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(b Rouen, Sept 26, 1791; d Paris, Jan 26, 1824).

French painter, draughtsman, lithographer, and sculptor. He experienced the exaltation of Napoleon’s triumphs in his boyhood, reached maturity at the time of the empire’s agony, and ended his career of little more than 12 working years in the troubled early period of the Restoration. When he died, he was known to the public only by the three paintings he had exhibited at the Salon in Paris, the Charging Chasseur (1812; Paris, Louvre; see fig.), the Wounded Cuirassier Leaving the Field of Battle (1814; Paris, Louvre), and the Raft of the Medusa (1819; Paris, Louvre), and by a handful of lithographs.

The work that Gericault left behind is a fragment, difficult to comprehend or fit into the conventional framework of art history. Primarily he sought a pictorial form with which to represent contemporary experience with dramatic emphasis and visual truth. The dangers that beset him on this search were, on the one side, the stylelessness and banality of ‘picturesque’ realism and, on the other, the stilted artifice of over stylization. Between these two temptations, the Romantic and the Neo-classical, he sought for a middle way: a grand style capable of expressing modern subjects....


Pekka Korvenmaa

Finnish architectural partnership formed in 1896 by Herman Gesellius (1874–1916), Armas Lindgren and Eliel Saarinen (see Saarinen family, §1), the year before they graduated from the Polytekniska Institutet in Helsinki. It dissolved in 1907, although Lindgren left the office in 1905. National and international recognition came in 1900, when they designed the Finnish pavilion for the Exposition Universelle in Paris, having won the competition for its design in 1898. The design linked a number of international influences as well as particularly Finnish elements (motifs such as bears, squirrels and pine cones) and forms from Art Nouveau. It also included neo-Romanesque elements reminiscent of the H. H. Richardson school in the USA. The interior of the pavilion’s cupola was decorated with paintings by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The overall effect was of an Arts and Crafts ambience. It was one of the first examples of the architecture of ...


Susan Morris

(b London, Feb 18, 1775; d London, Nov 9, 1802).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. With his rival, J. M. W. Turner, he extended the technical possibilities of watercolour and in doing so demonstrated that watercolours could have the visual impact and emotional range of oils. Although close in style throughout the 1790s, by 1800 Turner and Girtin were beginning to diverge: whereas the former dissolved forms to express his idea of Nature in a state of flux, the latter sought out a landscape’s underlying patterns to convey his awe of Nature’s permanence as well as its grandeur. Girtin’s reduction of landscape to simple and monumental forms, his panoramic compositions, his bold palette of browns and blues, and his sensitivity to natural effects such as cloud formations, were to influence watercolour painters as diverse as John Varley, Cornelius Varley, Peter De Wint and John Sell Cotman.

Girtin was the son of a brushmaker of Huguenot descent. In 1788 he was apprenticed to the topographical watercolour painter ...


(b Frankfurt am Main, Aug 28, 1749; d Weimar, March 22, 1832).

German writer, statesman, scientist, historian and theorist. By virtue of his prodigious literary output, his writings on art (notably in collaboration with Friedrich Schiller), his patronage as chief minister of Weimar, the extraordinary variety of his interests, and his sheer longevity, he had a profound influence on European culture.

Goethe began writing in the late 1760s, when the Romantic reaction against Neo-classicism had already started. The Rococo view of the Classical heritage, which stressed the formal elegance and rationality of the Greeks, was being dismantled by such writers as Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, all of whom influenced Goethe. Herder’s study of folk art, Homer and the Bible concurred with Goethe’s celebration of Shakespeare—in Rede zum Shäkespears Tag (1771)—and of Gothic art—in Von deutscher Baukunst (1772)—in acknowledging the role of passion and daemonic energy in art. These elements, it was claimed, were also present in Classical art; this contrasted with the Neo-classical emphasis on its rationality. This period of Goethe’s life produced such characteristically Romantic poems as ...


Jörn Bahns

(b Heidelberg, Nov 4, 1802; d Darmstadt, Oct 6, 1866).

German painter. He studied from 1820 at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf and was then employed by his teacher, Peter Cornelius, as an assistant in producing paintings for the Glyptothek in Munich (destr.; cartoons, Berlin, Alte N.G.). He also worked on the fresco Theology for the main hall of the University of Bonn, where in 1825 he was commissioned to design and execute three further frescoes: Philosophy (1828; destr.; cartoon, Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle), Jurisprudence and Medicine (1832–4; destr.; lithographs, see Hinz, figs 6–8). In 1834 he became court painter to Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden, as well as curator of the palace collections in Mannheim. During this period he painted religious frescoes for the chapel of the von Dalberg-Herdingschen Schloss in Nierstein, including the Adoration of the Christ-child (in situ), in which, as in the Bonn frescoes, Raphael’s influence is clear.

Götzenberger painted 14 monumental frescoes for the ...


(b Fuendetodos, March 30, 1746; d Bordeaux, April 16, 1828).

Spanish painter, draughtsman and printmaker. The most important Spanish artist of the last quarter of the 18th and first quarter of the 19th centuries, he served three generations of Spanish kings. Stylistically his work spans the period from the late Rococo to Romanticism and, at the last, presages Impressionism. During his six active decades he produced some 700 paintings, 900 drawings and almost 300 prints, which reflect his rapidly changing world: the Bourbon Spain of Charles III and the reign of Charles IV, the Enlightenment, the French occupation, the turmoil of the Peninsular War, the despotic reign of Ferdinand VII (and the Inquisition) and Spain’s few years of constitutional government. Appreciation of his prints by non-Spaniards even during his lifetime soon ensured his reputation abroad. Known by 1801 as the ‘Apelles of Spain’, he has been regarded since as a major master of international stature and as the first ‘modern’ artist....


John Leighton

(b Aix-en-Provence, Dec 17, 1775; d Malvalat, Nov 21, 1849).

French painter and museum official. The son of a master mason, he revealed an early talent for drawing in his copies of his father’s collection of prints after François Boucher and Vernet family, §1. After studying with an unidentified Italian landscape painter, he became a pupil of Jean-Antoine Constantin at the free drawing academy in Aix-en-Provence. One of his fellow pupils was Auguste de Forbin, the painter and future Director-General of the Musées Royaux. In 1793 Granet left Aix with the local Société Populaire to assist in the siege of Toulon. He worked as a draughtsman with the artillery battery; his autobiography provides a vivid account of his experiences during the siege and destruction of the town. On a subsequent tour of duty he was employed to paint republican motifs on ships in the naval base at Toulon.

Granet made his first journey to Paris in 1796. He studied in the Louvre, where he was encouraged by Fragonard, and in his memoirs he recorded his admiration for works of the Dutch and Flemish schools, mentioning in particular how he copied the ...


Jon Whiteley

(b Paris, March 16, 1771; d Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine, June 25, 1835).

French painter. He was one of the most honoured and respected painters during the reigns of Emperor Napoleon I, King Louis XVIII and King Charles X. For these monarchs he executed large paintings of contemporary history and allegory, although he was also known as a painter of mythological subjects and of portraits in a Romantic vein.

He received his first lessons in drawing from his parents, the miniature painters Jean-Antoine Gros and Madeleine-Cécile Durand, who lived in the Rue Neuve-des-Petits Champs, in the commercial district of Paris popular with such painters. He also frequented the studio of Elisabeth-Louise Vigée Le Brun. However, his earliest paintings show no obvious trace of any influence prior to that of David, whose studio he entered as a pupil in 1785. At this time, inspired by his visits to the race-course in the Bois de Boulogne, he developed his lifelong passion for drawing horses. In ...


Athena S. E. Leoussi

(b Paris, Aug 15, 1802; d Boulogne-sur-Seine, April 12, 1880).

French painter and printmaker. He studied under Anne-Louis Girodet and Antoine-Jean Gros at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, which he entered on 30 January 1817. With the emergence of the Romantic movement he interrupted his Neo-classical training to become a disciple and friend of Delacroix and Gericault. Like Delacroix, he first exhibited at the Salon in 1822, and his submission included the depiction of an eminently Romantic subject, Episodes from a Shipwreck (sold, Paris, 7 Dec 1973). However, his greatest success of the 1820s, which established him as a marine painter, was the Fire on the Kent, which he exhibited at the Salon of 1827. Following this direction he cultivated his talent for historical naval subjects on a large scale, becoming France’s leading painter of sea battles. His style is characterized by the faithful rendering of water, the use of impasto and the careful execution of motifs.

From the beginning of his career Gudin’s work was appreciated by both the public and the critics, and he received numerous state, royal and private commissions, becoming a baron under Louis-Philippe. He sold his paintings to the most eminent members of French society, such as the ...


Enrique Valdivièso

(b Seville, Dec 6, 1791; d Madrid, Dec 1865).

Spanish painter. His training at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Seville was based on the cult and imitation of the art of Murillo, which deeply influenced his style, especially in his early years. Though otherwise in Seville at this time, he spent 1829 in Cádiz, where he became a friend of the English consul John Brackembury, and painted portraits of him, his wife Catherine and their children (Madrid, Delgado Brackembury priv. col.). Cádiz was then influenced by English art and culture, and Gutiérrez de la Vega assimilated something of the elegance and aristocratic manner characteristic of 19th-century English painting. His style corresponds perfectly to the Spanish Romantic spirit, and its refinement is especially evident in his portraits, many of which reflect the art of Murillo. This can be seen in Richard Ford and Harriet Ford (both 1831; London, priv. col.), in which both figures are dressed in 17th-century Spanish costume. The influence of Murillo in this period is even more marked in such religious works as ...


Aimo Reitala

(b Lapinlahti, Sept 23, 1865; d Tuusula [Swed. Tusby], Dec 1, 1933).

Finnish painter. He was born into an artistic peasant family; his cousin was the sculptor Eemil Halonen (1875–1950). Pekka received his initial training at the Finnish Arts Association’s School of Drawing in Helsinki (1886–90). Over the next two years he worked in Paris at the Académie Julian, and his work was first exhibited in 1891. Halonen’s themes were the Finnish landscape and people, and his artistic approach was always rooted in Realism. The Mowers (1891; priv. col., see Lindström, p. 108) is an important example of his Realist plein-air painting, which was tinged with Jean-François Millet’s brand of idealization, while The Shortcut (1892; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.) is a sombre study of the landscape of eastern Finland. Halonen spent the years 1893–4 in Paris as a pupil of Paul Gauguin; his interest in Symbolism was short-lived, but Gauguin’s decorative Synthetism, as well as Japanese woodcuts, made a lasting impression on his work, in particular on his later portrayals of Finnish landscape....


Fernando Mazzocca

(b Venice, Feb 11, 1791; d Milan, Dec 12, 1882).

Italian painter and printmaker. Italy’s greatest exponent of historical Romantic painting, he was also greatly admired for his portraits. He played an important part in the cultural life of Italy during its emergence as a modern nation state.

The son of a fisherman originally from Valenciennes, Francesco was placed at a very early age in the Venetian studio of his uncle, the antiquarian Giovanni Binasco, who hoped to train him as a restorer of paintings. In 1798 he started to study painting under Francesco Maggiotto and gained his first experience of the Neo-classical style. His artistic education was completed, in the years 1800–03, by visits to the Galleria Farsetti, Venice, where he studied the plaster casts of antique sculptures and the reproductions of paintings by Giovanni da Udine Nanni from the Vatican. In 1803 he attended life drawing classes at the old Accademia di Pittura e Scultura in the Fonteghetto della Farina, and between ...


Howard Caygill

(b Mohrungen, Aug 25, 1744; d Weimar, Dec 18, 1803).

German theorist. He was the most consistent and influential critic of German Enlightenment philosophy and aesthetic theory. His impeccable Enlightenment pedigree as a student of Kant at the University of Königsberg in the early 1760s and his acquaintance with Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert during his visit to Paris in 1769 were combined with a friendship and sympathy for the person and works of Johann Georg Hamann and other professed opponents of the Enlightenment. His insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the Enlightenment enabled him to offer an alternative theoretical basis for the work of the younger Sturm und Drang writers of the 1770s, headed by Goethe. In 1776 he was appointed at Goethe’s behest to the post of General Superintendent of the Lutheran Church in Weimar, where he remained until his death.

Although Herder published in several fields, ranging from the philosophy of language and epistemology to aesthetics and theology, all he wrote revolved around a critique of the ahistorical character of the German Enlightenment. His thought combines two main elements: the recognition that reason is grounded in sentiment, a position later described as ‘metacritical’; and the perception that the grounding of reason is the product of a specific history, and cannot be understood apart from it....


Holger Koefoed

(b Borgøya, nr Haugesund, Feb 16, 1830; d Stavanger, Jan 6, 1902).

Norwegian painter. He was born into a poor Quaker family. After completing his apprenticeship as a painter with the Aanensen brothers c. 1849, he received funding from wealthy merchants in Stavanger, which enabled him to study first at the Royal School of Drawing under Johannes Flintoe (1786–1870) and Joachim Frich (1810–58) from 1850 to 1852, and later in Düsseldorf (1852–6), where he spent a year as a private pupil of Hans Gude. In Düsseldorf, Hertervig soon won acclaim for his Rhine landscapes (e.g. Landscape near Düsseldorf, 1853; Oslo priv. col., see Koefoed, no. 2), but from the summer of 1853 and for the rest of his time in Germany he took his themes from the dramatic and varied coastal scenery of Western Norway. He painted dark and threatening storm studies, for example Rullestadjuvet (c. 1855; Stavanger, Rogaland Kstmús.), Summer Landscape in a Thunderstorm...


M. Puls

(b Wiesbaden, March 23, 1815; d Frascati, nr Rome, July 8, 1886).

German sculptor. From 1833 to 1837 he studied in Munich under Ludwig von Schwanthaler and then lived in Paris until 1839. That year he returned to Wiesbaden and in 1842 went to Rome. There he met Friedrich Overbeck and was influenced by his designs for sculptures. Hoffmann lived in Cologne from 1845 to 1850, executing a few secular sculptures (e.g. the monument to Maximilian Weyhe, 1848–50; Düsseldorf, Hofgarten), which had a quality of narrative introversion despite their classical contours, gestures and glances. Religious works became his main subject-matter and were often treated with sentimental pathos, such as the stone Crucifixion (1850; Cologne, Melaten Cemetery). After being unsuccessful in his bid for the sculptural decoration of the cathedral, in 1850 Hoffmann returned to Rome, where from 1853 he shared a studio with Overbeck. He was influenced by late medieval and Quattrocento art as early as the 1840s, and the classically generous structure, accentuated gestural language and idealized facial expressions of his sculpture are in keeping with the piety and formal simplicity of Nazarene painting, particularly the work of Overbeck. Such sculptures as the marble ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Weimar, Nov 23, 1798; d Olevano, nr Rome, June 23, 1824).

German painter. He received his first instruction in art from his father, Conrad Horny (1764–1807), a painter and copperplate engraver, who taught at the Zeichenschule in Weimar. He attended this school from 1806 to 1816, training primarily as a painter of landscapes. In 1816, his patron Baron Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, a friend of his father, enabled him to travel to Italy. In Rome Horny became a student of Joseph Anton Koch, who introduced him to landscape composition in the classically heroic style. Through eager study, both from nature and from live models, Horny’s skills developed swiftly, especially in his work in pen and watercolour (e.g. View of Olevano with Shepherds and a Hermit, 1817; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.). Horny was soon, however, drawn into the circle of the Lukasbrüder: Peter Joseph Cornelius persuaded him to participate in the major fresco project for the Casino Massimo in Rome. Horny completed a large number of pen and watercolour drawings (e.g. Weimar, Schlossmus.) depicting flowers, fruit and birds, and intended as wreaths and festoons to frame Cornelius’s historical scenes from Dante’s ...


Laurence Pauchet-Warlop

(b Paris, Oct 3, 1803; d Paris, Jan 9, 1869).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker. From an early age he painted en plein air, especially in Paris and its environs, in the Parc Saint-Cloud and the Ile Séguin. In 1818 he studied briefly in the studio of Pierre Guérin and from 1819 to 1822 he was tutored by Antoine-Jean Gros. In 1820 he also attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and in 1822 he painted the nude figure at the Académie Suisse. Although his first works show the influence of Antoine Watteau and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (e.g. Elms at Saint-Cloud, 1823; Paris, Petit Pal.), the major influence was to be that of the English landscape painters, especially after his meeting in 1820 with Richard Parkes Bonington. They became close friends and often painted together in Normandy, and it is sometimes difficult to decide to whom to attribute certain of their works. At the Salon of 1824 in Paris, Huet discovered the work of Constable, and this marked a turning-point in his career: his palette became darker and his paint thicker. He quickly began to show a new sensitivity to the landscape, as is evident in ...


Patricia Condon

(b Montauban, Aug 29, 1780; d Paris, Jan 14, 1867).

French painter. He was the last grand champion of the French classical tradition of history painting. He was traditionally presented as the opposing force to Delacroix in the early 19th-century confrontation of Neo-classicism and Romanticism, but subsequent assessment has shown the degree to which Ingres, like Neo-classicism, is a manifestation of the Romantic spirit permeating the age. The chronology of Ingres’s work is complicated by his obsessive perfectionism, which resulted in multiple versions of a subject and revisions of the original. For this reason, all works cited in this article are identified by catalogue raisonné number: Wildenstein (w) for paintings; Naef (n) for portrait drawings; and Delaborde (d) for history drawings.

His father, Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814), a decorative painter and sculptor as well as an amateur musician, taught him the basics of drawing and also the violin. In accord with contemporary academic practice, Ingres devoted much of his attention to copying from his father’s collection of prints after such masters as Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Rubens, Watteau and Boucher; none of these copies survives. The earliest known drawings, some signed ...


Therese Dolan

(b Lyon, 1795; d Vernon, 1873).

French art critic and journalist. His career began in 1818 with a pamphlet, Mes visites au Musée Royal du Luxembourg (Paris, 1818), in which he divided the history of painting in France into three ages: the golden age of Poussin and Claude, the period of decadence of Boucher and Carle Vanloo, and the era of revival of Joseph-Marie Vien and David. His most significant contributions to art criticism were his works on the Paris Salons, written between 1819 and 1833, particularly those of 1824 and 1827, which provide useful insight into the debate between classicism and Romanticism that emerged in French painting during the 1820s.

Jal perceived decadence in the Neo-classical paintings at the Salon of 1824, which he criticized for over-emphasis on precise rendering and excessive use of academic form. He defined Romanticism as a school of painting disdaining style and correctness, and he accused Delacroix of careless drawing, strident colour and a lack of decorum in the ...


Enrique Arias Anglés

(b Seville, Feb 7, 1837; d Seville, May 6, 1903).

Spanish painter. He trained in Seville under Manuel Cabral and with Eduardo Cano de la Peña, showing an early interest in genre painting. This was perhaps due to the tradition of Romanticism in Seville, and Jiménez Aranda was already exhibiting pictures of this type at the Exposición Nacional in Madrid in 1864. He went to Rome, where he befriended Mariano José Bernardo Fortuny y Marsal, becoming the most representative of his Spanish followers. Jiménez Aranda attempted to exploit Fortuny y Marsal’s style, known as Fortunismo or ‘preciosity’, and concentrated on the small genre painting or tableautin, with which he gained remarkable success. Fortuny y Marsal’s influence can be seen in such works by Jiménez Aranda as Room behind an Apothecary Shop and The Bibliophiles (1879). These often ironic paintings look back to the 18th century and have something of the atmosphere of Goya’s work. However, the skilled draughtsmanship, detailed execution and fine brushwork often bring them closer to the style of Ernest Meissonier than to the minute detailing and brilliant touch of Fortuny y Marsal. Jiménez Aranda also lived in Paris, where his Spanish ...