Term used in a more or less discriminatory way to identify the 18th-century works of the Gothic Revival in British architecture and interior design. Some historians use the term as a convenient shorthand for the 18th-century phase of the Revival; others intend it to highlight the ways in which the ‘Gothick’ of the 18th century—the fanciful and thinly decorative architecture associated with dilettanti and antiquaries—is manifestly distinct from the more historicist works of the 19th-century ‘Gothic Revival’, whose architects not only drew upon different forms or styles of medieval Gothic but were motivated by liturgical, religious and social concerns rather than by 18th-century Associationist aesthetics. Both spellings were used in the 18th century, but during the 19th century ‘Gothick’ became obsolete: Eastlake (1872) wrote only of ‘Gothic’ and Clark (1928) followed his example. That preference has been maintained by such historians as Macaulay (1975) and McCarthy (...
(b Zurich, Dec 7, 1858; d Zurich, June 10, 1942).
Swiss architect and teacher. He studied at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (1876–9), under Julius Jakob Stadler (1828–1904) and Georg Lasius (b 1835), and in 1879–80 he attended courses on stone sculpture at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Geneva. He completed his practical experience in architecture in 1880–82 under Benjamin Recordon (1845–90) and then travelled in Italy (1883–4). From 1895 to 1900 Gull was chief architect to the city of Zurich. His first public buildings were designed in a neo-Renaissance style; examples include the post office (1886–8), Lucerne, and the Lavater school (1896–7), Zurich. In his most important work, the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum (1893–8) in Zurich, he set aside symmetry and stylistic unity to produce a free grouping of individual buildings in a castle-like complex, using a style derived from Late Gothic and early Renaissance models. This delight in picturesque silhouettes is also seen in his private houses, for example the Villa Schindler-Huber (...
(b Dresden, Oct 16, 1813; d Stellenbosch, Oct 8, 1898).
German architect, builder, painter and photographer, active in South Africa. He showed a talent for drawing at an early age. In 1825 he entered the Akademie der Künste, Dresden, to study architecture, qualifying in 1829. He emigrated to Cape Town in 1838. His first commission in 1840 was the new Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Mary, Cape Town, undertaken with his partner Carel Sparmann, which was an unsuccessful venture. Hager then moved to Stellenbosch living principally by portrait painting (examples in Stellenbosch Mus.). It was not until 1854 that his next building, the Lutheran Church, Dorp Street, Stellenbosch, was built. Only in 1863, however, did he receive his first major commission, the remodelling of the Dutch Reformed Church, Stellenbosch. This involved the addition of a large nave, aisles and tower to the existing cruciform church. All the additions were strongly Gothic Revival in character, and the rest of the church was given a Gothic appearance. It would be an exaggeration to claim that it was Hager who introduced the Gothic style into Dutch Reformed churches, but it can be said that he introduced a purer strain of the Revival, although this was still far from ‘correct’. The church at Stellenbosch differs most from previous attempts to Gothicize Dutch Reformed churches in the tower, which has triple-stage base tracery windows surmounted by a broach spire. The open Gothic trussed roof marks its first appearance in Dutch Reformed churches. In ...
(b Cavan, 1840; d Dublin, March 22, 1899).
Irish architect. The son of a local builder, he had already designed a number of fine churches that were inspired by the Irish work of A. W. N. Pugin, such as that at Ballybay (1859), Co. Monaghan, and Butlers Bridge (1861), Co. Cavan, by the time he moved to Dublin in 1862. His practice, based in Dublin, was primarily in the country and was closely associated with Catholic Church property, including schools, seminaries, hospitals and convents. Among the parish churches he designed for his native diocese of Kilmore are St Brigid’s (1862), Killeshandra. This has a spacious nave with two aisles, two short transepts and a shallow chancel. The architectural treatment is simple but not severe, and a sense of lightness is heightened by the clear layout. The large stained-glass window (produced in France) carries figures of Christ, the Virgin and the Four Evangelists; smaller panels incorporate symbols of the Passion. All his buildings display the contemporary interest in polychromy, employing local stones, especially limestone, as well as more costly imported stones and marbles. The parish church at Kingscourt (...
Catherine H. Cruft
(b Glasgow, May 11, 1768; d Glasgow, Dec 5, 1843).
Scottish architect. The son of William Hamilton, a mason, he was admitted to the Incorporation of Masons in Glasgow in 1800. Little is known of his early architectural training, although he may have been acquainted with Robert Adam (i) and James Adam (i) since he made many copies of their drawings at a time when they were virtually unknown. Hamilton developed a large practice, mainly confined to Glasgow and the west of Scotland. He showed a particular feeling for theatricality in his work, which is seen in his sometimes idiosyncratic employment of styles and the inclusion of carving and statues on his buildings. His earliest recorded building of note is the Neo-classical Hutcheson’s Hall (1802–5), Ingram Street, Glasgow, which incorporates two 17th-century statues from the former Hutcheson’s Hospital. Other commissions included his monument to Lord Nelson (1806), Glasgow Green, which was the first to be erected in Britain in memory of Nelson; it consists of an obelisk (44 m) on a plain plinth. Early residential work included a new front (...
(b 1812; d 1867).
English stained-glass maker and metalworker. Based in Birmingham, his company produced metalwork and stained glass for A. W. N. Pugin, whom Hardman first met in 1837. Together with other craftsmen, he exhibited examples of his work for Pugin, including a chalice (London, V&A), at the so-called Medieval Court in the Great Exhibition, London, in 1851. He also collaborated with Jean-Baptiste Charles François Bethune, who set up a stained-glass workshop in Bruges in 1845 with Hardman’s assistance.
Cross, §III, 1(ii): Altar and processional: Renaissance and after
England, §IX, 1(v): Gold and silver, 1781–1895
England, §IX, 2(iv): Base metalwork, after 1800
Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §2: Middle period, 1837–44
Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §3: Late work, after 1844
Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §3: Late work, after 1844
Pugin: (2) A. W. N. Pugin, §3: Late work, after 1844
Pugin: (3) E. W. Pugin
Stained glass, §II, 2(ii): 1800–1880...
(b Einbeck, Oct 2, 1818; d Hannover, March 28, 1902).
German architect. He studied architecture (1834–8) at the Höhere Gewerbeschule in Hannover, before starting a bricklaying apprenticeship there (1838–9), gaining his journeyman’s certificate. In 1840 he travelled via Kassel, Marburg, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Worms, Speyer and Ulm to Munich, where he studied at the Kunstakademie under Friedrich Gärtner, and at the Polytechnikum. In spring 1842 he returned to Hannover via Regensburg, Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg and Eisenach and was employed in 1843 as a railway building supervisor by the Königlichen Hannoverschen Eisenbahn. The ideas he had absorbed in Munich and the impressions he had accumulated of medieval towns, churches and cathedrals on his two tours had a decisive impact on his later work. Between 1848 and 1854, Hase restored the monastery church in Loccum, and on its completion he was appointed to teach architecture at the Polytechnische Schule in Hannover; having been appointed a building inspector in 1851...
(b Graz, March 19, 1841; d Munich, May 17, 1922).
German architect. He studied in Graz, in Munich from 1862 under Georg Friedrich Ziebland and Ludwig Lange (1808–68) and then in Berlin under Johann Heinrich Strack and Carl Boetticher. Continuing his studies in Vienna under Friedrich von Schmidt, he turned away from the Renaissance Revival style, which was then dominant in Munich, towards the Gothic Revival favoured by Schmidt. Hauberisser returned to Munich after winning the competition (1866) for the new Rathaus there at the age of 25. Thereafter he was one of the leading Gothic Revival architects in Germany. His audacious and highly controversial design was the first major Gothic Revival public building in Munich and Hauberisser played an influential part in establishing the style there. The first stage of the Rathaus showed his predilection for Flemish and French Gothic. Later extensions (1888–93 and 1899–1908) employed the same idiom, but the asymmetrical tower and the emphatic verticals marked a departure from the symmetry and the horizontality of the original building. These changes reflected the late 19th-century preference for picturesquely arranged façades and undogmatic historicism....
(b Cruden, Aberdeenshire [now Grampian], May 17, 1818; d Joppa, Edinburgh, May 30, 1888).
Scottish architect, active in Canada. He was trained in the architectural office of John Henderson (1804–62) in Edinburgh from 1844. He then became George Gilbert Scott I’s Clerk of Works (1846–50) for the Anglican Cathedral (first phase) at St John’s, Newfoundland. During his time there he worked on several churches in the province and designed one (1847–50; unexecuted) for St Francis Harbour, Labrador. He was back in Scotland in 1850, but by 1852 he had settled in Toronto where, over the next ten years, he became a leading architect. His experience with Scott instilled in Hay the ecclesiological principles of the Gothic Revival, which he used or adapted in his churches in Ontario and promoted in his writings. His Anglican churches at Brampton (1854), Orillia and Southampton (1861) were all rebuilt; those at Newcastle (1857) and Vienna (1860...
(b Watford, Herts, April 21, 1861; d New York, Jan 27, 1940).
English designer and maker of stained glass, metalwork and enamel. In the mid-1870s he was apprenticed to the London firm of Burlison & Grylls, makers of stained glass in the Gothic Revival style. He later joined Heaton, Butler & Bayne, the firm of stained-glass manufacturers and painters founded by his father, Clement Heaton (1824–82), whom he succeeded as a partner in 1882. In 1884 he left London for Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he collaborated with Paul Robert on the decoration of the monumental staircase (in situ) of the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, experimenting with cloisonné enamel as an enrichment for the pilasters, mouldings and cornices. On his return to England in 1885 Heaton executed enamel designs for A. H. Mackmurdo and provided designs for metalwork and lamps for the Century Guild of Artists. Following a dispute in 1885, Heaton left Heaton, Butler & Bayne and established Heaton’s Cloisonné Mosaics Ltd, which produced plaques, book covers and lamps. After ...
(b Kassel, Oct 11, 1847; d Berlin, June 18, 1911).
German architect. He was a pupil (1862–6) at the Höhere Gewerbeschule in Kassel where one of his teachers was Georg Gottlob Ungewitter who had a considerable influence on him. Hehl then went to England where he stayed until 1869, working for a time in the office of George Gilbert Scott I. From 1869 to 1872 he worked with Edwin Oppler in Hannover where he came into contact with Conrad Wilhelm Hase. In 1872 Hehl started his own office which he ran until 1894. Within a few years his practice had become one of the largest and most important in Hannover. It was at that period that most of the projects attributed to him (estimated at c. 170) were executed; of these c. 60 buildings are known to survive. His many churches, such as the Dreifaltigkeitskirche (1880–83) in Hannover, were especially admired. However, his secular buildings were more numerous; like the churches, they were generally designed as brick buildings using the Gothic Revival repertory of the Hannover school, as promoted by Hase. These included blocks of flats (the Poppe block in Hannover, ...
(b Ghent, Aug 31, 1852; d Leuven, Feb 22, 1925).
Belgian architect and politician. In 1873 he obtained his diploma in civil engineering at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. In 1874 he was appointed assistant professor and from 1878 to 1907 was full professor at the Catholic University of Leuven (Ecoles Spéciales de Génie Civil, des Arts et des Manufactures et des Mines), where he developed a training programme in architectural engineering. While a student he met Louis Cloquet and was influenced by the Belgian Gothic Revival movement, which was founded by Jean-Baptiste Bethune, also the founder (in 1862) of the St Luke School, Ghent. Helleputte’s architecture is similar to that of the first generation of St Luke architects in its almost undecorated and rather stern style. Its formal characteristics, modelled on the local Late Gothic style and traditional brick and limestone architecture, are strictly determined by constructional and functional needs. His most important works were built in Leuven for the Catholic University: the Anatomy Theatre (...
(b Berlin, April 8, 1811; d Berlin, Oct 11, 1881).
German architect. After passing the land surveyor examination in 1829, he did practical work on the Oderbrücke at Stettin (now Szezecin, Poland) and, in 1830, on Schinkel’s Sternwarte Observatory in Berlin. He then studied at the Bauakademie (1830–37) in Berlin with a break for a journey to Paris in 1835. His activities as a private architect increased with the city’s expansion and the proliferation of villa building in the residential areas. As the monthly competitions of the Architekten-Verein in 1832 show, Hitzig, having been one of the youngest pupils of Schinkel, was in a position to produce, ready-made, the perfected Italianate villa style developed by Schinkel and Ludwig Persius. He combined it with influences from Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine and with elements taken from the Italian Renaissance, which he had studied on a trip to Italy in 1845, thereby creating an elegant and rich style that owed its clarity to the predominance of classical content. With this he created for Berlin a stylistic vocabulary for the houses of the wealthy, which, depending on the chosen site, were built either as urban villas (e.g. Lennéstrasse 8, ...
(b Vienna, Feb 7, 1732; d Vienna, Dec 14, 1816).
Austrian architect and teacher. After training as a painter of architecture, he studied architecture itself at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. He seems to have established contact with the Viennese court early in his career, since his first commission was to redesign the court theatre (from 1766) at the imperial Schloss Schönbrunn in Vienna. In the same year he was ennobled. With the assistance of Prince Wenzel Anton Kaunitz-Rietberg (patron of the Akademie and artistic adviser to Maria-Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Empress of Austria) Hohenberg was appointed in 1770 to teach architecture at the Akademie. He worked in this capacity until his final years, influencing successive generations of students. In 1772 he redesigned the gardens at Schönbrunn (see Vienna, §V, 7, (ii)). His imaginative plan, based on the Antique, was only partially realized in subsequent years, in particular with the Gloriette (1773–5), a triumphal arch flanked by colonnaded screens that closes the view on the height above the parterre, and the Roman Ruin (...
Julia H. M. Smith
English furniture-making firm. It was founded in 1803 by William Holland (fl 1803–43). From 1803 to 1843 the cabinetmakers and upholsterers William Holland and Stephen Taprell (d 1847) were in partnership. Their firm was called Taprell & Holland until 1835, Taprell, Holland & Son until 1843, and Holland & Sons after 1843. In 1851 the firm employed over 350 men. In 1852 it incorporated the prestigious firm of Thomas Dowbiggin (1788–1854), taking over its Mount Street premises in London. Holland & Sons received commissions for furnishing many of the government buildings and clubs built in 19th-century London, including the Athenaeum, the Reform Club, and the British Museum. The firm worked on many royal commissions, making furniture for Buckingham Palace, London, Windsor Castle, Berks, Osborne House, Isle of Wight, and Balmoral, Grampian. Holland & Sons exhibited a bookcase at the Great Exhibition of 1851, for which they won a prize, and continued to show at major exhibitions throughout the century. Best known for their Gothic Revival furniture, they also worked in other fashionable revival styles, including the Louis XV and XVI, Renaissance and Elizabethan. Holland & Sons were technical innovators, from the first using in their workshops the most modern machinery available. The firm remained under family control until it closed in ...
(b Dublin, Jan 30, 1792; d Burlington, VT, June 9, 1868).
American architect, designer and ecclesiastic of Irish birth. He was taken from Ireland to the USA by his parents in 1800 and was successively the superintendent of an ironworks, a lawyer, and an ordained minister (1824) in Pittsburgh, PA. As rector of Trinity Church, he built a new church in 1825 in the Gothic style. The design was based on publications from England of John Britton and Augustus Charles Pugin. An illustration of Trinity Church was one of 13 lithographs by Hopkins in his Essay on Gothic Architecture (1836), published after he became Episcopal Bishop of Vermont. This was the first book in the USA on the Gothic Revival and it preceded the main Gothic Revivalist works of A. W. N. Pugin, which in turn influenced Hopkins’s later architectural designs. One of Hopkins’s first acts as Bishop was to consecrate Ammi B(urnham) Young only Gothic composition, St Paul’s, Burlington, for which Hopkins designed the altar (illustrated in the ...
(b Bengeo, Herts, July 27, 1803; d Toronto, Feb 3, 1890).
Canadian architect of English birth. Born with the name John Corby, he was articled to the architect William Ford (fl 1820s) in London in 1824. In 1832 he moved to Canada, settling in Toronto, then still known as York, and changing his name to Howard. He was one of the first formally trained architects in the city and he became one of the busiest in Upper Canada in the 1830s and 1840s; he also held the post of Drawing Master at Upper Canada College (1839–56). Of the many buildings he completed in Toronto before his virtual retirement in 1855, only his cottage orné, Colborne Lodge (1836; now a museum), survives. However, he established Neo-classical architecture as the model for commercial and public buildings in Toronto in the 1830s and 1840s with such works as the city’s Third Jail (1838; destr.); the Bank of British North America (...
(b Olszanka, nr Pułtusk, Dec 24, 1798; d Lityn, Podole, May 3, 1879).
Polish architect and writer. He studied under Antoni Corazzi at the Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Warsaw (1820–24). In 1824–7 he travelled to Italy, France, England and Germany. In Italy he was awarded membership of the Accademia del Disegno, Florence, for his restoration project for the Temple of Concord (ded.
(b Cologne, July 13, 1768; d Cologne, Dec 20, 1844).
German sculptor. He came from a family of sculptors resident in Cologne since the early 18th century. He learnt his craft from his father, Johann Joseph Imhoff (1739–1802), and he probably also studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. From the 1790s onwards he produced portrait sculptures (most now untraced), sacred and secular figures, as well as decorative sculpture and reproductions after ancient sculpture, working in both stone and terracotta. Surviving early works include terracotta busts of the collector Johann Wilhelm Baron von Hüpsch (1786–90; Cologne, Stadtmus.) and his housekeeper Eva Mechthild Happerts (1786–90; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.), which show a brilliantly lucid realism emerging from the traditions of Rococo. Around 1800 and for some time afterwards, in striking red sandstone tomb statues and stelae decorated with reliefs, Imhoff evolved a classicizing austerity in the style of Bertel Thorvaldsen (e.g. tombs for Louise Knobel (1823) and ...
(b Brussels, 1825; d Brussels, April 10, 1902).
Belgian architect. He was trained by Joseph Jonas Dumont and spent much of his career working on the restoration or reconstruction of a large number of medieval and Renaissance monuments in Brussels as a member of the city’s architectural staff; he became its Chief Architect in 1864. Most of his original designs were of Gothic Revival or Flemish Renaissance Revival character, reflecting his archaeological interests. His own house (1874–9) at 62 Avenue de Stalingrad, Brussels, was the most remarkable of these designs. The exposed timber structure of its gabled façade recalled the destroyed wooden houses of 15th- and 16th-century Brussels. Jamaer’s major work involved the restoration of several buildings in the Grand’Place, Brussels, which began with his participation in the restoration (1850s) of the 15th-century Gothic Hôtel de Ville and the complete rebuilding (1873–85) in Gothic Revival style of the 16th-century Maison du Roi. In 1883...