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Mark L. Evans

(b Cremona; fl 1464–1506).

Italian illuminator. There is no evidence for his activity in Cremona, but like his almost exact contemporary, the Paduan painter Andrea Mantegna, Guindaleri was a lifelong court artist of the Gonzaga at Mantua. In a letter of 30 November 1489 to Francesco II Gonzaga, the artist stated that he had entered the service of the Marchese’s grandfather, Ludovico, 25 years earlier, in 1464. Probably one of the first books that he decorated for the Gonzaga is the copy of Boccaccio’s Il filocolo (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Canon. Italiani 85), the text of which was scheduled to be completed for Marchese Ludovico at the beginning of 1464. Its miniature of Horsemen in a Piazza (fol. 114v) includes foreshortened horses of a type that derives ultimately from the work of Pisanello, Mantegna’s predecessor as court painter to the Gonzaga. Comparisons have also been drawn between the miniatures in the Oxford Boccaccio and the frescoes painted around ...


(d c. 1417–20).

Goldsmith, sculptor, and painter, probably of German origin. None of his works is known to have survived, but he is mentioned twice in mid-15th-century texts: in the second book of Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Commentarii and in the manuscript of the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Both texts relate that Gusmin died during the reign of Pope Martin (i.e. Martin V, reg 1417–31), in the year of the 438th Olympiad (i.e. between 1415 and 1420). He worked in the service of the Duke of Anjou, who was forced to destroy Gusmin’s greatest work, a golden altar, in order to provide cash for his ‘public needs’. Gusmin consequently retired to a hermitage where he led a saintly life, painting and teaching young artists. Although it is clear from his account that Ghiberti never knew the master or saw any of his original works, he stated that he had seen casts of his sculptures, which, he said, were as fine as the work of the ancient Greeks, although the figures were rather short. There have been numerous attempts to identify Gusmin with artists, both German and Italian, fitting the account of Ghiberti and the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Swarzenski first named Gusmin as the author of the alabaster Rimini altar (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), but this has now been demonstrated to be of Netherlandish workmanship. Krautheimer proposed a convincing reconstruction of Gusmin’s career, suggesting that his Angevin patron was ...


(d summer 1519).

German architect. He is mentioned in the Brotherhood book of the masons’ lodge at Strasbourg in 1471 and was apparently brought to Strasbourg that year. He was made a Citizen in 1482, by which time he was a foreman at the masons’ lodge of the cathedral (see Strasbourg, §III, 1). In 1486 he became Master of the Works but lost the position in 1490, when he applied unsuccessfully for the job of Master of the Works at Milan Cathedral. Hammer then entered the service of the Bishop of Strasbourg to carry out various works in his residence at Saverne. He was again made Master of the Works at Strasbourg Cathedral in 1513 and kept the position until his death.

The earliest works entrusted to Hammer were the tabernacle (destr.) in the choir of Strasbourg Cathedral and the pulpit for the nave, both made before he became Master of the Works. The pulpit, one of the richest and most beautiful works of the Late Gothic, was made in ...


Bodo Brinkmann

(fl 1454–70).

South Netherlandish illuminator. His name appears several times in the account books of the Burgundian court, and he was among the artists employed to produce decorations for the famous ‘banquet du faisan’ organized by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in Lille in 1454. Hennecart also worked for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, while the latter was still Comte de Charolais, painting coats of arms and producing banners for him, among other things. In 1457, on the occasion of the birth of Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, he illuminated a rotulus with a motet (untraced). One documented work by the artist survives: according to a bill of 1470 Hennecart was paid for the illumination of two copies of the Instruction d’un jeune prince, a didactic text formerly attributed to Georges Chastellain and now regarded as the work of Guillebert de Lannoy. One of these copies (Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 5104), containing three miniatures, bears the initials of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York (fol. 66...


American library in Saint John’s University, Collegeville, MN, founded in 1965. The Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML; formerly the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library) contains over 115,000 microfilm and digital images of medieval, Renaissance, early modern and Eastern Christian manuscripts. To fulfil its mission of preserving endangered manuscripts and making them more accessible to scholars, HMML photographs entire manuscript libraries that lack the resources to preserve their own collections, are inaccessible to researchers, or are in immediate danger of destruction. Until 2003, HMML photographed entire manuscripts on black and white microfilm and shot selected illuminations in colour. When the Library switched to digital photography in 2003, it shot entire volumes in colour and recorded codicological information.

The vast majority of HMML’s holdings reproduce texts predating 1600. Nearly half of HMML’s Western manuscripts derive from libraries in Austria and Germany, but HMML also houses significant collections from Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and England. The Maltese collections are particularly important and include the Archives of the Knights of Malta. HMML has photographed collections of Eastern Christian manuscripts since the 1970s, and its collections of Armenian, Syriac, and Christian Arabic manuscripts are becoming the most significant resource for the study of Eastern Christian manuscripts in the world. HMML has by far the world’s largest collection of Ethiopian manuscripts preserved on microfilm and in digital form....


Lee Hendrix


(b Antwerp, 1542; d Vienna, 1601).

Flemish illuminator and draughtsman. He was the last of the great Flemish manuscript illuminators and the foremost topographical draughtsman of his age. His work forms a critical link between earlier manuscript illumination and ornamental design and the genre of floral still-life painting, which emerged in northern Europe at the end of the 16th century.

He was the son of Elisabeth Veselaer and Jacques Hoefnagel, a wealthy jewel and tapestry merchant. According to van Mander, Hoefnagel drew secretly as a youth but was compelled by his father to pursue a career in business. Although van Mander reports that he probably received some instruction from Hans Bol, this was probably informal training since he described himself as an autodidact on a drawing (1578; Berlin, Kupferstichkab., KdZ 3991). He travelled extensively during his youth, visiting France (1560–62), Spain (1563–7) and England (1568–9). He returned to Antwerp in ...


Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...


Marco Collareta

(Venice, 1499). Illustrated treatise on Italian art. One of the most mysterious books of the Renaissance, it takes the form of a long romance in two parts, written in a curious Italian language that is rich in rare Latinisms and Graecisms. The first part, strongly allegorical in tone, tells the story of a journey made by Poliphilo to meet Polia. He marries her, and together they go off to worship the statue of Venus, the goddess of love. In the second and shorter part, Polia and Poliphilo recall the story of their love, at first beset by problems but afterwards happy. Although precise references to Treviso and to the 1460s create a sense of actuality, the Hypnerotomachia adopts the literary convention of pure dream. Hence the strange Graecizing title of the work, which means ‘the dream of a battle for love fought by Poliphilo’ (i.e. ‘lover of Polia’).

The initial letters of the 38 chapters of the ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(b Florence, 1433; d Florence, ?Nov 19, 1504).

Italian illuminator. His output appears to be divided into two main phases: the early phase is characterized by an exuberant style; the later (after 1478), for which he is best known, is less vivacious, due to the constant intervention of mediocre collaborators. In 1464 Mariano illuminated Livy’s History of Rome (Florence, Bib. Riccardiana, MS. 484), formerly attributed to the Master of the White Scrolls because of an incorrect interpretation of the motif of white scrolls, which were seen as a stylistic peculiarity rather than as characteristic of a certain type of book. A feature of Mariano’s early work is the use of innovative design, even within traditional graphic schemes. He preferred portraits to narrative scenes and his portraiture reflects a more complex range of influences, including such artists as Piero della Francesca and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, and such Classical motifs as the bust. Pairs of putti, three-dimensional candelabra and a vast assortment of animals can often be seen in the backgrounds....


Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b Paris; fl Brussels, 1448; d c. 1468).

Franco-Flemish illuminator, scribe and designer. He was first paid for restoring old books and writing and illustrating new ones for Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, on 26 January 1448, a task that he continued for the next eight years, being rewarded with the title of ducal valet de chambre in October 1449. In 1456 he ceased this exclusive work; in order to widen his clientele, he purchased citizenship in Bruges the following year, probably because of a new ordinance limiting the practice of illumination to citizens. He paid dues to the Bruges guild until 1462 but continued to live in Brussels near the ducal palace on the Coudenberg. Here he joined the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross in 1463, the membership of which comprised ducal servants and city leaders, including Rogier van der Weyden. In 1464 Jean became valet de chambre to the Duke’s heir, Charles de Charolais; he was probably still alive in ...


Michael Spens


(b London, Oct 8, 1900; d July 16, 1996).

English landscape designer, urban planner, architect and writer. He was educated in London at the Architectural Association School (1919–24). His book Italian Gardens of the Renaissance (with J. C. Shepherd), derived from student research, was published in 1925, the year in which he qualified as an architect. He soon established his practice in London. In the 1930s he was instrumental in developing the Institute of Landscape Architects (now the Landscape Institute) as a professional body. He taught at the Architectural Association School (1928–33), becoming its Principal in 1939. His projects of the 1930s include the village plan (1933) for Broadway, Hereford & Worcs, a model document under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1932, and, with Russell Page (1906–85), a pioneer modernist restaurant and visitors’ centre (1934) at Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Important garden designs of these years include Ditchley Park (...


Gordon Campbell


(b Nuremberg, fl 1472; d Nuremberg, Oct 3, 1513).

German publisher. Koberger introduced printing to Nuremberg in 1470 and sold his books through his 16 shops and his network of agents throughout Europe. He published more than 200 folio incunabula, many of which were lavishly illustrated with woodcuts, including Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle. On his death the business passed to his heirs who went bankrupt in ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Zwickau, c. 1531; d Dresden, 1586).

German bookbinder. Krause was based in Dresden, where he was the first bookbinder to use gold tooling and the first to use French and Italian designs. In 1566 he was appointed court binder to the Elector Augustus I of Saxony, a post which he held for the rest of his life. The library of the electors (now in the Sächsische Landesbibliothek in Dresden) contains many volumes bound by Krause in gilded bindings with portrait stamps and initials of members of the electoral family....


Sheila Edmunds


(fl 1432–53).

Illuminator and painter. He worked for the House of Savoy. He is first recorded in Savoy in May 1432, when he undertook the marginal illumination of an Apocalypse (Madrid, Escorial, Bib. Monasterio S Lorenzo, MS. E. Vit. 5) begun by Jean Bapteur in 1428 for Amadeus VIII, first Duke of Savoy (reg 1391–1434). Besides illuminating the initials and marginal ornament on all 97 folios, Lamy was also paid ‘for certain images’. These miniatures (fols 24v–26r) serve as the basis for other attributions. In time the bright palette and softly modelled figures of the Apocalypse gave way to darker colours and angular bodies. In August 1432 ‘Perenet lenlumineur’ helped Bapteur to decorate the ‘Sale Nove’ and the new chapel of the château of Thonon; otherwise Lamy’s career was connected solely with manuscripts.

Lamy’s principal patrons were members of the House of Savoy. When the Council of Basle elected ...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1425–67).

German manuscript illuminator. Lauber had a workshop in Hagenau (now French Haguenau) in Alsace, 15 km north-east of Strasbourg. His workshop is known to have produced more than 50 manuscripts (in both German and Latin) between 1425 and 1467.


L. von Wilckens: ‘A Note on an Embroidery with the Joys of Mary’ [15th century linen embroidery from Alsace], ...


Myra D. Orth

[Batavus, Godofredus]

(fl 1515–26).

North Netherlandish illuminator, active in France. He is known solely through his activity at the court of Francis I. His name comes from a Latin inscription identifying him as pictoris batavi in the third volume of his best-known work, the Commentaries on the Gallic War (1520; Chantilly, Mus. Condé, MS. 1139). He signed himself ‘Godefroy’ there and in the Triumphes of Petrarch (c. 1524; Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 6480). The Commentaries on the Gallic War (vol. i: London, BL, Harley MS. 6205; vol. ii, Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 13429), the Dominus illuminatio mea (1516; Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 2088) and the Life of the Magdalene (1517; Paris, Bib. N., MS. fr. 24955) were illuminated under the direct supervision of their Franciscan author, François Du Moulin or Demoulins (fl 1502–24), for presentation to the King and his mother Louise de Savoie, Comtesse d’Angoulême (...


(b Dieppe, c. 1533; d London, before June 1, 1588).

French painter, illustrator and explorer, also active in Florida and England. In April 1564 he sailed with René de Laudonnière as artist of the Huguenot expedition to Florida. In September 1565 the Spaniards overran the colony, but he escaped and returned to France. By c. 1580 he had settled in Blackfriars, London, ‘for religion’ and received letters of denization on 12 May 1581. He later came into contact with Sir Walter Ralegh and his colonizing circle and with John White, the artist of the first English colony of Virginia, with whom he exchanged ideas and perhaps collaborated. Ralegh commissioned him to illustrate the Florida enterprise, and Le Moyne produced an account Brevis narratio eorum quae in Florida … acciderunt … auctore Iacobo le Moyne with 42 illustrations and a map that Theodor de Bry published in Frankfurt am Main in 1591 as the second part of his Collectiones perigrinationum in Indiam orientalem et occidentalem...


Bodo Brinkmann

[Jan de Tavernier]

(fl c. 1434–60).

South Netherlandish illuminator. He seems to have specialized in the illustration of chronicles and similar texts and to have undertaken commissions principally for the Burgundian ducal court. In 1434 Le Tavernier became a Master in Tournai, where he was still working in 1440 when he took on an apprentice. He contributed to the decorations for the ‘banquet du faisan’ organized in Lille in 1454 by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, for which Le Tavernier’s payment was higher than average. In the same year he was resident in Oudenaarde and received payment from Philip the Good for 230 grisailles and 2 full-colour miniatures in a Book of Hours belonging to the Duke, and for illuminating a ‘Livre de Godeffroy de Buillon’. In 1460 Le Tavernier received a payment for ‘certaines histoires de blanc et de noir’ (grisailles executed in the first volume of a ‘Livre de Charlemaigne’) and an advance payment for illustrations to be produced in the second volume of this work. The manuscript, the ...


Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Antwerp, c. 1545; d Antwerp, 1592).

Flemish woodcutter and engraver. He entered the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp as a pupil of Bernard van de Putte (1528–80) in 1558–9 and is known primarily for the book illustrations that he executed while working for Christoph Plantin. Van Leest depicted a wide range of subjects in his woodcuts, including biblical themes in several editions of the New Testament (Flem. edns, 1571 and 1578; Fr. edn, 1573) and allegorical images such as those in J. B. Houwaert’s Declaratie van die triumphante incompst van den … prince van Oraignien binnen die princelijke stadt van Brussele, 1578 (‘Declaration of the triumphal entry of the … Prince of Orange into the princely city of Brussels, 1578; Antwerp, 1579), which contains images alluding to contemporary politics. There are images of figures in exotic costume in Sluperius’s Omne fere gentium (Antwerp, 1572) and in Nicolas de Nicolay’s Les Navigations pérégrinations et voyages faicts à la Turquie...


[Adam; Adenot; Admiet]

(fl 1457–71).

French illuminator. The earliest document relating to him is dated 1457, when he illuminated a manuscript for Joanna of Laval (m. 1454; d 1498), wife of René I, Duke of Anjou. In February 1457 the artist received 6 livres 17 sous 6 deniers of silver for producing ‘ung ymaige et plusieurs lettres’ for a copy of the Miroir des dames (untraced) for Joanna. In May the court moved to Provence and the Miroir was completed by another, unnamed, illuminator. In 1458 Adenet received payment from the chapter of Angers Cathedral for decorating a five-volume Gradual (untraced). He was paid the substantial sum of 42 sous 6 deniers for each of the 18 miniatures and was assisted by Gervaise Godelin. Although not officially attached to the court, Adenet was nevertheless described in this document as ‘enlumineur de la reine de Sicile’, possibly indicating the esteem in which he was held. The final record of his activities is on ...