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Gordon Campbell

Small devotional book with a lavish binding, typically decorated with gold, enamel and jewels. The books were worn hanging from the belt, for which the 16th-century English word is ‘girdle’. The British Museum has a girdle-book attributed to Hans van Antwerpen (1540–45). The girdle-book of Princess Augusta of Denmark (...


Joaquim Oliveira Caetano

(fl from 1606; d Viseu, 1627).

Portuguese painter and illuminator. He was chaplain to the Bishop of Viseu, Dom João Manuel, and from 1613 he was Abbot of S Madalena do Serejo, Pinhel. In 1618 he returned to Viseu to work on the altarpieces for the Capela de S Marta, one of which survives, which was painted on both sides in a rather stylized late Mannerist style. In 1622 he was appointed a canon of Viseu Cathedral. Gonçalves Neto specialized in manuscript illumination, and his work includes the Compromisso da Irmandade do Espírito Santo (1606) of the hermitage chapel (Ermida) of Nossa Senhora dos Remedios, Alfama (in situ); the Livro das Missas de Prima of Viseu Cathedral (in situ); and the remarkable Pontifical (1610–22; Lisbon, Acad. Ciênc.), one of the finest examples of Portuguese Mannerist illumination. The codex of 44 folios on parchment has ornamented borders and 11 excellently composed biblical scenes depicted with precise draughtsmanship and rich colours; it is clearly influenced by the Roman Mannerism of Pellegrino Tibaldi and Federico Zuccaro. This work was dedicated to Bishop ...


Jacques Thirion

(b c. 1510; d ?Bologna, c. 1565).

French sculptor, illustrator and architect. He was one of the great masters of relief sculpture. Through his collaboration with the architect Pierre Lescot he was involved in many major building projects, and in his refined relief sculptures, such as the carved panels for the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, he achieved a highly personal synthesis between the mannered style of the Fontainebleau school and a classicism derived from his study of antique sculpture. He illustrated with skilful and lively wood-engravings Jean Baptiste Martin I’s first complete French translation (Paris, 1547) of Vitruvius, De architectura: Architecture ou art de bien bastir, an edition that was to have considerable influence on the revival of the classical style in France.

Goujon was possibly of Norman origin, and the knowledge of the sculpture and architecture of anti-quity and the Italian Renaissance displayed in his works suggests that he spent time in Italy. He is first recorded at Rouen in ...


Claude Schaefer

(b Parthenay, Deux-Sèvres, 1430–35; d Parthenay, after 1497).

French painter, illuminator and priest. He was dean of the chapter of the collegiate church of Ste Croix, Parthenay, and one of the few French ecclesiastics who was also a painter. The form ‘Grymbault’ derives from an erroneous reading of his name in some of the documents. He worked for the Connétable, Arthur de Richemont (1393–1458), until the latter’s death, and then for Jean de Dunois, Bâtard d’Orléans (d Nov 1468), in whose castle chapel at Châteaudun he painted ‘several things’. He stayed at Châteaudun for at least a year, but between 1462 and 1464 he was ‘chaplain and illuminator’ to René of Anjou, King of Naples, at Bar-sur-Aube. He was also involved in the construction of the organ in St Hilaire, Poitiers. None of these works is known to have survived.

Jean Lemaire’s journal of his travels in south-west France in 1513 recorded that the church of Ste Croix contained ‘several rich paintings and images of “Duc Arthus de Bretaigne, connestable de France” [i.e. Arthur de Richemont], and again his face from life by a great painter and companion of Fouquet master Paoul’. A 16th-century crayon drawing of Arthur de Richemont (Paris, Bib. N., OA 14, fol. 48) by ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).

Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.

F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...


Mark L. Evans

(b Cremona; fl 1464–1506).

Italian illuminator. There is no evidence for his activity in Cremona, but like his almost exact contemporary, the Paduan painter Andrea Mantegna, Guindaleri was a lifelong court artist of the Gonzaga at Mantua. In a letter of 30 November 1489 to Francesco II Gonzaga, the artist stated that he had entered the service of the Marchese’s grandfather, Ludovico, 25 years earlier, in 1464. Probably one of the first books that he decorated for the Gonzaga is the copy of Boccaccio’s Il filocolo (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Canon. Italiani 85), the text of which was scheduled to be completed for Marchese Ludovico at the beginning of 1464. Its miniature of Horsemen in a Piazza (fol. 114v) includes foreshortened horses of a type that derives ultimately from the work of Pisanello, Mantegna’s predecessor as court painter to the Gonzaga. Comparisons have also been drawn between the miniatures in the Oxford Boccaccio and the frescoes painted around ...


(d c. 1417–20).

Goldsmith, sculptor, and painter, probably of German origin. None of his works is known to have survived, but he is mentioned twice in mid-15th-century texts: in the second book of Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Commentarii and in the manuscript of the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Both texts relate that Gusmin died during the reign of Pope Martin (i.e. Martin V, reg 1417–31), in the year of the 438th Olympiad (i.e. between 1415 and 1420). He worked in the service of the Duke of Anjou, who was forced to destroy Gusmin’s greatest work, a golden altar, in order to provide cash for his ‘public needs’. Gusmin consequently retired to a hermitage where he led a saintly life, painting and teaching young artists. Although it is clear from his account that Ghiberti never knew the master or saw any of his original works, he stated that he had seen casts of his sculptures, which, he said, were as fine as the work of the ancient Greeks, although the figures were rather short. There have been numerous attempts to identify Gusmin with artists, both German and Italian, fitting the account of Ghiberti and the Anonimo Magliabecchiano. Swarzenski first named Gusmin as the author of the alabaster Rimini altar (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), but this has now been demonstrated to be of Netherlandish workmanship. Krautheimer proposed a convincing reconstruction of Gusmin’s career, suggesting that his Angevin patron was ...


(d summer 1519).

German architect. He is mentioned in the Brotherhood book of the masons’ lodge at Strasbourg in 1471 and was apparently brought to Strasbourg that year. He was made a Citizen in 1482, by which time he was a foreman at the masons’ lodge of the cathedral (see Strasbourg, §III, 1). In 1486 he became Master of the Works but lost the position in 1490, when he applied unsuccessfully for the job of Master of the Works at Milan Cathedral. Hammer then entered the service of the Bishop of Strasbourg to carry out various works in his residence at Saverne. He was again made Master of the Works at Strasbourg Cathedral in 1513 and kept the position until his death.

The earliest works entrusted to Hammer were the tabernacle (destr.) in the choir of Strasbourg Cathedral and the pulpit for the nave, both made before he became Master of the Works. The pulpit, one of the richest and most beautiful works of the Late Gothic, was made in ...


Hannes Etzlstorfer

(b Ovelgönne, nr Oldenburg, c. 1615; d after 1678).

German painter. The son of a bookkeeper at the corn exchange, he was known because of a disability as ‘the Ovelgönne mute’. An aristocratic sponsor, probably Graf Anton Günther (1603–67) of Oldenburg, sent him to train in the Netherlands: stylistic considerations would suggest that this was in the 1630s. The Evening Scene (1637; ex-art market, Berlin; Göttsche, no. 8) shows him adapting the style of Caravaggio as practised in Utrecht to the kind of social gathering depicted by Dirck Hals or Anthonie Palamedesz. He uses an artificial light source to exaggerate the modelling of the figures and the space. This characteristic of his art also shows in the Evening Banquet of 1640 (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), which might represent a stop on a southward journey to Italy: works from this time suggest contact with southern Germany and Austria. It is only after his arrival in Italy, working under the influence of Gerrit van Honthorst, that Heimbach’s painting achieves a dramatic impact. His ...


Bodo Brinkmann

(fl 1454–70).

South Netherlandish illuminator. His name appears several times in the account books of the Burgundian court, and he was among the artists employed to produce decorations for the famous ‘banquet du faisan’ organized by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in Lille in 1454. Hennecart also worked for Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, while the latter was still Comte de Charolais, painting coats of arms and producing banners for him, among other things. In 1457, on the occasion of the birth of Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, he illuminated a rotulus with a motet (untraced). One documented work by the artist survives: according to a bill of 1470 Hennecart was paid for the illumination of two copies of the Instruction d’un jeune prince, a didactic text formerly attributed to Georges Chastellain and now regarded as the work of Guillebert de Lannoy. One of these copies (Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 5104), containing three miniatures, bears the initials of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York (fol. 66...


Heinrich Geissler

(b Metzingen, Württemberg, 1591; d Nuremberg, 1661).

German painter and draughtsman. He completed his apprenticeship, no doubt in Stuttgart, before 1611, when he is recorded as a journeyman working in Nuremberg. He was in Venice and Rome in 1614: a book of travel sketches is filled with copies after Veronese, Taddeo Zuccaro and others (pages, Brunswick, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.; Coburg, Veste Coburg). He was already using a secret script containing Cyrillic letters in inscriptions on drawings at that time. Contact with Italian art drew him away from Mannerism, a move expressed in the sturdy, thickset ‘non-artistic’ figures in his drawings. He travelled in Swabia (1617–20) before returning to Nuremberg, where he obtained his master’s certificate in 1622.

Herr’s work seems extraordinarily varied in terms of both style and content. It includes religious allegories (with a Protestant slant) and secular stories, vedute, genre paintings and many portraits, for example Andreas Imhoff III (1635; Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.). The numerous drawings, often monogrammed, reveal him as a fresh and enthralling narrator, almost in the folklore tradition, with an early Baroque realism. As a Protestant, he showed an early preference for genre themes inspired from the Netherlands. His scenes of contemporary life include ...


American library in Saint John’s University, Collegeville, MN, founded in 1965. The Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML; formerly the Hill Monastic Manuscript Library) contains over 115,000 microfilm and digital images of medieval, Renaissance, early modern and Eastern Christian manuscripts. To fulfil its mission of preserving endangered manuscripts and making them more accessible to scholars, HMML photographs entire manuscript libraries that lack the resources to preserve their own collections, are inaccessible to researchers, or are in immediate danger of destruction. Until 2003, HMML photographed entire manuscripts on black and white microfilm and shot selected illuminations in colour. When the Library switched to digital photography in 2003, it shot entire volumes in colour and recorded codicological information.

The vast majority of HMML’s holdings reproduce texts predating 1600. Nearly half of HMML’s Western manuscripts derive from libraries in Austria and Germany, but HMML also houses significant collections from Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and England. The Maltese collections are particularly important and include the Archives of the Knights of Malta. HMML has photographed collections of Eastern Christian manuscripts since the 1970s, and its collections of Armenian, Syriac, and Christian Arabic manuscripts are becoming the most significant resource for the study of Eastern Christian manuscripts in the world. HMML has by far the world’s largest collection of Ethiopian manuscripts preserved on microfilm and in digital form....


Lee Hendrix


(b Antwerp, 1542; d Vienna, 1601).

Flemish illuminator and draughtsman. He was the last of the great Flemish manuscript illuminators and the foremost topographical draughtsman of his age. His work forms a critical link between earlier manuscript illumination and ornamental design and the genre of floral still-life painting, which emerged in northern Europe at the end of the 16th century.

He was the son of Elisabeth Veselaer and Jacques Hoefnagel, a wealthy jewel and tapestry merchant. According to van Mander, Hoefnagel drew secretly as a youth but was compelled by his father to pursue a career in business. Although van Mander reports that he probably received some instruction from Hans Bol, this was probably informal training since he described himself as an autodidact on a drawing (1578; Berlin, Kupferstichkab., KdZ 3991). He travelled extensively during his youth, visiting France (1560–62), Spain (1563–7) and England (1568–9). He returned to Antwerp in ...


Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...


Marco Collareta

(Venice, 1499). Illustrated treatise on Italian art. One of the most mysterious books of the Renaissance, it takes the form of a long romance in two parts, written in a curious Italian language that is rich in rare Latinisms and Graecisms. The first part, strongly allegorical in tone, tells the story of a journey made by Poliphilo to meet Polia. He marries her, and together they go off to worship the statue of Venus, the goddess of love. In the second and shorter part, Polia and Poliphilo recall the story of their love, at first beset by problems but afterwards happy. Although precise references to Treviso and to the 1460s create a sense of actuality, the Hypnerotomachia adopts the literary convention of pure dream. Hence the strange Graecizing title of the work, which means ‘the dream of a battle for love fought by Poliphilo’ (i.e. ‘lover of Polia’).

The initial letters of the 38 chapters of the ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(b Florence, 1433; d Florence, ?Nov 19, 1504).

Italian illuminator. His output appears to be divided into two main phases: the early phase is characterized by an exuberant style; the later (after 1478), for which he is best known, is less vivacious, due to the constant intervention of mediocre collaborators. In 1464 Mariano illuminated Livy’s History of Rome (Florence, Bib. Riccardiana, MS. 484), formerly attributed to the Master of the White Scrolls because of an incorrect interpretation of the motif of white scrolls, which were seen as a stylistic peculiarity rather than as characteristic of a certain type of book. A feature of Mariano’s early work is the use of innovative design, even within traditional graphic schemes. He preferred portraits to narrative scenes and his portraiture reflects a more complex range of influences, including such artists as Piero della Francesca and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, and such Classical motifs as the bust. Pairs of putti, three-dimensional candelabra and a vast assortment of animals can often be seen in the backgrounds....


Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b Paris; fl Brussels, 1448; d c. 1468).

Franco-Flemish illuminator, scribe and designer. He was first paid for restoring old books and writing and illustrating new ones for Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, on 26 January 1448, a task that he continued for the next eight years, being rewarded with the title of ducal valet de chambre in October 1449. In 1456 he ceased this exclusive work; in order to widen his clientele, he purchased citizenship in Bruges the following year, probably because of a new ordinance limiting the practice of illumination to citizens. He paid dues to the Bruges guild until 1462 but continued to live in Brussels near the ducal palace on the Coudenberg. Here he joined the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross in 1463, the membership of which comprised ducal servants and city leaders, including Rogier van der Weyden. In 1464 Jean became valet de chambre to the Duke’s heir, Charles de Charolais; he was probably still alive in ...


Michael Spens


(b London, Oct 8, 1900; d July 16, 1996).

English landscape designer, urban planner, architect and writer. He was educated in London at the Architectural Association School (1919–24). His book Italian Gardens of the Renaissance (with J. C. Shepherd), derived from student research, was published in 1925, the year in which he qualified as an architect. He soon established his practice in London. In the 1930s he was instrumental in developing the Institute of Landscape Architects (now the Landscape Institute) as a professional body. He taught at the Architectural Association School (1928–33), becoming its Principal in 1939. His projects of the 1930s include the village plan (1933) for Broadway, Hereford & Worcs, a model document under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1932, and, with Russell Page (1906–85), a pioneer modernist restaurant and visitors’ centre (1934) at Cheddar Gorge, Somerset. Important garden designs of these years include Ditchley Park (...


Gordon Campbell


(b Nuremberg, fl 1472; d Nuremberg, Oct 3, 1513).

German publisher. Koberger introduced printing to Nuremberg in 1470 and sold his books through his 16 shops and his network of agents throughout Europe. He published more than 200 folio incunabula, many of which were lavishly illustrated with woodcuts, including Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle. On his death the business passed to his heirs who went bankrupt in ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Zwickau, c. 1531; d Dresden, 1586).

German bookbinder. Krause was based in Dresden, where he was the first bookbinder to use gold tooling and the first to use French and Italian designs. In 1566 he was appointed court binder to the Elector Augustus I of Saxony, a post which he held for the rest of his life. The library of the electors (now in the Sächsische Landesbibliothek in Dresden) contains many volumes bound by Krause in gilded bindings with portrait stamps and initials of members of the electoral family....