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Dwight C. Miller

(b Bologna, April 25, 1656; d Bologna, Jan 5, 1727).

Italian painter. He was among the most original and gifted Bolognese painters of his time, and his Baroque style, colourfully dramatic, impetuous and passionate, opposed the cool refinement of the classical art of Carlo Cignani and Marcantonio Franceschini. Until 1672 he trained in the studio of Domenico Maria Canuti, a brilliant exponent of grand-scale fresco decoration, and then with Lorenzo Pasinelli, the creator of subtly beautiful easel paintings of biblical and mythological scenes for a sophisticated patrician clientele.

Burrini followed the conventional course of studies for a Bolognese painter of this period, studying the celebrated fresco cycles by the Carracci in the Palazzo Fava and the Palazzo Magnani and famous pictures in the various churches and palazzi of the city. He received generous help from his patron, Giulio Cesare Venenti (1642–97), himself an amateur engraver, who supported these studies for several years and also offered his protégé lodging in his residence. Burrini visited Venice (Zanotti), and his study of the pictures of Titian and Veronese inspired in his own work a sumptuousness of colouring and rich painterly handling that were unusual in the Bolognese tradition. With his teacher, Pasinelli, he was in the vanguard of a neo-Venetian current in Bolognese painting in the late 17th century....


Birgit Roth

(b Bissone, Ticino, Aug 28, 1664; d Vienna, 1737).

Italian stuccoist. He was taught to draw by his father, the painter Giovanni Francesco Bussi, but then concentrated on developing a career as a stuccoist. He began his career in Milan, where he worked on the decoration of numerous palaces, but was then summoned to Vienna by Eugene, Prince of Savoy. From 1695 to 1704 he worked under the architect Domenico Martinelli at the palace of Count Dominik Andreas Kaunitz (now the Liechtenstein Palace) in Bankgasse, Vienna, which had been acquired by Prince Andrew of Liechtenstein in 1694. Here Bussi decorated twenty-two rooms, two cabinets, the great hall, the staircase and the two vestibules. The elegance and lightness that he imparted to the staircase with his vivid leaf and vine scroll decoration were impaired, however, during the modernization of the building by Alois II, Prince of Liechtenstein, and his English architect Peter Hubert Desvignes c. 1840. At around the same time he also worked at the Franciscan church (destr.) in Feldsberg, Bohemia, and the ...


Camillo Semenzato

(b Venice, 1665; d Venice, April 15, 1737).

Italian sculptor. His first known work is the marble St Benedict (1695) for S Michele in Isola, Venice. Illness forced him to move around 1698 to Dalmatia, where he stayed at Ragusa (now Dubrovnik) and at Cattaro. There he completed the high altar with SS John, Dominic, Bruno and Chiara for S Chiara, an altar for S Giuseppe and the marble altar of the chapel of S Trifone for S Trifone. He returned to Venice in 1708 but retained contacts with Dalmatia. In 1711 he executed his best-known work, the reliquary, with panels representing the Crucifixion, the Deposition and the Pietà, for the sacristy of S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. He also worked in Gorizia. In Venice he carved a figure of Bellona in stone for the entrance to the Arsenal and statues of the Trinity, SS Peter and Paul and other figures for the courtyard of the Frari. On the façade of the church of the Gesuiti are ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Milan, Aug 6, 1700; d Rome, 1781).

Italian painter. A diligent craftsman of little originality, he created art that derived from the traditions of classical Bologna and Baroque Rome. In 1717 he moved to Bologna, where he studied with Ferdinando Galli-Bibbiena and probably with Carlo Cignani and Marcantonio Franceschini. In 1719 he was commissioned by Conte Calderari to paint the Martyrdom of St Catherine (untraced) for the church of S Maria Beltrade (destr.), Milan, and the same patron commissioned three biblical scenes for his Milanese palazzo. After this Caccianiga settled in Rome, where in 1727 he won first prize for drawing in a competition organized by the Accademia di S Luca with a Belshazzar’s Feast (Rome, Gal. Accad. N. S. Luca). His painting of St Celso Triumphing over the Pagan Priests (1736–8) for the main chapel of SS Celso e Giuliano, Rome, demonstrates the influence of the proto-Neo-classical culture then fashionable in Rome. In 1740...


Maria Teresa Caracciolo

(b Rome, March 4, 1750; d Rome, Dec 8, 1799).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was an important history painter and decorator, whose paintings and drawings vary in manner from the Baroque to Neo-classical, and who anticipated Romantic historicism. His subjects are taken from Greek and Roman literature, 16th- and 17th-century religious history and Italian literature of the early and High Renaissance; his many drawings include preparatory studies, caricatures, genre scenes and portraits. He trained under Domenico Corvi at the Accademia di S Luca, where he won prizes with drawings such as the mannered and brilliant Tobias Healing his Blind Father (1766; Rome, Accad. N. S Luca). However, Cades had to leave Corvi’s studio c. 1766, as Corvi apparently resented his pupil’s excessive independence (Lanzi).

In the early 1770s Cades started to receive important commissions. His first large canvases were the Martyrdom of St Benignus (1774; San Benigno Canavese, Fruttuaria Abbey), which continues the classical tradition of late 17th-century Italian painting, and the ...


Paulo Varela Gomes

(b Mafra, Jan 26, 1742; d Lisbon, May 24, 1802).

Portuguese architect and draughtsman. He was the son of the master builder Caetano Tomás de Sousa (fl 1718–64). He held appointments as architect to the military orders (1766–85) and to the Casa do Infantado (1786–91), the Casa do Risco (office of works in Lisbon; 1792), the royal palaces of Mafra and Queluz, near Lisbon (1785–92) and the Ajuda Palace in Lisbon (from 1796 until his death).

Much of his work is distinctly Baroque, sometimes characterized by a kind of Rococo style that is linear and symmetrical. In this category are his many drawings for altarpieces, engravings, fountains, funerary monuments and ephemeral constructions for festivals and other celebrations at Queluz and Lisbon. He also designed the last Baroque tower in Lisbon, that of the royal chapel at the Ajuda Palace, in 1792. The rest of his work, however, is more problematical. He tried to synthesize Neo-classical ideas, incompletely understood, with Baroque, producing eclectic hybrids. Although he eliminated towers in his church designs and simplified elevations, he retained Baroque decorations, and his façades, with their emphatic upper sections, tended to lack articulation....


Dieter Graf

(b Palermo, 1646; d Palermo, 1707).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was trained in Rome, where he was first a pupil of the painter and engraver Pietro del Pò (1610–92), who also came from Palermo. At an unknown date he moved to the studio of Carlo Maratti and, with Giuseppe Passeri, became a favourite pupil. He was clearly linked to Maratti’s workshop for a long period and perfectly assimilated his teacher’s idiom, though without attaining his elegance and precision. In the 1680s Calandrucci executed various decorative frescoes in Roman palazzi: the Four Seasons in the Palazzo Lante; mythological frescoes in the gallery of the Palazzo Muti–Papazzurri; the decoration (untraced) of the gallery of the Palazzo Strozzi–Besso; and a ceiling fresco, the Sacrifice of Ceres, in the Villa Falconieri at Frascati. He also painted idyllic pastoral scenes, among them two pictures at Burghley House, Stamford, England. His secular decorations are more successful than the sometimes clumsy and banal altarpieces and ceiling frescoes that he executed in Roman churches. These include the high altar, the ...


Donatella Germanó Siracusa

(b Rome, 1669; d Rome, July 1736).

Italian sculptor. His family came from Gattinara in Piedmont—a town famous for its engravers—and he served a long apprenticeship in the workshop of Lorenzo Ottoni in Rome. His first known works are the marble relief of the Canonization of St Ignatius (1695–8; Rome, the Gesù, chapel of S Ignazio), based on a design provided by Andrea Pozzo, and the monument to Count Vladislav Constantine Wasa (1698–1700; Rome, Stimmate di S Francesco), commissioned by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani (later Clement XI). In the Lazio region Cametti was also active at Frascati, where he produced a relief (1704) for the façade of the cathedral; and at Palestrina, with the funerary monuments to Prince Taddeo Barberini and Cardinal Antonio Barberini (both 1704; S Rosalia), where he experimented with a new concept in tomb design which he used again in the monument to Gabriele Filippucci (c. 1706; Rome, S Giovanni in Laterano)....


Carlos Cid Priego

(b Mataró, April 12, 1771; d Barcelona, July 7, 1855).

Spanish sculptor and teacher. He began studying at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de la Lonja in Barcelona at the age of 14, and he worked in the studio of Salvador Gurri (fl 1756–1819), a late Baroque sculptor with Neo-classical tendencies. Campeny left the studio after he was attacked by Gurri, who, as a teacher at the Escuela (1785), continued to persecute him and threw him out. Campeny then worked in Lérida, Cervera and Montserrat. He produced his first major work, St Bruno (1795; destr. 1831), in carved polychromed wood. He also trained with Nicolás Traver and José Cabañeras, both late Baroque artists. Stylistically, Campeny began with a moderate and personal naturalism, later assimilating some of the Baroque influences from his Catalan teachers. Readmitted to the Escuela, in 1795 he won a scholarship to complete his studies in Rome, where he went in 1796...


Věra Naňková


Italian family of architects, active in Bohemia. Marcantonio Canevale (b Lanzo d’Intelvi, northern Italy, 28 Sept 1652; d Prague, bur 15 Dec 1711) and his brother Giovanni Canevale (d Orlík, Bohemia, 11 Nov 1706) were both enrolled in the Old Town Guild in Prague on 20 May 1674. Marcantonio acquired citizenship in the New Town there on 16 October 1680 and subsequently worked for aristocratic families in Bohemia (e.g. the Ditrichštejn, Wallenstein and Pachta). In 1694–6 he built the church of the Holy Cross at Reichenberg (now Liberec) at the expense of the count of the Holy Roman Empire Franz Ferdinand von Gallas, but it was later remodelled (1753–6) by Johann Josef Kuntze (1724–1800). His finest work was created for the Ursuline Order in Prague: the church of St Ursula (1699–1704) in Prague New Town, with its three-bay nave, shows a striving towards a rhythmical and centralized treatment of the internal volumes and has an advanced form of vaulting—two wide domical vaults with a central, barrel-vaulted bay. This church is one of the best works in Bohemia from the period around ...


Anja Buschow Oechslin

(b Rome, 1681; d Naples, April 1764).

Italian architect. He was a pupil of Antonio Valeri (1648–1736) and Pierfrancesco Garolli (1638–1716) and first achieved prominence with his design for a papal residence (1703; Rome, Acad. N. S Luca, Archivio Storico, Dis. architett. 452–4) in a competition held by the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. In 1715 he took part in a competition for the new sacristy of St Peter’s, Rome, and from 1715 to 1718 he restored the church of SS Giovanni e Paolo, also in Rome. In 1717 he took over the direction of the rebuilding of the church of Stimmate di S Francesco from Giovanni Battista Contini. He modified the design and conceived the façade, which, with its large statue of St Francis before the middle upper window, was a novelty in Rome, although there were precedents in Cosimo Fanzago’s church façades, such as S Giuseppe degli Scalzi a Pontecorvo (...


Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

French family of architects and decorators. They were in the service of the Spanish kings of the Bourbon dynasty, Philip V and Ferdinand VI, in the 18th century. René Carlier (b Paris, fl 1712; d Madrid, 15 Aug 1722) and his son François Antoine Carlier (b Paris, 1707; d Bayonne, 29 Dec 1750) introduced the late Baroque style of Louis XIV and the taste for French Regency and Louis XV decoration to Spain. René Carlier was a pupil of Robert de Cotte. In 1712 he was sent by Louis XIV to Spain to execute de Cotte’s designs for the new palace and gardens of Buen Retiro, Madrid. Work on the palace was abandoned because of the War of Succession, although Carlier was able to carry out the modernization of the staterooms and bedrooms of Philip V and Queen María Gabriela of Savoy in the old castle of Madrid, a project also conceived by de Cotte, which included wood panelling, fireplaces and furniture in the French style. Carlier was also involved with designs for the garden statues at La Granja de San Ildefonso, Segovia....


Julius Bryant


(b Genoa, c. 1718; d London, Aug 15, 1790).

Italian sculptor, active in England. He had arrived in London by 1760 and in 1768 became, with Joseph Wilton and William Tyler (d 1801), one of the three sculptors to be appointed Foundation Members of the Royal Academy. He subsequently became the second Keeper of the Royal Academy in 1783, a position he retained until his death, when he was succeeded by Wilton. Carlini exhibited at the Society of Artists between 1760 and 1768 and at the Royal Academy between 1769 and 1787.

Carlini competed for, but failed to win, several major commissions, including that for a statue of Admiral Lord Rodney for Jamaica, but was fortunate in receiving patronage from friends intent on keeping him in England. His earliest datable work, a marble statue of the ‘quack’ doctor Joshua Ward (c. 1760–64; London, V&A) was commissioned by the sitter in exchange for an annuity. Carlini’s bold carving, technically superior to many of his British contemporaries, is evident in his marble bust of ...


Ugo Ruggeri

(fl Naples, 1740–61).

Italian painter. He is among the most individual and whimsical figures in 18th-century Neapolitan painting, although few of his works are known. He was probably a pupil of Francesco Solimena and adopted the brilliant painterly effects and bold brushwork of Solimena’s late style. In 1740 he painted some canvases (dispersed) for the parish church of Cassino and worked in the church of the Cesarea in Naples at least until 1761, the date of the overarch painting. Most of his numerous works for Neapolitan churches and palazzi have been lost. He is most famous for his canvases depicting saints (1757–8) in SS Filippo e Giacomo, Naples. These are stylistically close to his Charles of Bourbon Visiting the Abbey of Montecassino (Naples, Pisani priv. col., see 1979 exh. cat., p. 247), which may be dated to the same period. The strongly characterized portraits in the latter work suggest contact with the work of Giuseppe Bonito....


Tessa Murdoch

[Carpentière, Andries]

(b c. 1677; d London, July 1737).

English sculptor, of French or Flemish descent. According to Vertue, he learnt ‘the rudiments of drawing’ from Peter Eude, a portrait and history painter trained at the Académie Royale, Paris, who settled in England and later in Scotland. Carpenter became principal assistant to John van Nost (i), and he is recorded as present in London in 1702 by Ralph Thoresby, the Leeds historian. Thoresby regarded Carpenter’s marble statue of Queen Anne, commissioned c. 1710–12 by Alderman William Milner for Moot Hall, Leeds (c. 1710–12; Leeds, C.A.G.), as ‘generally esteemed…the best that was ever made’ and included an engraving of it in his Ducatus Leodiensis (1715). The statue of the Queen, in her Parliament robes with crown, globe, sceptre and Order of the Garter, demonstrates Carpenter’s ability to handle marble competently on a monumental scale. From 1716 to 1717 he was associated with Francis Bird in the production of statues for the pediment of St Paul’s Cathedral....


Kathleen Russo

(b Paris, 1675; d Paris, Feb 15, 1758).

French architect. He studied in Italy from 1695, but his subsequent work shows little influence from the Italian Baroque. In 1703 he designed the façade of the Barnabite church, Paris, although his earliest project of note was the hôtel (1704; destr.) designed in Paris for Pierre Crozat; it was greatly admired by contemporaries and established Cartaud’s reputation in Paris. The plan of the building, which attracted most attention, grouped living rooms symmetrically around a small central courtyard, and a large gallery housing part of Crozat’s art collection closed the scheme at the rear, overlooking the elaborate garden. A smaller gallery at first-floor level faced the courtyard. Cartaud’s design for the château of Montmorency (1708), a country retreat built for Crozat, was also symmetrical in plan and featured a large oval salon in the manner of Louis Le Vau’s Vaux-le-Vicomte (1657–61), which projected into the garden, each bay of the façade divided by stately Corinthian pilasters. Cartaud worked for several other powerful patrons, including, from ...


Luisa Arruda

(b Lisbon, Nov 27, 1729; d Lisbon, Jan 27, 1810).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman, teacher and writer. He was apprenticed to João de Mesquita, an obscure painter–decorator who specialized in ornamentation, and he also studied painting and drawing under Bernardo Pereira Pegado. His early training coincided with the end of the reign of John V, during which time a lavish and ostentatious courtly Baroque style predominated in Portugal. He learnt easel painting from a friend, the somewhat older André Gonçalves, in whose studio he became acquainted with examples of the Italian Baroque style that dominated Portuguese painting. Gonçalves’s own work, however, did not greatly influence that of Carvalho, who adhered to a Late Baroque Italian style, painting works with clear and luminous colours deriving from Rubens.

In 1755 Lisbon was devastated by a powerful earthquake, and shortly after Carvalho was commissioned to paint a series of altarpieces and ceilings for the new churches that were built. He became the most sought-after church decorator of his day, painting an extensive series of panels of religious subjects for such churches as the Mártires, S António da Sé and S Pedro de Alcántara. He won significant recognition, however, for the ...


(b Santiago de Compostela, bapt Aug 16, 1691; d Santiago de Compostela, 1749).

Spanish architect. A pupil and follower of Domingo de Andrade (c. 1639–1712), he became a leading architect of the mid-18th century in Galicia. His first significant work is the cloister (1711–14) of Lugo Cathedral, in which he incorporated classical round-headed arches, separated by paired pilasters in the manner of Andrade, within an existing medieval form. Later works were more Baroque in style: the church of Las Capuchinas (1715), La Coruña; the altar of the chapel of Pilar (1718), Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, which resembles the retables that Casas y Nóvoa had seen in his travels in Portugal; the convent of S Domingo (1725), Santiago de Compostela; the circular chapel of Nuestra Señora de los Ojos Grandes (1726), Lugo Cathedral; the church of the Benedictine monastery (1735), Lugo; and the important Churrigueresque principal altar and cloister at S Martín Pinario, Santiago de Compostela. The principal altar (...


Jörg Garms


Large 18th-century palazzo situated in Italian town of Caserta, the successor of ancient and medieval Capua. The town is the capital of a province of the Campania region and is situated 28 km from Naples. Its growth dates from the 19th century. The Bourbon king Charles VII of Naples (from 1759 King Charles III of Spain) decided to make Caserta the site of a royal residence in imitation of Versailles. His choice was based on the excellent local hunting and the vulnerability of his palazzo at Naples in the event of a popular uprising or an attack from the sea. The building was designed by Luigi Vanvitelli and executed between 1752 and 1772. It was inhabitable from 1775 onwards and in the late 1770s and during the 1780s such artists as Fidele Fischetti and Domenico Mondo produced frescoes for various rooms (e.g. Mondo’s Classical Heroes, 1781, for the overdoors of the Sala delle Dame, and ...


Ricardo Descalzi

[Chili, Manuel ]

(fl Quito, 18th century).

Ecuadorean sculptor. An Indian nicknamed Caspicara (wooden face), he lived in Quito, and his name and work were discovered in 1791 by the doctor and journalist Eugenio Espejo. He was a pupil of Bernardo de Legarda. He is considered the outstanding sculptor of religious images in polychromed wood of the colonial period in Quito because of the delicacy, grace, and feeling that he gave to human expressions and his attention to the details of anatomy and the movement of his figures. The elegant but natural carving of the drapery adds a Baroque quality to his sculptures. The most outstanding of his works in Quito, all of unknown date, include the Four Virtues and the Holy Shroud in Quito Cathedral; St Francis, the Twelve Apostles, and the Assumption of the Virgin in S Francisco; and La Virgen del Carmen, St Joseph, and the Coronation of the Virgin in the Museo Franciscano in Quito. In certain of his works he grouped the figures as if in a painting, as in the ...