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Gordon Campbell

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Christian Dittrich

(b Sangerhausen, bapt April 23, 1654; d Dresden, 1725).

German painter, draughtsman and teacher. He was a cousin and pupil of Samuel Bottschild, to whom he was apprenticed until 1672 and with whom he travelled to Italy in 1673–7, to study the works of Italian masters and ancient sculptures. After his return he settled in Dresden, where he was appointed court painter by Elector John-George IV (reg 1691–4). With Bottschild he worked on three ceiling paintings (completed after 1693; destr. 1945) in the Palais in the Grosser Garten (destr. 1945) in Dresden. He also produced wall paintings (destr.) in the Dresden palaces of Lubomirski (destr. 1760) and Vitzthum (destr. 1786).

After Bottschild’s death in 1706, Fehling was made chief court painter and inspector of art works by Elector Augustus II, who also put him in charge of the Malerakademie. His pupils here included Christian Friedrich Zincke (1687–1770), Paul Christian Zincke (1687–1770...

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Elisabeth Herrmann-Fichtenau

[Franz Josef; Paulus]

(b Vienna, May 2, 1689; d London, 1740).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied landscape painting with his father, Adam Pankraz Ferg (1651–1729), and with Josef Orient (1677–1747) and staffage painting with Johann (Hans) Graf (1653–1710). He also studied the engravings of Jacques Callot and Sébastien Leclerc (i). His early works show such subjects as harbours, markets and villages as wide vistas with many figures, trees and buildings, for example Fair with Temple and Maypole (Vienna, Belvedere). These scenes combine landscape and genre and are characteristic examples of early 18th-century Austrian panel painting, showing the influence of Dutch, Flemish and Italian models. The colours are dark, and the staffage figures in the manner of Graf are slender, with small heads and peculiarly wooden poses.

In 1718 Ferg left Vienna and went to Franconia, Bamberg, and Leipzig. There he met Johann Alexander Thiele (1685–1752), whom he accompanied to Dresden. A small self-portrait (untraced) from this period was bought by the painter ...

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Fertőd  

Barbra Ruckriegel Egerváry

[formerly Eszterháza]

Town in Győr–Sopron County, western Hungary, 27 km south-east of Sopron. It is the site of the Esterházy Palace, the largest Rococo building of its kind in Hungary. The original manor house, which is the core of the building, was constructed in 1721 by Anton Erhard Martinelli. Between 1764 and 1784 Prince Miklós Esterházy (see Esterházy family §I, (3)) extended it on the basis of his own plans, although Melchior Hefele was the architect chiefly involved in its rebuilding. Several architects, including Miklós Jakoby, collaborated on the project. The park was created in Baroque style and is also credited to Esterházy, although after his death it fell into disrepair. Parts of the building were damaged in 1944–5, and restoration was carried out in 1958–9.

The elevation of the main building is a three-storey central block of eleven bays, the three central bays of which have an additional storey and project slightly. The ground floor is banded, and the balconied storeys above are articulated by giant pilasters. Two wings of the same elevation as the central block extend out, forming a large ...

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Christian F. Otto

(b Burglengenfeld, Oberpfalz, Feb 18, 1692; d Munich, May 6, 1766).

German architect. He was one of the most creative architects of the late Baroque and Rococo in southern Germany, known primarily for his churches. In these he explored two basic antithetical concepts of Western ecclesiastical design: the traditional longitudinal arrangement of the church for liturgical procession in contrast to the ideal centralized church, and the gradual revealing of sacred space in contrast to its presentation as a complete whole. In four decades of building, Fischer worked to resolve these antitheses by interconnecting large, single spaces immediately visible in their entirety to smaller, ancillary spaces experienced as fragments, by combining centralized and longitudinal axes and by integrating curvilinear with rectilinear form.

Trained as a mason by his father, Fischer’s journeyman years began in 1712 and took him through Bohemia, Moravia and Austria. In 1718 he settled in Munich, where he worked under the City Mason Johann Mayr (1677–1731) and ...

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Iris Kockelbergh

(b Mons [Flem. Bergen], bapt April 15, 1706; d Mons, March 13, 1788).

Belgian sculptor. He was the son of a sculptor and probably trained first with his father. All that is known of his work is his extensive contribution to the furnishing of the church of St Nicolas en Havré at Mons, on which he worked from 1755. He first executed the high altar; it is traditionally conceived, with a wood statue of St Nicholas in the centre and figures of angels in the clouds above. The wooden stalls are also by Fonson; those around the first north and south columns have panels carved with reliefs in a Rococo setting. The reliefs are rather flat and conventionally placed within their frames; the somewhat insipid figures show an imperfect mastery of anatomy and perspective. Their fine detail, however, displays Fonson’s skill in handling wood. The reliefs of the other stalls are better, with a more convincing illusion of depth and a more classicizing style; but Fonson’s work as a whole is lacking in vitality....

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John Wilson

(b Venice, Oct 4, 1707; d Venice, May 31, 1769).

Italian painter, printmaker and draughtsman. He was one of the most prolific and well-known followers of Sebastiano Ricci, with whom he had his earliest training, and particularly of Giambattista Tiepolo. By the end of the 1720s he had studied in Rome (where he is documented in 1728) and Bologna (Oretti MS.); the influence of the forthright tenebrism of the Bolognese school is evident in his first independent works, such as the Adoration of the Shepherds (c. 1732; Burano, S Martino). Around 1730 he was in Udine, where he studied Tiepolo’s frescoes in the cathedral and in the archbishop’s palace, and during the next few years he came into direct contact with Tiepolo, perhaps in Venice. Ricci remained influential, and in 1731 Fontebasso was engraving, in Venice, the altarpiece of St Gregory Interceding for Souls in Purgatory that Ricci had painted for S Alessandro della Croce in Bergamo. Fontebasso’s work, however, increasingly emulated that of Tiepolo, with a consequent lightening and freeing of his palette....

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Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1710; d 1775).

French furniture-maker based in Paris. He specialized in clock cases in the Rococo style, decorated either in wood marquetry or in the brass and tortoiseshell marquetry in the style of André-Charles Boulle. He also sold bronze cases, but as ébénistes were not allowed to work in bronze, he was probably acting as a dealer....

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Pavel Preiss

In 

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Zurich, Oct 16, 1755; d Zurich, Dec 1, 1795).

Swiss painter. He first trained with the Zurich landscape painter Heinrich Wüest; he then studied the 17th-century Dutch and Flemish masters, as well as the works of Hogarth, in Düsseldorf and Mannheim. In 1784 with his friend Konrad Gessner he visited Dresden, where he received instruction in portrait painting from Anton Graff, and Berlin, where he became a close friend of Daniel Chodowiecki, a draughtsman and engraver. In 1785 he settled in Zurich as a landscape, portrait and genre painter. Influenced by the Dutch Little Masters and Hogarth and Chodowiecki, and on the basis of his own observation, Freudweiler developed an unpretentious, true-to-life style, painting small landscapes, contemporary genre and family conversation pieces, generally on wood. He was a co-founder of the Kunstgesellschaft (1787) in Zurich. From 1786 he became successful in Swiss bourgeois circles with his portrait-like Trauerallegorien (e.g. A Mother’s Solicitude in Eternity, 1786; Zurich, Ksthaus), full-length portraits of people who had died, with allegories relating to death and resurrection. These were the pictorial counterparts of the mourning odes or elegies on the death of family members or friends that were popular at the time. In these works Freudweiler’s style approached a sentimental classicism, although he continued to paint conversation pieces in an ornamental and decorative Rococo style. His historical compositions were less successful, although his painting ...

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Birgit Roth

(b Roveredo, nr Bellinzona, 1671; d Eichstätt, March 21, 1747).

Italian master builder and architect. In the early 1690s he was a master builder at the court of Prince John Adam of Liechtenstein in Vienna, where he worked at the Liechtenstein town palace, firstly under Domenico Martinelli and later (1705–6) completing it to his own plans, the staircase showing his influence most strongly. Gabrieli was summoned to Ansbach in 1694 by Markgraf Georg Friedrich to submit plans for rebuilding the palace there, and while the Margrave deliberated, Gabrieli took on other commissions in Ansbach. He built a garden house (1697–9; now the Prinzenschlossen) for Privy Counsellor Georg Christian Seefried above the palace quarter. Less well preserved is his summer-house (1696–1701) for Lieutenant-Colonel Jahnus in Pfaffengreuth. Gabrieli began work on the Ansbach Palace in 1705, after the Margrave’s death. A fire in 1709 facilitated a complete remodelling, and Gabrieli, who was promoted to court architect and Director of Building in ...

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(b Paris, Aug 24, 1670; d Paris, July 21, 1761).

French painter. He was a pupil of Louis Boullogne (ii). In 1695 he won the Prix de Rome and subsequently lived in Rome for two years. Because of a lull in royal patronage, Galloche was obliged, on his return to Paris, to accept commissions from churches and monasteries. Between 1706 and 1713 he painted, in collaboration with Louis de Silvestre, St Scholastica Praying for a Storm (Brussels, Mus. A. Anc.) and scenes from the life of St Benedict for the refectory of St Martin-des-Champs, Paris. In 1711 he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie Royale, Paris, on presentation of Hercules Restoring Alcestis to her Husband (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). He became professor at the Académie in 1720, rector in 1746 and chancellor in 1754. Between 1737 and 1751 he exhibited regularly at the Salons.

For the church of St Lazare (now Ste Marguerite), Paris, Galloche painted ...

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Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Santiago de Compostela, Aug 9, 1709; d Salamanca, Nov 15, 1784).

Spanish architect. He was probably trained by Domingo A. de Andrade. In 1729 he moved to Salamanca, competing for work against the successful Churriguera family. He produced an excellent drawing of the north side of the incomplete Plaza Mayor, in an unsuccessful bid to be appointed overseer. In 1749, however, he achieved his aim and was made Master of Works for the town hall. With its low relief architectural articulation, it dominated the north side of the square, which, like the south side, was completed by 1755 under García’s supervision.

Between 1730 and 1745 García was appointed to build a wing for the Colegio Real de la Compañía de Jesús. He designed the exterior to blend in with the main building using the classical style of J. Gómez. The courtyard is considered a masterpiece in the Spanish Baroque style. He also designed the staircase, library and a hall with stuccoed vaults, in a style similar to that produced by French decorators such as Jean Bérain I. He also worked on the church façade, adding two slender towers with varied silhouettes, their belfries and cupolas stacked in decreasing size and decorated with stone reliefs in the Rococo style. While working at the Colegio Real de la Compañía de Jesús, García designed two altarpieces for the church and one for the sacristy. These, with their weighty volumes and undulating surfaces, are much more dynamic than those by the Churriguera family, who were known for their extravagant style. García’s more progressive, Rococo style was subsequently taken up by his son ...

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Anne Pastori Zumbach

(b Geneva, April 6, 1682; d Geneva, March 7, 1766).

Swiss painter and engraver. He was a member of a family of artists and jewellers in Geneva. At an early age he showed a pronounced talent for art, but as there was no school of drawing in Geneva, he moved to Germany. At Kassel, Baron von Mardefeld became his patron, sent him to Berlin and recommended him to important people at court. Gardelle is said to have painted the royal family; however, this was most probably simply a question of copying existing portraits. In 1711, on his return to Kassel, he painted from life a portrait of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. In 1712 he travelled to Paris, where he spent a year perfecting his art in the studio of Nicolas de Largillierre. It was there that he acquired the fluid and elegant style of the French Rococo. He returned to Switzerland for good in 1713 and became a portrait painter, painting both the great and the humble, not only in Geneva but also in Berne, Neuchâtel and the Vaud. He was a very prolific artist and often executed replicas of his paintings for himself. These paintings, often in a small format (usually 240×180 mm), are particularly remarkable for their brightness of colour and their close attention to likenesses (e.g. ...

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Richard John and Gordon Campbell

(b Harsten, Leics, March 14, 1688; d 1763).

English textile designer. After 40 years in Grantham where her father was rector, Garthwaite moved to London, where she became the leading English silk-designer of the second quarter of the 18th century. Her silk designs incorporated naturalistic, asymmetrical flowers from 1742, and in the following year she started using sinuous C- and S-scrolls. There is a collection of her designs in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London....

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Jean-Nérée Ronfort

(b Paris, 1682; d Paris, May 6, 1746).

French cabinetmaker. He became a maître-ébéniste c. 1710 and from 1724 became the main supplier to the Garde Meuble de la Couronne. From 1726 until his death, first as Ebéniste de la Reine and then as Ebéniste du Roi, he exercised a virtual monopoly over commissions intended for royal residences, most of which he subcontracted. His strong, personal style is evident in his work, although only about six pieces remain unmodified. Apart from a medal-cabinet (1738; Versailles, Château), on which he collaborated and obviously submitted to the designs of the Slodtz brothers, two of his works are very important. The style of a marquetry commode (1739; London, Wallace; for illustration see Commode) with bronze mounts by Jacques Caffiéri suggests that he had escaped the Slodtzs’ supervision. It follows the dictates of the Louis XV style, employing asymmetrical designs and exaggerated curves and Rococo decoration. The exuberance of this piece was followed by a return to balanced forms, as shown in a lacquered commode (...

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Irene Cioffi

(b Molfetta, nr Bari, Feb 8, 1703; d Naples, April 18, 1766).

Italian painter. He was a leading exponent of the Rococo school that flourished in Rome during the first half of the 18th century.

Giaquinto began his training in the studio of Saverio Porto (c. 1667–c. 1725), a provincial painter in Molfetta. In March 1721 he left for Naples, where, except for a brief return to Molfetta (Feb 1723–Oct 1724), he lived for the next six years. According to De Dominici (1745), Giaquinto’s earliest biographer, once in Naples the artist entered the studio of Nicola Maria Rossi, a follower of Francesco Solimena. While Solimena’s monumental and complex style influenced Giaquinto throughout his career, there is no documentary evidence to suggest that Giaquinto entered Solimena’s flourishing studio. However, close contact between Solimena and Giaquinto during these formative years is indicated by several autograph paintings modelled after the master’s work. Giaquinto’s Visitation (Naples, Pucci priv. col.) appears to have been copied from Solimena’s altarpiece of the same subject for S Maria Donnalbina. Other early studies after Solimena include ...

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Marianne Roland Michel

(b Langres, April 28, 1673; d Paris, May 4, 1722).

French draughtsman, printmaker and painter. He was the son of an embroiderer and painter of ornaments, who doubtless trained him before he entered the Paris studio of Jean-Baptiste Corneille about 1690; there he learnt to paint and etch. In 1710 he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale; he was received (reçu) as a history painter five years later, on presentation of the Nailing of Christ to the Cross (Noailles, Corrèze, parish church). Although he painted other elevated subjects, including a Death of the Virgin (1715; untraced) for his native Langres, he was most active as a draughtsman and printmaker specializing in theatre and genre scenes, as well as bacchanals and designs for decorations. Gillot’s principal source of inspiration was the popular theatre; he is said to have run a puppet theatre, to have written plays and once to have been in charge of sets, machinery and costume for the opera. This interest was to have a profound effect on the art of his principal pupil, ...