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Deborah Cullen


(b Brooklyn, New York, 1934).

American performance artist, educator and founder of El Museo del Barrio, New York. Ortiz grew up in New York and received his BFA and MFA from Pratt Institute in 1964, and his PhD in Fine Arts and Fine Arts in Higher Education at the Teachers College of Columbia University, 1982.

In the late 1950s, Ortiz began exploring ritual and destruction. Taking found filmstrips, he placed them in a medicine bag and used a hatchet to cut them into pieces. He then spliced them together in random order, creating a series of short, cut-up films. This led to his first private, ritually transformed domestic objects between 1959 and 1961, which often included cushions, chairs and sofas from his studio worked over several days, and the Archaeological Finds series between 1961 and 1967. He authored Destructivism: A Manifesto between 1957 and 1962.

Carrying out public Destruction Ritual Realizations between 1965 and 1970...


M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Algeciras, Dec 6, 1839; d Madrid, Sept 14, 1904).

Spanish writer and journalist. The author of an extensive and varied body of work, he cultivated genres as varied as the theatre, the novel, children’s stories and journalism. A profound pedagogic concern is evident in all his writings, with special attention given to the problems of childhood education. He was editor and collaborator on a large number of magazines and newspapers, including Gaceta de Madrid, Diario de avisos, El Español, El Cascabel, Don Quijote, Gaceta popular, Correspondencia de España, Illustración española y americana, El Constitucional and El Contemporáneo. In the field of art criticism, with José Sala y Sardá he wrote the commentaries for the set of reproductions of sculpture called Tesoro de la escultura (1862). His most important work for the historiography of art, Galería biográfica de artistas españoles del siglo XIX (1868–9), was planned as a continuation of Ceán Bermúdez’s Diccionario histórico de los más ilustres profesores de las bellas artes en España...


Alain Gruber

(b Besançon, Oct 25, 1745; d Besançon, Aug 1, 1819).

French architect and stage designer. He was the son of Pierre-François Pâris, a master builder turned architect. He was brought up in the modest court of the Prince-Bishop of Basle at Porrentruy in Switzerland, where from 1750 his father was official architect and topographer. He went to Paris probably in 1760 to study under the architect Louis-François Trouard, and after three unsuccessful attempts at the Prix de Rome in 1766, 1768 and 1769, he obtained the support of the Marquis de Marigny and the Duc d’Aumont with his project for entertainments at the wedding of the Dauphin and Marie-Antoinette, planned for 1770. He then went to the Académie de France in Rome as tutor to Trouard’s young son. During his five years there he associated with Cardinal de Bernis, Charles de Wailly, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Bergeret de Grancourt and contributed to the Abbé de Saint-Non’s Voyage pittoresque with drawings of antique monuments at Pompeii, Paestum, Herculaneum and elsewhere. He also travelled through Italy, from Sicily to Venice and the Piedmont, and kept travel journals of considerable interest. His many portfolios of architectural drawings were highly successful on his return to Paris and brought him employment: improvements to the Duc d’Aumont’s residence on the Place Louis XV (...


Richard Kerremans



(b Boston, MA, March 1, 1823; d Windsor, VT, Aug 25, 1886).

American art historian, musician and patron. He came from a wealthy and cultivated family. After completing his studies at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1843, he travelled to Europe. While studying drawing and painting in Rome, he commissioned the marble group Hebe and Ganymede (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) from his friend the sculptor Thomas Crawford. In 1846 he entered Ary Scheffer’s studio in Paris and in 1851 travelled to Leipzig to study the piano with Ignaz Moscheles. When he returned to Boston in 1854, his future was still undecided, his wealth and multiplicity of talents making it difficult for him to choose a direction; it was not until June 1857, after his series of lectures on art at Trinity College, Hartford, CT, had met with great success, that he renounced music as a profession. From 1857 to 1869 he was in Europe, gathering material for his study Tuscan Sculptors, which appeared in ...


Richard Kerremans



Belinda Thomson

(b Paris, Jan 17, 1869; d Paris, April 24, 1934).

French painter and stage designer. After briefly attending the Académie Julian, Paris, from c. 1888 to 1892, where he met the Nabis, he became the pupil of Pierre Andrieu (1821–92), Eugène Delacroix’s pupil and assistant, who passed on many of the master’s precepts. Piot took over from Andrieu the publication of the Journal d’Eugène Delacroix (Paris, 1893, 2/1932/R 1981; Eng. trans., London, 1938) in three volumes, a task in which he was assisted by Paul Flat. He also joined the studio of Gustave Moreau at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he was a contemporary of Henri Matisse, Georges Rouault and Georges-Olivier Desvallières. After exhibiting at the Salon in 1894, he travelled extensively in Italy, copying the works of Italian artists and studying fresco techniques. He adopted these techniques in his own work, for example the Martyrdom of St Sebastian (fresco on wood, c....


Colette E. Bidon

(b Algiers, March 23, 1861; d Marlotte, Seine-et-Marne, March 1932).

French painter and designer. He began his career painting the Algerian scenes of his youth, rendering Orientalist subjects—such as markets and musicians—with a distinctive, unaffected precision. In 1888 he went to Paris to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Auguste Herst (b 1825) and Fernand Cormon. He exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1890.

The discovery of Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites, and a visit to Italy in 1894, led Point to model his work on the artists of the Florentine Renaissance. The inspiration of Botticelli and Leonardo can be seen in such works as the Eternal Chimera (c. 1895; London, Piccadilly Gal.). Under the dominating influence of Gustave Moreau, his work was also aligned with Symbolism. He became a disciple of Rosicrucianism and a friend of Sâr Peladan, fastidiously rejecting the modern industrial world and what he considered the excessive realism of Zola or Courbet. He painted magicians, endowed with a pure and ancient beauty, or figures of Greek mythology (e.g. ...


Dora Pérez-Tibi

Reviser Kristen E. Stewart

(b Paris, April 20, 1879; d Paris, April 28, 1944).

French costume designer, dress designer and painter. Despite paternal opposition to his precocious artistic gifts, Poiret attracted attention with his first fashion drawings for Mme Chéruit at the Maison Raudnitz, 21, Place Vendôme, Paris. From 1898 to 1900 he worked for Jacques(-Antoine) Doucet and distinguished himself by creating the famous costume ‘Aiglon’ (Fr.: ‘eaglet’; the nickname of Napoleon II; untraced) for Sarah Bernhardt. From 1901 he worked for the fashion house Worth, where he designed the Eastern-influenced cloak, ‘Confucius’ (1901–2; Paris, Mus. Mode & Cost.). Poiret opened his first fashion house in 1902 on the Rue Auber in Paris. There he produced innovative designs such as the kimono coat and the ‘Révérend’ (1905; Paris, Mus. Mode & Cost.) and enlarged his clientele of famous customers. In 1910 he opened new salons in a large 18th-century house, in the Avenue d’Antin, where he created his famous ‘hobble-skirted’ dresses, drawn in at the hem. Dubbed the ‘Prophet of Simplicity’ in a ...


Cynthia H. Sanford

(b West Boxford, MA, May 1, 1792; d West Haven, CT, Aug 13, 1884).

American painter, teacher, musician, inventor, journalist and founder of Scientific American magazine. Descended from a prominent New England family of prosperous landowners, Porter was raised and educated in West Boxford until the age of nine. His family then moved to Maine in the area of the Bridgton tract. In 1804 Porter briefly attended the Fryeburg Academy, where instruction in music was given in addition to English, Latin, Greek and mathematics, and Porter likely received his music training there.

When he was 15, Rufus’s parents arranged an apprenticeship for him as a shoemaker with his brother Jonathan in West Boxford. But the restless young Porter soon took off with his fiddle and fife and walked to Portland, ME, where around 1810 he began a career painting houses, signs, sleighs, gunboats and drums. In 1814 he joined the Portland Light Infantry serving as a musician as well as a soldier. Soon after, he married Eunice Twombly, and by ...


Philip Ward-Jackson


(b Geneva, May 23, 1790; d Bougival, June 4, 1852).

Swiss sculptor, painter and composer. Prompted by his early displays of artistic talent, Pradier’s parents placed him in the workshop of a jeweller, where he learnt engraving on metal. He attended drawing classes in Geneva, before leaving for Paris in 1807. By 1811 he was registered at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and subsequently entered its sculpture competitions as a pupil of François-Frédéric, Baron Lemot. A more significant contribution to his artistic formation around this time was the guidance of the painter François Gérard. Pradier won the Prix de Rome in 1813 and was resident at the French Academy in Rome, from 1814 until 1819. On his return to France, he showed at the Salon of 1819 a group Centaur and Bacchante (untraced) and a reclining Bacchante (marble; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.). The latter, borrowing an erotically significant torsion from the Antique Callipygean Venus, opens the series of sensuous Classical female subjects that were to become Pradier’s forte. In ...


Wifredo Rincón García

(b Villanueva de Gallego, nr Saragossa, July 24, 1848; d Madrid, Nov 1, 1921).

Spanish painter and museum official. He first studied in Saragossa with the stage designer Mariano Pescador (d 1886), and in 1866 moved to Madrid where he began to work with the stage designers and decorators Ferri and Busato. He entered the Escuela Superior de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado and also attended the Academia de Acuarelistas. In 1873 Pradilla and his fellow student Casto Plasencia (1846–90) won history painting scholarships to study at the newly founded Academia Española de Bellas Artes in Rome. In 1874 he sent from Rome a copy of Raphael’s Dispute over the Holy Sacrament, a work Pradilla completed in collaboration with Alejandro Ferrant (b 1844), another Spanish scholarship holder. During Pradilla’s second and third years abroad he travelled through France, visiting the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1875, and Italy, where he was particularly impressed by Venice and the works of Veronese, Titian and Jacopo Tintoretto. Pradilla won a major prize in ...


John Rothenstein


(b Edinburgh, March 30, 1866; d London Feb 24, 1941).

Scottish painter, poster designer and stage designer. After leaving the Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, in 1887 he trained briefly in Paris at the Académie Julian under William Bouguereau. He settled in England in 1891. In 1893 he met William Nicholson (his future brother-in-law); this resulted in their fruitful collaboration (1893–9) as the Beggarstaff Brothers. They designed numerous posters, for example that for the actor–manager Henry Irving’s staging of Don Quixote at the Lyceum Theatre, London, in 1895, but the partnership was not a commercial success and Pryde’s contribution to it delayed his progress as a painter. With a curious suddenness, however, his emotions fused into a romantic, dignified, sombre and highly personal vision, which for the next 20 years he expressed primarily in a series of paintings known as the Human Comedy. These are imaginary architectural compositions, sombre in palette and with small human figures. Their chief feature, exemplified in 13 of the paintings, is a great bed, based on his early memories of that of Mary Queen of Scots, which he had seen at Holyrood (e.g. ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

(b Dresden, Nov 3, 1744; d Dresden, April 10, 1818).

German courtier, composer, collector and writer. He served from 1761 in the army of Frederick-Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, and subsequently occupied various positions at the Saxon court. As Directeur des Plaisirs he was in charge of the orchestra and theatre at Dresden. He was also a member of various learned societies, including the Akademie der Künste und mechanischen Wissenschaften in Berlin. As a courtier enjoying the special favour of the elector, Racknitz wielded great influence in promoting musical and artistic life in Dresden. His own activities included musical composition and the natural sciences, but he was especially interested in mineralogy and mechanics, and he established a renowned collection of minerals and plants. In addition to this he published several books on the history of civilization and art. Early works are concerned with general themes, but in his later years he was particularly interested in painting in Saxony. In his varied interests, Racknitz viewed questions from a practical as well as a theoretical point of view. He was thus a typical representative of the versatile late Enlightenment and the ‘age of Goethe’....


Pamela Gerrish Nunn

(b Hammersmith [now in London], Dec 30, 1859; d Upper Norwood, Surrey, March 26, 1928).

English painter . The youngest daughter of a civil servant and a gifted amateur musician, Rae trained in London at the Queen’s Square School of Art and at Heatherley’s School of Art. In 1877 she gained access at her sixth attempt to the Royal Academy Schools, where she studied until 1884. From 1879 Rae exhibited widely in Britain, making her Royal Academy debut in 1881 with Miss Warman (untraced), a portrait. She soon graduated to the higher genres with Lancelot and Elaine (1884; untraced), Ariadne Deserted by Theseus (1885; untraced) and A Bacchante (1885; ex-Christopher Wood Gal.), allying herself with the classical revival promoted by the Academy. This became possible for female artists due to improvements in the artistic training available to them. Rae became the first female artist in Britain since Angelica Kauffman to establish herself at this level in the hierarchy of genres. In this ambition she freely acknowledged as her mentor the leading artist and best known Neo-classicist of the day, Lord Leighton, though she was never his student. When in ...


Elizabeth Allen

(b London, 1731; d London, Dec 18, 1810).

English painter and stage designer. From 1759 Richards was a very successful painter at Covent Garden, London, where he collaborated with Nicholas Thomas Dall (fl 1760–71; d 1777) and Giovanni Battista Cipriani, and from 1777 to 1803 he was the theatre’s Principal Painter. From 1762 he exhibited landscapes and ruin pieces at the Society of Artists of Great Britain, as well as a scene from a stage setting for the Maid of the Mill (New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.); engraved by William Woollett in 1768, it achieved great popularity. Richards exhibited at the Free Society of Artists from 1769 to 1783, and was a founder-member of the Royal Academy, where from 1769 to 1809 he exhibited capriccios and landscapes, and occasionally, early intimations of the picturesque, such as a Cascade at Hestercombe (signed and dated 1770; Stourhead, Wilts, NT). His watercolours, such as Orpington (1768...


Phillip Dennis Cate

(Benjamin Jean Pierre)

(b Paris, May 11, 1864; d Paris, Aug 24, 1951).

French printmaker, illustrator and shadow-theatre designer. Born in Montmartre, Rivière lived and worked in that area of Paris throughout his long and active career. He trained briefly with a local academic artist, Emile Bin (b 1825). The first of many visits to Brittany, in 1880, profoundly influenced the future subject-matter of his art. By 1883 Rivière was a full participant in the activities of the artistic and literary Chat Noir cabaret and served as a sub-editor and illustrator of the Chat Noir journal. During this period Paris and Brittany became the two primary subjects of his art and remained so for the rest of his career. His urban and rural themes during the late 1880s and 1890s were inspired by the shadow theatre and by Japanese woodblock prints.

In 1886 Henry Somm and Rivière began to experiment with shadow-theatre performances at the Chat Noir. Rivière was responsible for the sophisticated technical development of this theatrical forerunner of cinema. Subtle nuances of colour were back-projected on to a screen across which cut-out zinc figures and landscapes were silhouetted and moved. This visual effect was combined with verse and music in the production of forty-four shadow-theatre programmes by a variety of artists over a ten-year period. Two of the most popular shows were Rivière’s ...


Kenneth Archer

[Ryorikh, Nikolay (Konstantinovich)]

(b St Petersburg, Oct 9, 1874; d Nagar, nr Kulu, Himachal Pradesh, India, Dec 13, 1947).

Russian painter, stage designer and founder of cultural institutions. The son of a lawyer of Scandinavian descent, he graduated from the studio of the landscape painter Arkhip Kuindzhi at the Academy of Fine Arts (1897) and from the faculty of law at the University of St Petersburg (1898). He then studied in Paris with the history painter Fernand Cormon (1900). Roerich had wide interests and made an important contribution to Russian culture: he lectured at the Institute of Archaeology (1898); he became secretary of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts (1901) and director of its school (1906); and he was the first chairman of the World of Art (Rus. Mir Iskusstva) Society (1910). The first volume of his collected cultural writings was published in Moscow in 1914. As a painter he exhibited with the Academy from ...


Christine Filippone

(b Brooklyn, NY, July 29, 1943).

American photographer, video and performance artist, and critic. Rosler attended the Brooklyn Museum School and became involved in Civil Rights and anti-nuclear protests as a teenager. During this time, she saw a number of European films, notably filmmaker Sergey Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin (1925) and films by Jean-Luc Godard, as well as productions at the Living Theatre including those by playwright Bertolt Brecht, all of which became important influences for her. She also became part of the avant-garde East Village scene, which included the poet David Antin and the artist Eleanor Antin; through Antin and the poet Jerome Rothenberg she was introduced to the work of Fluxus, including Yoko Ono, and the performances of Carolee Schneemann.

At Brooklyn College, City University of New York, Rosler studied with Jimmy Ernst and attended classes held by Ad(olph Dietrich Friedrich) Reinhardt; she received her BA in English in 1965. In 1968 she moved to San Diego, where she became part of the Southern California feminist movement. In ...


Ye. I. Kirichenko


(b Dec 18, 1775; d St Petersburg, April 18, 1849).

Russian architect and urban planner. He came to Russia as a ten-year-old child with his mother, the dancer Gertrude Rossi. He was one of the major Russian Neo-classical architects during the period of the French Empire style, with work reflecting the public enthusiasm and triumphal mood following the 1812 victory against Napoleon. This versatile architect, whose work included applied art and interiors and who created model designs for use in public and private residences and in estate buildings, was one of Russia’s greatest urban planners. The grand ensembles built to his plans largely determined the appearance of the centre of St Petersburg.

Rossi was a pupil and assistant of the St Petersburg architect and designer Vincenzo Brenna, and in the 1790s he participated under Brenna in the construction of the Michael Castle (later Engineers’ Castle; completed 1800) for Paul I (reg 1796–1801). Rossi’s early designs, the ‘Memorial to Great Men’ and the Triumphal Arch—ceremonial, grandiose, highly decorated structures—were completed under the influence of his teacher. In ...