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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst and Kathleen Russo

French family of artists. Jacques Mollet (fl to 1595) was employed by Charles de Lorraine, Duc d’Aumale, at Anet, château of, Eure-et-Loire, where he worked in collaboration with the architect Etienne Dupérac and made the first parterre de broderie in France (after 1582). His son Claude Mollet (i) (c. 1564–c. 1649) trained under him at Anet, afterwards becoming ‘premier jardinier de France’. The sites at which Claude Mollet worked include Fontainebleau, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Monceau-en-Brie and, most notably, the Tuileries in Paris. His assistants included, in turn, Pierre Le Nôtre and Jean Le Nôtre, grandfather and father respectively of André Le Nôtre, who became the greatest garden designer of the 17th century. Claude Mollet, whose Théâtre des plans et jardinages was posthumously published in Paris in 1652, had a number of his elaborate parterre designs illustrated in Olivier de Serres’s Théâtre d’agriculture et mesnage des champs...


(b Swansea, Dec 11, 1889; d Ipswich, Feb 8, 1982).

Welsh painter and horticulturist. He was a self-taught painter but attended the académies libres in Paris as a young man. With his companion, the painter Arthur Lett-Haines (1894–1978), he was a member of the art communities of Newlyn in Cornwall (1919–20), Paris (1921–6) and London (1926–39). From 1926 to 1932 Morris took part in the Society (see 7 & 5 Society). Although he had experimented with abstraction c. 1922, he resigned from the society when it moved away from representation. Between 1937 and c. 1975 Morris and Lett-Haines directed the distinctly non-academic East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing; in 1940 the school was moved to Morris’s home at Benton End, Hadleigh, Suffolk, where he also cultivated a garden and bred irises.

Morris’s paintings combine a strong sense of colour with pictorial economy, often with unusual tactility. Conveyed with great immediacy, a painting’s principal motif is usually juxtaposed boldly with a contrasting background. His subjects include still-lifes and flower paintings, such as ...


Gordon Campbell

An artificial hill in a garden setting. The mount was often hollow, and its interior could be used for storage and to provide shelter for delicate plants. Mounts first appear in Italy, where they were a feature of both botanical gardens (where they helpfully produced differentiated microclimates) and villa gardens. The original mounts still survive in the botanical gardens at Padua, Montpellier (where the terraced mount is oblong) and in the Jardins des Plantes in Paris, where the mount was originally planted with vines. The fashion later spread to England, where mounts were constructed at New College Oxford (1529, still in the garden), Theobalds (Herts), Lyveden New Bield (Northants; where two large mounts survive) and, most elaborate of all, Hampton Court Palace. The mount never became fashionable in French gardens, despite the proselytising efforts of Olivier de Serres, who illustrated several mounts in his Théâtre d’Agriculture (1600). Mounts were ascended on spiralling paths, and so were often called ‘snail mounts’ (e.g. the mount built at Elvetsham (Hants), in honour of a visit by Queen Elizabeth in ...


(b Boston, MA, March 26, 1888; d East Hampton, Long Island, NY, Oct 17, 1964).

American painter. He graduated from Yale University, New Haven, CT, in 1912 and from 1919 to 1921 attended a course in landscape design at Harvard Graduate School, Cambridge, MA. In September 1921 he arrived in Paris with his family and soon afterwards saw an exhibition at the Galerie Paul Rosenberg of works by Picasso, Braque, Matisse, and Gris, which inspired him to become a painter. Having no prior training, he took lessons with Natal’ya Goncharova until spring 1922. He soon became involved in the flamboyant lifestyle of Paris in the 1920s and his friends included Picasso, Léger, and Igor Stravinsky. By 1924 he was based at the Villa America in Antibes, and from 1923 to 1926 he exhibited annually at the Salon des Indépendants. Murphy’s output was very small and averaged only about two paintings a year during his short painting life from 1922 to 1929, some of which are lost. One of his most impressive early works is the large-scale ...


Valeria Farinati

(b Lacima [now Cima], Lake Lugano, Jan 22, 1669; d Vicenza, Feb 21, 1747).

Italian architect, architectural editor and expositor, landscape designer, draughtsman and cartographer. His work represents the transition from late Venetian Baroque to Neo-classicism, which his studies of Palladio did much to promote in its early stages. His style, however, was never entirely free of the Baroque elements acquired during his formative years.

Muttoni was the son of a builder, and in 1696 he went to work in Vicenza, as members of his family had done since the 16th century, enrolling that year in the stonemasons’ guild. From the beginning of the 18th century he was active as an expert consultant (‘perito’) and cartographer, as is exemplified by the plan of the fortifications of Vicenza that he drew in 1701 for the Venetian government (Vicenza, Archv Stor. Mun.). Throughout his life he continued to undertake various small professional commissions for surveys and on-site studies. His first major commission, however, was the majestic Palazzo Repeta (...


Richard Jeffree

(fl 1730–65).

English painter, possibly of Spanish origin. Apart from his marriage in London in the late 1720s, no details of his life are known, although a number of signed and dated works survive. He is best known for two remarkable series of garden views, the earlier being a set of eight of the Gardens of Hartwell House, Bucks, one of them dated 1732 and another dated 1738 (all Aylesbury, Bucks Co. Mus.). The later series exists in more than one set and depicts the Gardens of Studley Royal and Fountains Abbey, Yorks (e.g. four sold at Christie’s, 11 April 1980, lot 92, one signed and dated 1762). There are also several signed and dated examples of his Covent Garden Market (version, 1735; Woburn Abbey, Beds; version, 1737; London, Tate). Nebot also painted small genre scenes on copper and one signed and dated portrait of Thomas Coram (1741; London, Foundling Hosp.)....


N. A. Yevsina


Russian family of architects and landscape designers. Vasily (Ivanovich) Neyelov (b 8 Jan 1722; d Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], 19 Jan 1782) was a pupil of Mikhail Zemtsov and Savva Chevakinsky, and he went to England in 1770 to study landscape design. On his return to Russia he worked at Tsarskoye Selo (see Pushkin), where he created one of the first landscaped parks in Russia, the Yekaterinsky (Catherine) Park (1771–8), laid out with the assistance of T. Il’in and the Englishman John Busch. Altering the outline of the previously rectangular Bolshoye (Grand) Lake, Vasily created, along its banks and to the west, a complex network of artificial water features, winding paths and artificial hillocks, among which park buildings were scattered picturesquely. The Siberian Marble Gallery (1772–4) was copied from the Palladian bridge (1737) at Wilton House, Wilts, England, by Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke, and Roger Morris. The Pyramid (...


Joan H. Pachner

(b Los Angeles, CA, Nov 17, 1904; d New York, Dec 30, 1988).

American sculptor and designer. He was the son of an American writer mother and Japanese poet father and was brought up in Japan (1906–18) before being sent to the USA to attend high school in Indiana (1918–22). In 1922 he moved to Connecticut, where he was apprenticed to the sculptor Gutzon Borglum (1867–1941). Discouraged by Borglum, Noguchi moved to New York and enrolled to study medicine at Columbia University (1923–5). From 1924 he attended evening classes at the Leonardo da Vinci Art School; encouraged by the school’s director, he decided to become a sculptor. In addition he frequented avant-garde galleries, including Alfred Stieglitz’s An American Place and the New Art Circle of J. B. Neumann; he was particularly impressed by the Brancusi exhibition at the Brummer Gallery (1926).

In 1927 and 1928 he was awarded Guggenheim Fellowships to visit the Far East, but he went to Paris instead. For six months he worked as ...


Richard L. Dagenhart

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 14, 1869; d Feb 18, 1937).

American landscape architect and city planner. Nolen was raised in the Girard School for Orphaned Boys in Philadelphia, graduating first in his class and later graduating with his BPhil from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School in 1893. After several years working with the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching, Nolen moved to Cambridge, MA, to enroll in Harvard’s newly established School of Landscape Architecture, studying under Frederick Law Olmsted and receiving his MA in 1905. After establishing his office in Cambridge, he and his associates began a practice of landscape architecture but soon expanded their work to include city planning. By 1919, Nolen had written two books, edited two additional books and published numerous articles on the emerging field of city planning. Nolen’s firm completed more than 350 landscape architecture and city planning commissions before his death in 1937. He served as president of the National Conference on City Planning and was one of the founders of the American Institute of City Planners. Nolen was instrumental in establishing city planning education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard and other universities. Along with the Olmsted Brothers and a small cadre of others, Nolen transformed American city planning from the early years of the ...


Charles E. Beveridge

(b Hartford, CT, April 26, 1822; d Waverly, MA, Aug 22, 1903).

American landscape designer, urban planner, and writer. Influenced by 18th-century English traditions of landscape design and by his own social beliefs in the importance of community and the civilizing role of aesthetic taste, Olmsted undertook a large number of public and private commissions. His commissions ranged from regional plans and scenic reservations to residential communities, academic campuses, and the grounds of private estates. With his partner Calvert Vaux and later independently, he designed a series of city parks systems between 1858 and 1895 in which landscaped parks were integrated with other public spaces through broad interconnecting thoroughfares, or parkways, which incorporated drives, paths, and areas of turf and trees. His major work includes Central Park (1858–77), New York, and the ‘Emerald Necklace’ series of public spaces in Boston (1880s). He believed in the power of landscaped scenery to exercise a restorative and civilizing influence.

Olmsted’s forebears helped to found Hartford in ...


Anna Maria Fioravanti Baraldi

[Benvenuti, Giovanni Battista]

(b Ferrara; fl c. 1500–after 1527).

Italian painter. The name by which he is known is derived from his father’s occupation as a gardener (It. ortolano). A document of 1512, according to which he was then more than 25 years old, supports the hypothesis that Ortolano began his career in Ferrara around 1500. Initially he was influenced by the Quattrocento style of devotional paintings by Domenico Panetti (c. 1460–before 1513) and Michele di Luca dei Coltellini. Subsequently he was drawn to the classicism of Boccaccio Boccaccino and Garofalo, which gave his painting a particular gentleness and clarity of form equally reminiscent of Perugino, as is evident in Ortolano’s Virgin and Child (Paris, Louvre) and Holy Family (Rome, priv. col.). Another work dated to this early period is a lunette depicting the Pietà (1505–6; Ferrara, Pin. N.). Probably as a result of a journey to Venice with Garofalo, he introduced warmer colours and a greater emphasis on naturalism into his painting....


Mariana Katzarova

[Pappasoff, Georges]

(b Yambol, Feb 2, 1894; d Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, April 23, 1972).

Bulgarian painter and writer, active in France. In 1913–14 he studied landscape gardening in Prague and Germany. At the beginning of his painting career he was strongly influenced by German Expressionism and, after having his first exhibition in Bulgaria at the Trapko Gallery, Sofia (1919), he arranged for a second one (1922) in Berlin. In 1923 he lived and exhibited in Geneva and from 1924 he moved permanently to France. He became a prominent artist in Paris and was, according to the French critic Jean-Paul Crespelle, one of the forerunners of Surrealism. His first works done in France are painted in a form of ‘geometric’ Surrealism composed of imaginary triangular shapes symbolizing the human body and its spiritual status. Gradually his works became more fully modelled and more colourfully intense as he began to move away from the expressionist tendencies of artists such as Paul Klee and Max Ernst. He experimented with the techniques of Cubism, Tachism and abstract art while at the same time retaining his colourful palette and keeping a reference to the figure. His paintings are done in series, each of which has a dominant theme (e.g. ...


John Kenworthy-Browne and Lin Barton

(b Milton Bryant, Beds, Aug 3, 1803; d Sydenham, Kent, June 9, 1865).

English horticulturalist, garden designer, and architect. He established his reputation as a gardener at Chatsworth House, Derbys, where he developed new construction techniques for glasshouses. This work inspired his acclaimed and influential ‘Crystal Palace’, which housed the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London (see fig.).

The youngest son of a farmer, Paxton lacked formal education and his professional training was in horticulture. He worked at Battlesden, Beds, and other country house gardens before employment in 1823 at the Horticultural Society’s new garden at Chiswick. While there he encountered the 6th Duke of Devonshire, who, impressed by his intelligence and bearing, asked him in May 1826 to be head gardener at Chatsworth, Derbys. Paxton rapidly brought the neglected garden to be possibly the most famous and influential in England. From 1831 he also edited and wrote in botanical magazines, becoming widely known and publishing many details of plants and improvements at Chatsworth (e.g. ...


John Dixon Hunt

Descriptive term that was formulated into an aesthetic category in late 18th-century Britain, with particular application to landscape scenery, landscape painting and garden and park design. The leading characteristics of picturesque landscape are irregularity, roughness and variety, and the more wild areas of the British Isles, which it was then thought best exhibited such characteristics, were frequently visited and minutely examined by those tourists who followed the cult of the Picturesque. Movement was an essential element of picturesque experience (and one that is hard to appreciate in static images.)

In its earliest and primary usage ‘picturesque’ denoted ‘as in or like a picture’. The Italian term pittoresco was current by 1654 when G. A. Costa applied it to architecture in Per la facciata del duomo di Milano; since the word is not included in Filippo Baldinucci’s Vocabulario toscano dell’arte del designo (1681), we may suppose, as did Uvedale Price, that it derived from usage in northern Italy by Venetian painters. There is an analogous Dutch usage (...


Magnus Olausson

(b Uppsala, April 3, 1746; d Stockholm, Jan 22, 1824).

Swedish garden designer and architect. After studying mathematics and hydrostatics at Uppsala University and art at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm, in 1773 he went to England to study landscape gardening with William Chambers. In 1774 he received a state scholarship, which enabled him to study architecture and garden design in France, after which he spent three years in Italy. Piper returned to England in 1778 to complete his training in garden design. He had returned to Sweden by 1780, and he soon became Surveyor to the royal household, in which capacity he made plans for landscape gardens at Drottningholm and Haga. However, he was responsible for the laying-out only of the latter, which was his masterpiece. Piper also created several remarkable gardens for wealthy officials and financiers. Several projects for public gardens in Stockholm proposed after his second stay in England (1793–4) reveal the taste for a return to formality. Piper did not originally introduce the English garden-type into Sweden, but it was mainly through his efforts that it acquired its mature form there. The few buildings designed by Piper, such as the houses of Listonhill (...


Keith N. Morgan

(b New York, Oct 16, 1861; d Cornish, NH, Sept 12, 1933).

American architect, garden designer, etcher, and painter. He was brought up in New York, where he began his artistic training in 1878 at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League. The following summer he was introduced to the recently revived art of etching, and he quickly achieved critical recognition for his work in this medium. He continued to etch for most of his life, concentrating on coastal scenes in which he strove to capture the atmospheric interaction of light, air, and water. In May 1882 Platt travelled to Paris to continue his training as a painter, working first independently and then after 1883 at the Académie Julian under Jules Lefebvre. Although he exhibited The Etcher (Boston, MA, St. Botolph’s Club) at the Paris Salon of 1885, Platt eventually rejected his figural training and turned back to his youthful interest in landscape. On his return to New York, he continued to exhibit his paintings and etchings, and in ...


Michael Symes

(b London, May 21, 1688; d Twickenham, May 30, 1744).

English writer and garden designer. The leading poet of his generation, he won fame in part for his successful translations into English of Homer’s The Iliad (1715–20) and The Odyssey (1725–6), and for his own satiric verses, a number of which were directed against the courts of George I and George II and the Whig government and supporters of Robert Walpole, Prime Minister (1722-42). His interest in the arts, and in garden design in particular, is reflected in some of his writings, notably his prose satire ridiculing topiary, ‘Of Gardens’ (1713), and the later verse epistle, ‘Of the Use of Riches’ (1731), addressed to his patron, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork. From 1719 Pope lived at Twickenham, a fashionable London suburb by the River Thames, where he laid out a celebrated garden of five acres. He spoke of this as exemplifying the principles of light and shade, perspective and grouping. Pope made much of the idea of consulting the ‘Genius of the Place’ so that the site’s natural characteristics should be exploited and deficiencies made good. The garden, enclosed by a wilderness cut by straight and serpentine walks, was a sequence of level lawns, terminating at an obelisk and flanking urns (now standing in the grounds of Penn House, Bucks). Its principal features were a bowling green, a large mount and an open, domed shell temple, possibly designed by his friend the architect ...


Therese O’Malley

Term given to a regional style of landscape design in America. In 1915, Wilhelm Miller, a professor of Landscape Horticulture at the University of Illinois, defined a new American regional style in an article entitled “The Prairie Spirit in Landscape Gardening.” This seminal article described the work of Ossian Cole Simonds (1855–1931), Jens Jensen and Walter Burley Griffin (see Griffin family) as the main proponents of a Midwestern school that drew upon the Prairie school of architecture epitomized by Frank Lloyd Wright.

Simonds is credited with the innovation of transplanting native plants from the countryside to manmade landscapes as early as 1880, specifically at Graceland Cemetery in Chicago. The uses of native species as well as a spatial design in harmony with the regional landscape are cited by Miller as the defining elements of the new style. Simonds, in contrast to previous designers, considered flatness a Midwestern characteristic and a positive attribute, and he employed it to create the long view. Jensen was to build upon the ideas and techniques of Simonds’s work and integrate and publicize them as a theory of design. Although they borrowed forms and techniques for various naturalistic garden traditions, Miller insisted their work constituted a new style because it stressed the local flora of the Midwest and because their practices embraced the theme of the conservation of native scenery....


Jeremy Hunt and Jonathan Vickery

At the turn of the millennium, public art was an established global art genre with its own professional and critical discourse, as well as constituencies of interest and patronage independent of mainstream contemporary art. Art criticism has been prodigious regarding public art’s role in the ‘beautification’ of otherwise neglected social space or in influencing urban development. Diversity and differentiation are increasingly the hallmarks of public art worldwide, emerging from city branding strategies and destination marketing as well as from artist activism and international art events and festivals. The first decade of the 21st century demonstrated the vast opportunity for creative and critical ‘engagement’, activism, social dialogue, and cultural co-creation and collective participation. New public art forms emerged, seen in digital and internet media, pop-up shops, and temporary open-access studios, street performance, and urban activism, as well as architectural collaborations in landscape, environment or urban design.

Intellectually, the roots of contemporary public art can be found in the ludic and the architectonic: in the playful public interventions epitomized in the 1960s by the ...


(b Muskau, Oct 30, 1785; d Branitz, Feb 4, 1871).

German landscape designer and writer. He came from a Silesian noble family and carried the personal title of prince (Ger. Fürst). In 1822 he was compensated for loss of rights when his lands were transferred to Prussia. After receiving a Pietist education, studying law at Leipzig and taking part in the Wars of Liberation, he devoted himself to the estate at Muskau (on what is now the German–Polish border), which he had inherited in 1811, turning it (between trips to England, France, the Far East and Africa) into an enormous landscaped park. This work consumed his wealth, and when a rich marriage—for which he had divorced his first wife—failed to materialize, he sold Muskau in 1845 and laid out a new, smaller landscape garden at his family seat at Branitz, near Cottbus. In 1817 he turned down an important position in the management of the Prussian royal gardens, but through his position at the Berlin court he influenced the parks of the royal princes, Charles (...