1855).

Japanese ceramicist. He was the second-generation head of the Dōhachi family. His father, Dōhachi, son of a retainer of the Kameyama fief in the province of Ise, established a kiln at Awataguchi in Kyoto in the Hōreki era (1751–64), thereby forming his own school, and later assumed the name Takahashi Dōhachi. Along with Aoki Mokubei, and Eiraku Hozen, the younger Takahashi Dōhachi was one of the most famous makers kyōyaki (‘Kyoto ceramics’), especially polychrome (overglaze) enamels, in the later Edo period (1600–1868). As a youth he followed his father into the ceramics trade, and then became a disciple of Okuda Eisen. From 1806 he was permitted to conduct official business with the prince–abbot (monzeki) of the temple Shōren’in, which secured his reputation as the leading potter of Awataguchi. In 1814 he moved to the Gojōzaka district, where he built a kiln and perfected the craft of making blue-and-white ceramics. He produced some superbly elegant pieces of ...