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Otakar Máčel

(b Amsterdam, July 1, 1881; d Amsterdam, Feb 4, 1961).

Dutch architect and furniture designer. A son of an Amsterdam doctor, he did not have the usual formal training but attended evening classes at the Industrieschool in Amsterdam. Between 1903 and 1911 he worked in Eduard Cuypers’s office in Amsterdam, with a short interruption in 1906 when he assisted the Belgian architect Georges Hobé on a project at Namur. In Cuypers’s office he met Michel de Klerk and J. M. van der Meij, and with them he later formed the vanguard of the Amsterdam school. Kramer’s first commission as an independent architect was the building (1911–13; destr. 1940) for Minder Marinepersoneel (Minor marines) in Den Helder. This contained all the elements of his later work: asymmetrical planning, expressionist composition of masses and brick ornamentation. He was also involved with the design of the Scheepvaarthuis (Shipping house) (1912–16) in Amsterdam, which is regarded as the Amsterdam school’s manifesto; the main scheme was by ...


Sergey Kuznetsov

(b Kaunas, June 1, 1929; d Vilnius, Feb 10, 1977).

Lithuanian draughtsman, printmaker and illustrator. He studied at the Lithuanian State Institute of Art in Vilnius (1952–8) and taught there from 1961. During the early 1950s his drawing was impressionistic, as in Portrait of My Wife (1959; artist’s estate). He was also a follower of German Expressionism, as represented by the group Die Brücke. Towards the 1960s he developed two different styles of illustration: the first consisted of flat, flowing lines, used mainly in linocuts; the second consisted of sculptural shapes expressed in woodcuts. Krasauskas gradually moved towards the embodiment of abstract ideas in his work and became interested in zincography. From the mid-1960s he used his linear style to indicate the masculine creative principle and the sculptural to indicate eternal life, the feminine principle. The unpublished series of linocuts illustrating the Song of Songs (1964) was followed by the series Movement (1971), an apologia for sporting competitions and physical and moral efforts to attain success. Among his greatest achievements was the series ...


Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...


Vojtěch Lahoda

[Coubine, Othon]

(b Boskovice, Oct 22, 1883; d Marseille, Oct 17, 1969).

Czech painter, printmaker and sculptor, mostly active in France. He studied at the School of Stone Sculpture at Hořice (1898–1900) and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1900–04). From being trained in early Post-Impressionism he moved to Expressionist painting by about 1905, strongly influenced by his experience of the works of van Gogh. In 1907 he took part in the first exhibition of Eight, the: his paintings were criticized for being too crude. At this time he visited France, Italy, Belgium and Holland. His painting View of Montmartre (1907; priv. col.) formed a link between his Expressionist sources and his visionary side, which was influenced by El Greco. His study tour prevented him taking part in the second exhibition of The Eight (ii) in 1908. Up to 1910 Kubín mainly painted landscapes and country themes (e.g. Harvest at Boskovice, 1908; Prague, N.G.). His painting became more angular and stereometric, and, especially in ...


Jaroslav Sedlář

(b Vlčkovice, nr Hradec Králové, Aug 21, 1884; d Prague, Nov 27, 1918).

Bohemian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Prague, but left in 1906 to study at the Reale Istituto di Belle Arti in Florence. In the same year, with Emil Filla and Antonin Procházka among others, he founded Eight, the, a group of artists who felt the need of innovation in their art, as exemplified by Cubism and German Expressionism. In 1909 and 1910 he visited Paris. During the next two years he exhibited with the Neue Sezession in Berlin and in 1913 in Düsseldorf. His work evolved rapidly from Impressionism, Expressionism and a specific kind of Cubism to Italian Futurism.

The young Kubišta was strongly affected by the work of Munch exhibited in Prague in 1905. Until 1910 he worked in an Expressionist style, which brought him closer to the German painters associated with Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. The first notable example of this period was ...


Vladimír Šlapeta

(b Kouřim, Bohemia [now Czech Republic], April 24, 1883; d Prague, Feb 10, 1960).

Czech architect. He studied architecture at the Czech Technical University, Prague, and became a founder-member and leading representative of the Architects’ Club (1913), which brought together the modernist graduates of the University. Kysela spent most of his career working in the construction office of the city of Prague. After an initial interest in Czech Cubism, seen in his U Klíčů house (1914), Lesser Town, Prague, and in Rondocubism, he moved first to the rationalist use of bare brickwork, as in his power station (1923) at Vinohrady, Prague, and finally to Constructivism. The modular system of a reinforced-concrete skeleton enabled him to simplify both the plan and the façade and to use a suspended glass envelope. He applied these principles to the first large-scale modern commercial buildings in Prague’s main centre, Wenceslas Square: the Lindt Department Store and Café (1924–6), the Baťa Department Store (...


D. Cardyn-Oomen

[Flem. Sint-Martens-Latem]

Belgian artists’ colony named after the village on the Leie River, near Ghent. Among the first artists to gather there, staying for short periods from 1898, were Symbolists such as Albert Servaes, George Minne, Albijn Van den Abeele (1835–1918), who had lived there from at least 1869, Valerius De Saedeleer and Gustave Van de Woestyne and his brother, the poet Karel Van de Woestyne. Reacting against Impressionism, which they regarded as superficial, they sought to transmit the rural peace of the village and the simplicity and deeply religious nature of its inhabitants. A second group of artists, active from 1905, were the Flemish Expressionists led by Servaes and including Constant Permeke, Gustave De Smet and Frits Van den Berghe.

P. Haesaerts: L’Ecole de Laethem-Saint-Martin (Brussels, 1945) A. De Ridder: Laethem-Saint-Martin, colonie d’artistes (Brussels and Paris, 1945) A. Stubbe: A. Servaes en de eerste en tweede Latemse kunstenaarsgroep [A. Servaes and the first and second Laethem artists’ group] (Leuven, 1956)...


Charles T. Little

(b Berlin, March 5, 1924; d London, May 19, 2003).

German curator and art historian of medieval art, active also in England. Born in Berlin, Lasko arrived in London in 1937 as a refugee from Nazi Germany. His first teacher was Professor Nikolaus Pevsner at Birkbeck College at the University of London. After continuing his studies at the Courtauld Institute, Lasko was appointed in 1950 as an Assistant Keeper at the British Museum in the Department of Medieval and Later Antiquities, a post he held until 1965. This position launched his interest in metalwork and ivories, which ultimately matured into his volume for the Pelican History of Art devoted to Ars Sacra: 800–1200. This volume was enriched by his involvement in a number of the Council of Europe exhibitions: Romanesque in Barcelona, European Art around 1400 in Vienna, Byzantine Art in Athens and Charlemagne in Aachen.

In 1965, Lasko became the founding Dean of Fine Arts and Music at the University of East Anglia, Norwich. As a brilliant administrator, he secured the gift of the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts designed by Norman Forster. With his long time friend, George Zarnecki, he established the Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture in Britain and Ireland. Possessing a ...


Ulrike Gaisbauer

(b Kappel am Krappfeld, Sept 8, 1919; d Vienna, May 6, 2014).

Austrian painter and draughtsman. From 1941 to 1945 she studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. At an early stage she produced examples of Koloristischer Expressionismus and so-called Introspektive Erlebnisse, drawings expressing awareness of her body, which have occupied a central place in her whole oeuvre. During visits to Paris in 1951 and 1952 she made works that combined the gesture and impasto of Art informel (e.g. Informel, 1951; Vienna, Mus. 20. Jhts). These gave way to simpler, restrained paintings entitled Static Meditations, which she based on references to her own body. These were both expressive and abstract pictures, ‘amorphous rhythms, which later crystallize more and more until they become a concentration of marks’ (Lassnig). After returning to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, in 1954, she cultivated contacts with literary figures of the Wiener Gruppe, including Oswald Wiener, Gerhard Rühm and H. C. Artmann.

From 1956 works concentrating on her own body and her natural emotions were central to Lassnig’s oeuvre, although from time to time she again had recourse to ...


Dietrich Schubert

(b Duisburg, Jan 4, 1881; d Berlin, March 25, 1919).

German sculptor, painter and printmaker. He studied in Düsseldorf at the Kunstgewerbeschule from 1895 to 1901 and under Karl Janssen at the Kunstakademie from 1901 to 1906. His work was representative of established academic art. As well as making drawings of nudes and anatomical studies, he modelled works of typical contemporary subjects such as Siegfried and Shotputter (both clay, 1902; destr.); Woman Bathing (bronze, 1902; Duisburg, Lehmbruck-Mus.), however, displayed a new freedom and simplicity and one cast of it was bought by the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf in 1904. Lehmbruck was inspired by works that he saw at the Deutsch-nationale Kunstausstellung (1902) and by the Internationale Kunstausstellung (1904), both held in Düsseldorf, particularly those by Jules Dalou, Constantin Meunier and Auguste Rodin. In September 1904 he travelled to the Netherlands and to Bournemouth and the south coast of England. After travelling in Italy (1905) he was heavily influenced by Michelangelo’s work, and in particular the tombs of the Medici chapels in Florence....


James Smalls

(b New York City, 1909; d New York City, Aug 27, 1979).

African American painter. Norman Lewis was the first major African American painter associated with Abstract Expressionism. His body of works includes paintings, drawings and murals. A life-long resident of Harlem, New York, he was influenced early on by the sculptor and teacher Augusta Savage, who provided him with open studio space at her Harlem Art Center. It was there that he studied African art intensely and was introduced to Alain Locke (1886–1954), Howard University professor and intellectual leader of the Harlem Renaissance. Lewis became familiar with Locke’s ideas but soon questioned the wisdom of creating an art based on an “African” or “Negro” idiom. He thought Locke’s concept of art was limiting and wanted instead to be considered as an artist in the broadest sense of the term rather than just a “Negro artist.” In moving towards this goal, he exhibited with the American Abstract Artists, participated in the Works Progress Administration (WPA) art projects alongside his friends ...


Rosel Gollek

(Robert Ludwig)

(b Meschede, Westphalia, Jan 3, 1887; d nr Perthes-les-Hurlus, Champagne, Sept 26, 1914).

German painter. He began his artistic training in autumn 1904 at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, but he was far more interested by the instruction at the Kunstgewerbeschule, run by Peter Behrens, where he attended evening courses given by the German printmaker Fritz Helmuth Ehmcke (1878–1965). Friendship with the playwrights of the Düsseldorfer Theater, Wilhelm Schmidtbonn and Herbert Eulenberg, awakened Macke’s interest in the stage. With the German sculptor Claus Cito, he developed designs for stage sets, including those for a production of Macbeth, which led to an offer by the theatre to employ him, but Macke turned it down. In April 1905 Macke travelled with Walter Gerhardt, his future wife Elizabeth Gerhardt’s brother, to northern Italy and Florence. His drawings of this period reveal freshness and a receptive sensibility. In July 1906 he travelled to the Netherlands and Belgium with Schmidtbonn, Eulenberg and Cito, continuing on with Schmidtbonn to London, where he visited the city’s museums. In ...


Rosel Gollek

(Moriz Wilhelm)

(b Munich, Feb 8, 1880; d nr Verdun, March 4, 1916).

German painter. He decided to become a painter in autumn 1900, after initially intending to study philosophy and theology. He began his training at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Gabriel von Hackl (1843–1926) and Wilhelm von Dietz (1839–1907) and worked in the style of Munich landscape painting. His early Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (1902; Munich, Lenbachhaus) reveals in its form and construction that he already possessed an astonishing mastery of traditional artistic means. From summer 1902 onwards, increasingly self-taught, he worked at Kochel in Upper Bavaria, often on the alpine slopes of the Staffelalm. In May 1903, thanks to his excellent command of French (his Huguenot mother came from Alsace), he accompanied a friend on a study trip to Paris. On his return to Munich he gave up his studies at the Akademie. In his studio in the Kaulbachstrasse he devoted himself primarily to illustrations of poems by ...


Whitney Chadwick

(b Balagne, Jan 4, 1896; d Paris, Oct 28, 1987).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, and stage designer. His work played an important role in the development of both Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism, although his independence, iconoclasm, and abrupt stylistic transitions make him difficult to classify. Masson was admitted to the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels at the age of 11. Through his teacher Constant Montald, he met the Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren (1855–1916), who persuaded Masson’s parents to send him to Paris for further training. Masson joined the French infantry in 1915 and fought in the battles of the Somme; he was gravely wounded, and his wartime experiences engendered in him a profound philosophy about human destiny and stimulated his search for a personal imagery of generation, eclosion, and metamorphosis.

Masson’s early works, particularly the paintings of 1922 and 1923 on a forest theme (e.g. Forest, 1923; see Leiris and Limbour, p. 93), reflected the influence of André Derain, but by late ...


Jorge Glusberg

(b Buenos Aires, Dec 15, 1949).

Argentine painter. He studied drawing and painting under Anselmo Piccoli (1915–93) and obtained a degree in psychology. His work occupies a transitional position between Neo-Expressionism and painting with a more symbolic emphasis and is characterized by an abstraction full of semiotic nuances. The lyricism of such works as Buenos Aires Is a Fiesta (1984; see Glusberg, 1985, p. 525) has a rhythmic, measured structure. It depicts coloured areas that revolve around a more densely coloured nucleus, the expanding universe, as it were. Portrayal of movement is constant in the works of the 1980s, some of which also depict bodies whose contours merge into the harmonic fabric of the painting. In subsequent works Médici used a more clearly semiotic approach, combining anthropomorphic figures with numbers, letters, lines, crosses, spirals and various designs suggestive of animals or other forms.

J. Glusberg: Del Pop-art a la nueva imagen (Buenos Aires, 1985); Eng. trans., abridged as ...


Shulamith Behr


(b Bernstadt, Prussia [now Germany], April 18, 1884; d Darmstadt, May 14, 1966).

German painter, draughtsman, graphic artist, writer and teacher. He was born into a middle-class Jewish family during the late Wilhelmine period, and his parents wanted him to pursue a profession more practical than an artistic one. Nonetheless, while apprenticed to a bricklayer in 1901, Meidner produced highly accomplished pen-and-ink drawings. Their imagery reveals his attempts to align his Jewish heritage with that of modern-day Christianity and Socialism, an intellectual preoccupation that was to remain consistent throughout his career (e.g. Ibn Esra, 1901; Darmstadt, Stadtmus. & Städt. Kstsamml.). In 1903 he studied at the Königliche Akademie in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) and in 1905 moved to Berlin where, to earn a living, he designed advertisements for furriers. A stipend from an aunt enabled him to visit Paris between 1905 and 1907. There he met Modigliani, briefly attended the Académie Julian and Académie Cormon and generally broadened his experience of city life. Nonetheless, his correspondence at that time reveals his preference for Berlin, the ‘struggling, earnest burgeoning city…the world’s intellectual and moral capital’ (letter to Franz Landsberger, ...


(b Delfshaven, Aug 19, 1878; d Geulle, June 24, 1949).

Dutch architect. After attending technical school he worked in several architectural offices. In 1897 he joined the office of Eduard Cuypers in Amsterdam, where Michel de Klerk and P. L. Kramer were already working. In 1906 he won the Prix de Rome, which enabled him to travel in Europe. Between 1911 and 1919 he was aesthetics adviser to the Board of Works and Public Buildings of Amsterdam. In 1912 he commenced his major work, the Scheepvaarthuis, the head offices in Amsterdam of six Dutch shipping companies. This building was the earliest realization of the aims of the Amsterdam school to integrate architecture and decoration. A reinforced concrete structure designed by A. D. N. van Gendt and J. G. van Gendt, it is clothed in a skin of terracotta and ornamental brickwork. The extravagant decoration marks an important change in the thinking of Dutch architects, since this was a clear attempt to solve the duality of loadbearing and non-loadbearing elements, with the structure hidden behind the ornamental façade. Van der Meij was assisted by ...


Ita Heinze-Greenberg

(b Allenstein [now Olsztyn, Poland], March 21, 1887; d San Francisco, Sept 15, 1953).

German architect, teacher, and writer, active also in England, Palestine, and the USA. Mendelsohn was one of the most influential exponents of architectural Expressionism, and his sketches of fluid organic building forms and his Einstein Tower, Potsdam, are among the best-known products of the movement. Although his later work abandoned three-dimensional forms in favour of more conventional, geometric designs, these often incorporated curvilinear plans and retained an innovative dynamism.

Mendelsohn grew up as one of six children of a Jewish business family in the small East Prussian town of Allenstein. Following his father’s wishes, in 1907 he began to study economics at the University of Munich but in 1908 followed his own inclinations and enrolled as an architecture student at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin. In 1910 he returned to Munich to complete his architectural studies under Theodor Fischer, one of the most progressive teachers at the Technische Hochschule, and as a student he met several Expressionist artists, including Paul Klee, Franz Marc, Vasily Kandinsky, and Hugo Ball. After graduating in ...


Eric M. Wolf

( Houston )

American art collection that opened in 1987. In 2015 the collection contained approximately 17,000 objects, specializing in modern and contemporary art (with particular strength in Surrealism, School of Paris, Abstract Expressionism, Pop art, and Minimalism), antiquities, Byzantine art, and the art of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas. While the vast majority of works in the museum come from the collection of its late founders, John and Dominique Menil, de, the museum continues to collect and grow its art collection.

The main building was designed by architect Renzo Piano and was his first solo museum commission (he had previously partnered with Richard Rogers in the design of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris) and his first commission in the USA. In 2013 this building won the Twenty-Five Year Award of the American Institute of Architects, recognizing architectural design of lasting significance. Sited in a residential neighbourhood in Houston’s Montrose district, the modestly scaled museum building is surrounded by bungalows, houses, and smaller satellite galleries creating a campus-like environment. These surrounding properties are owned by the Menil Foundation and are painted a grey matching that of the wooden cladding on the main building. The museum features the first iteration of Piano’s signature glass roof, here suspended over large ferro-concrete ‘leaves’ or fixed louvres, which regulate the natural light entering the galleries. In addition to gallery space, the main building contains a conservation laboratory with studios for painting, object, and paper treatment, a research library, archives, museum offices, and the second floor ‘treasure rooms’, a sort of curated art storage making a large portion of the museum’s collection immediately available to curatorial staff and visiting scholars....


Karl-Heinz Hüter

(b Mechernich, nr Euskirchen, June 17, 1881; d Baltrum, East Friesian islands, July 24, 1929).

German architect and teacher. He trained as a cabinetmaker and studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Düsseldorf, where he was particularly influenced by J. L. M. Lauwerik’s theory of proportion. From 1907 to 1908 he worked in Peter Behrens’s office, and from 1909 to 1910 he worked in Bruno Paul’s office in Berlin. From 1910 until 1925 he worked in close collaboration with Walter Gropius and directed his offices in Berlin and Weimar. In addition he was an outstanding teacher of architecture at the Bauhaus in Weimar (1919–25). When the school moved to Dessau, Ernst May appointed him director of the planning consultancy at the structural engineering office in Frankfurt am Main. He also taught structural engineering at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Frankfurt. In 1919 he signed the manifesto of the Arbeitsrat für Kunst and was a member of the architects’ group Der Ring. In 1928 he founded the Frankfurt Oktobergruppe with, among others, ...