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Gordon Campbell

German porcelain manufactory. In 1777 a porcelain factory was founded in Ilmenau (Thuringia) by Christian Zacharias Gräbner; its products were imitations of wares produced by Wedgwood and Meissen Porcelain Factory. From 1808 to 1871 the factory was known as Nonne and Roesch; in the 20th century it was nationalized under the communists, and is now an independent company. Its products are marked as Grafvon Henneberg porcelain....



Persian family of painters. Working in Isfahan in the later 19th century, they specialized in varnished and painted (‘lacquered’) objects (see Islamic art, §VIII, 10). Signed works provide the names of some 15 members of the family. Their work is generally confined to the traditional themes of birds and flowers. Their style is less original than that of their contemporaries, the Isfahani family family, but equally fine in technique. A casket made by Nasrallah Imami in 1865–6 (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus., 75.6.17) includes his typical motif of the hazelnut. A similar floral subject is depicted on the magnificent mirror-case (London, V&A, 922-1869) painted by Riza Imami in 1866 for the Paris Exposition of 1867. Muhammad al-Husayni al-Imami worked in the traditional style in the 1870s and attained the rank of Painter Laureate (Pers. naqqāsh-bāshī). Javad al-Imami, who is also known by the name ‛Abd al-Raji, painted a fine spectacle case (...



Persian family of painters. They were the foremost specialists in painted and varnished (‘lacquered’) objects (see Islamic art, §VIII, 10) in 19th-century Iran. Their work is marked by meticulous technique, minute detail and delicate finish, and their subjects, such as variations on the theme of the Holy Family, are often inspired by the European pictures and prints that were flooding into Iran at the time. The first known member of the family was Aqa Baba. His elder son, (1) Najaf ‛Ali, set the high standards that were passed to other members of the family. His younger brother (2) Muhammad Isma‛il was the most brilliant and original member of the family and became a Painter Laureate (Pers. naqqāsh-bāshī) of the Qajar dynasty (reg 1779–1924). Najaf ‛Ali’s three sons, Muhammad Kazim (d c. 1885), Ja‛far and Ahmad, who were active until the 1880s, also painted varnished objects, as did Muhammad Isma‛il’s son ...


Yuka Kadoi

Apart from a short-lived introduction of paper currency in Ilkhanid Iran under the inspiration of Chinese models, paper money was virtually unknown in the Islamic world until the mid-19th century, as the right to strike Coins was one of the most traditional and important symbols of sovereignty. The Ottoman Empire was one of the first Islamic states to issue machine-made banknotes during the 1850s, as part of its modernization policy. As Western standards of administration, including the modern banking system, were put in force, paper money began to be circulated in Iran in 1890 by the Imperial Bank of Persia, and most of the other Muslim countries followed this trend along with their independence from Western countries in the early 20th century. Like coinage, paper money was regarded as an effective means of legitimizing political aspirations in the Islamic world, due to its state monopoly and worldwide circulation. Banknotes well reflected socio-political backgrounds, and their design was intended to proclaim Islamic identity, emphasizing Arabic or Persian calligraphy in parallel with Latin transliterations, as well as images of important antiquities, such as archaeological sites and historic mosques. Following Western models of paper money, portraits of rulers and politicians were also included. Despite a general antipathy toward figural representations, life-like depictions of public figures in banknotes served as iconographic propaganda....


Zdenko Rus

(b Klanjec, nr Zagreb, April 17, 1869; d Klanjec, July 4, 1939).

Croatian painter and teacher. He studied painting in Zagreb under Ferdo Quiquerez and from 1886 he attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, where he studied with Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). In 1892 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich, under Wilhelm von Lindenschmidt (1829–95) and also took master classes with Ferdinand Keller (1842–1922) at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Karlsruhe. From 1895 he taught at the School of Arts and Crafts (now School for Applied Art and Design) in Zagreb and from 1908 to 1927 at the Art School (later Academy of Fine Arts) in the same city. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th he was the most important history painter working in Croatia and the most prolific. Attracted by Vlaho Bukovac’s Divisionist technique and his use of light, he adopted a palette of ...


[İzzet Efendi; Kadıasker Mustafa İzzet; Muṣṭafā ‛Izzat]

(b Tosya, 1801; d Istanbul, 1876).

Ottoman calligrapher. He went to Istanbul at a young age and caught the attention of the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II (reg 1808–39), who, on hearing the youth’s fine voice, took him into the Topkapı Palace to be trained and educated. He learnt thuluth and naskh scripts from the calligrapher Mustafa Vasıf (d 1852), from whom he received a diploma (Turk. icazet). Mustafa İzzet, who was a distinguished musician and became military judge (kadıasker) of Anatolia, tutored Sultan Abdülmecid (reg 1839–61) and granted him an icazet in thuluth. Mustafa İzzet produced 11 copies of the Koran, several books of Koranic quotations and prayers, some 200 calligraphic compositions describing the features and qualities of the Prophet Muhammad (hilye), and panels in a fine naskh in the style of Hafiz Osman. He was also responsible for the large calligraphic roundels that adorn Hagia Sophia and he restored the inscription on the dome (...


S. J. Vernoit

[Muḥammad Ja‛far]

(fl c. 1800–30).

Persian painter. He was the most prolific painter in enamels at the court of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834), but unlike his contemporaries Baqir and ‛Ali, Muhammad Ja‛far did not attach a title to his name when he signed his work. One of his earliest works is an inkpot for a penbox (1805; sold Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 25 May 1964, lot 2) decorated with busts of a young man and a girl. His most impressive pieces are large objects made for official presentation to foreign dignitaries. He enamelled several large gold dishes that are decorated with a lion and sun in the centre panel surrounded by alternating birds and floral swags. One (1813; ex-Kazrouni priv. col.; sold London, Sotheby’s, March 1954, lot 867) was presented to Sir Gore Ouseley (1770–1844), the British ambassador to Iran, and another made of solid gold and weighing more than six pounds (...


[Ismā‛īl Jalāyīr]

(fl c. 1860–70).

Iranian painter. The son of Hajji Muhammad Zaman Khan Jalayir of Khurasan, Isma‛il Jalayir trained in the 1860s at the Dar al-Funun, the college founded in Tehran by the Qajar monarch Nasir al-Din (reg 1848–96). The artist worked in a variety of media including oil, miniature, grisaille and varnished paint (‘lacquer’; see Islamic art, §viii, 10). In addition to portraits, his subjects ranged from Christian scenes, such as the Sacrifice of Isaac (ex-Schulz priv. col., see Schulz, i, pl. F), to depictions of historical events. In 1861 he added a battle scene of the Qajar ruler Muhammad (reg 1834–48) to a varnished penbox (sold London, Sotheby’s, 1978) decorated some two decades earlier by Muhammad Hasan Afshar with scenes of the Last Judgement. Isma‛il Jalayir was a favourite of Nasir al-Din and painted a fine portrait of him (1862–3; Tehran, Mus. Dec. A.). The artist’s work is Europeanized on the surface, as in a painting of a group of ladies drinking tea from a samovar in a garden pavilion (London, V&A, P.56–1941), but maintains the traditions of Persian painting and is often tinged with gentle melancholy. Isma‛il Jalayir committed suicide at a young age sometime between ...


A. Ziffer

(b Munich, Oct 30, 1868; d Munich, Oct 9, 1940).

German painter, illustrator, teacher and poster designer. The son of the painter Christian Jank (1833–88), he attended Simon Hollósy’s private art school in Munich before studying (1891–6) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, also in Munich, under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and Paul Höcker (1854–1910). From 1896 he exhibited at the Munich Secession, and he became a member of Scholle, Die, founded in 1899. A regular contributor to the journal Jugend and at the forefront of modernism, he made his mark as a humorous illustrator, portraying allegories and scenes from military life. Jank also designed posters (e.g. Underworld, 1896; Berlin, Mus. Dt. Gesch.). He taught at the Damenakademie (1899–1907). Having come to prominence as a portrayer of events from German history with three monumental paintings for Berlin’s Reichstag building (destr.) in 1905, he collaborated with Adolf Münzer (1870–1952) and ...


Nadia Tscherny

(b Lyon, May 21, 1814; d Lyon, June 1, 1892).

French painter and poet. He belonged to the Lyon school of painting, characterized by idealistic and mystical tendencies similar to those of the Nazarenes and the Pre-Raphaelites. His Christian beliefs, which are very apparent in his art, were strongly influenced by neo-Catholic apologists. From 1831 Janmot studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon. In 1833 he went to Paris, where he became a student of Victor Orsel at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He also attended Ingres’s studios in Paris and Rome. His technique was deeply indebted to Ingres, but emotionally and intellectually he was more closely allied with Delacroix, whose enthusiasm for the literature of Dante and Shakespeare he shared. Janmot’s style combined the precision of Ingres with the meditative devotion of Orsel. His predilection for heraldic compositions, based on symmetry and repetition, his use of profile and flattened form and his luminous colour were all influenced by a love of such early Italian painters as Giotto and Fra Angelico. Janmot’s style has much in common with that of fellow Lyonnais and pupil of Ingres, Hippolyte Flandrin....




S. J. Vernoit

(b 1753; d Brighton, Aug 19, 1807).

English collector. He went to India in 1770 as a writer in the Bengal Civil Service and spent ten years in Calcutta, occupying various posts including assistant to the Governor-General Warren Hastings (1732–1818). Johnson became very rich, augmenting his salary with private trade, and he also took part in the intellectual life surrounding Hastings, studying oriental languages, commissioning copies of manuscripts for his own use and purchasing paintings. He was in Lucknow as Head Assistant to the Resident (1780–82), where he increased his collection. On returning to Calcutta, he became friends with the Orientalist scholar William Jones (1746–94). Johnson was Resident at Hyderabad (1784–5), where he again extended his collection, especially with Deccani paintings. Recalled to Calcutta, he became involved with the Asiatic Society of Bengal, founded by Jones. In 1786 Johnson joined the Board of Revenue and became Chairman of the General Bank of India, a post he held until his departure from India in ...


Lene Olesen

(b Næstved, March 6, 1846; d Næstved, Nov 16, 1917).

Danish ceramic manufacturer. He received his training as an apprentice at the Kähler ceramic factory. The concern had been founded in Næstved in 1839 by his father, Joachim Christian Herman Kähler (1808–84), who was a potter and tiled-stove manufacturer. Kähler attended the technical colleges in Næstved and Copenhagen (1864–5) and assisted as a modeller in the studio of the sculptor Hermann Wilhelm Bissen. He then travelled abroad until 1867.

In 1872 the concern was divided between Kähler and his brother Carl Frederik Kähler (1850–1930), but the latter withdrew in 1896. Kähler took over the manufacture of tiled stoves and faience and increasingly experimented with glaze and lustre effects. In 1888 Karl Hansen Reistrup (1863–1929) joined the concern as artistic director. Kähler achieved recognition for the factory at the Great Nordic Exhibition of 1888, held at the Industrial Association in Copenhagen. At the Exposition Universelle of ...


Ingeborg Wikborg


(b Christiania [now Oslo], May 8, 1876; d Paris, Oct 19, 1926).

Norwegian painter. He studied at the Royal School of Design in Kristiania (1891–5) and in 1896 studied with Karl Raupp (1837–1918) in Munich. Back in Norway, he obtained tuition from Christian Krohg and other eminent artists before applying to the Kunstakademie in Munich in 1900. The same autumn he studied with Eugène Carrière in Paris, where he met several of the future Fauvists, including Henri Matisse and André Derain. The greatest influence on his development as a painter was, however, Edvard Munch, whom he met in 1901. Karsten’s favourite subjects during this period were figures, portraits and landscapes. Consumption (1907; Oslo, N.G.), a full-length frontal presentation of an old, sick woman, was directly inspired by Munch’s portrait of his sister Inger (1892; Oslo, N.G.), although it also reveals an independent talent.

From 1900 Karsten was mostly in Paris, and Munch’s influence receded as impressions from the work of Paul Gauguin, Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh came to affect his painting. ...


S. J. Vernoit

[Kemalettin Bey]

(b Istanbul, 1870; d Ankara, July 1927).

Turkish architect. He studied at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul, graduating in 1891, and at the Charlottenburg Technische Hochschule in Berlin (1896–8). After his return to Turkey in 1900, he taught at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul and became chief architect of the Ministry of Pious Foundations (1909), entrusted with the restoration of historical monuments and the design of new buildings. This work enabled him to analyse the principles of Ottoman architecture and formulate a revivalist idiom. He built mosques, mausoleums, office blocks, schools, prisons and hospitals; the small mosque (1913) at Bebek, Istanbul, is a fine example of his revivalist style. The Fourth Vakıf Han (1912–26), a large seven-storey office block in Istanbul’s Bahçekapı district, epitomizes Ottoman revivalist architecture, also known as the First National Architectural Style (see Islamic art, §II, 7(i)). Its well-ordered stone façade with rich carvings and coloured tiles hides a sophisticated steel framework. His last building complex in Istanbul, the Harikzedegan apartments (...


Robert E. McVaugh

(Christian )

(b Hannover, Nov 28, 1777; d Rome, March 5, 1853).

German diplomat, collector and writer. He studied law in Göttingen (1796–9) and while there he also attended the lectures of Christian Gottlieb Heyne and Johann Dominicus Fiorillo, which stimulated his interest in Classics and the arts. After a trip to Italy (1808–9) and a visit to the collection of old German paintings in Heidelberg owned by the Boisserée brothers (1811), this interest became a serious vocation. He was appointed secretary to the Hannoverian envoy to Rome in 1817, chargé d’affaires to Rome in 1825 and ambassador to Naples in 1843. On his arrival in Rome he published anonymously Über die Nachahmung in der Malerei (1818) in which he attacked the classicism of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Heinrich Meyer. He was friendly with and influenced many artists, especially Otto Magnus von Stackelberg (1787–1837) and Friedrich Overbeck. He contributed articles on the arts to ...


S. J. Vernoit and Jonathan M. Bloom

Reviser Sheila S. Blair

[‛Abdallāh Khān]

(fl c. 1810–50).

Persian painter and architect. Trained in the apprentice system in royal workships, he rose through the ranks and in 1839 he was appointed by Muhammad Shah Qajar (reg 1834–48) painter laureate (naqqāsh bāshī), court architect (mi‛mār bāshī) and supervisor of royal workshops in charge of painters, architects, designers, enamelers, masons, carpenters, potters, blacksmiths, spearmen, candlemakers, keepers of the palace, glass-cutters and gardeners. His major work was a large mural with 118 life-size figures covering three walls in the interior of the Nigaristan Palace at Tehran (destr.; see Islamic art, §VIII, 11(i)). On the end wall the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834) was depicted enthroned in state surrounded by his sons; on the side walls he was attended by a double row of courtiers and foreign ambassadors, including the British ambassador Sir Gore Ouseley (1770–1844) and Napoleon’s envoy C. M. Gardane (...


[Luṭf ‛Alı Khān Shīrāzī]

(fl 1840–70).

Persian painter. He is often designated ṣūratgar (‘painter’) to distinguish him from the Zand monarch of the same name (reg 1789–94). The artist continued the flower-and-bird tradition associated with ‛Ali Ashraf and is best known for flower paintings, such as one dated 1841 of a hand holding a rose blossom (priv. col.; see Robinson, 1979, fig.). Lutf ‛Ali also illustrated manuscripts, and he signed most of the illustrations in a copy (1854–64; Shiraz, Vesal priv. col.) of the Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’). His working methods can be seen from his album (Tehran, Riza ‛Abbasi Mus., 1299–1309, 1311–1510), which contains a dozen folios of pounces, drawings and studies for penboxes, caskets, daggers and manuscript illumination. A few are in Lutf ‛Ali’s own style of floral sprays and flowering hazelnut branches within cartouches and medallions, including the pounce used for a painted and varnished (‘lacquered’) penbox (1849; Tehran, Mus. Dec. A.) decorated with a floral design incorporating European figures. Other materials in the album range in style and show the variety of compositions and designs readily available to Iranian artists in the 19th century....


S. J. Vernoit

[Muḥammad Ḥasan Khān]

(fl c. 1800–40).

Persian painter. He signed a number of large oil paintings (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.; ex-Amery priv. col.), including two life-size portraits of princes and a painting of Shaykh San‛an and the Christian Maiden. Other paintings that can be attributed to the artist on stylistic grounds include a third portrait of a prince in the same collection and two paintings of women (Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.). His style is characterized by a soft rendering of features, fondness for reddish brown and a hallmark vase of flowers. He also produced miniature paintings in the form of monochrome portraits. European travellers in Tehran in the 19th century erroneously attributed to him the large mural in the Nigaristan Palace depicting the court of the Qajar monarch Fath ‛Ali Shah (reg 1797–1834), but this painting is now considered the work of ‛Abdallah Khan.

S. Y. Amiranashvili: Iranskaya stankovaya zhivopis’ [Iranian wall painting] (Tbilisi, 1940)...