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Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...

Article

Adam Miłobędzki

Italian family of architects and sculptors, active in Rome and Poland. Together they created the only significant body of work beyond the Alps in the early Roman Baroque style of Carlo Maderno. Matteo Castelli (b Melide, c. 1560; d 1632) was apprenticed in Rome to his relative Domenico Fontana, and then for 20 years, from c. 1593, he worked with Maderno. By the beginning of the 17th century he was Maderno’s leading collaborator, involved in such works as the decoration (1595; with the sculptor Francesco Rossi) of the chapel of Cardinal Rusticucci in Il Gesù, Rome, to plans by Maderno, and on the façade of S Susanna (1597–1603), Rome, as well as the stone-built Palazzo Mattei (1599–1601). Matteo’s independent projects (after 1601) were largely developments of designs by Maderno, interpreting his moderately linear forms in a more decorative manner. The most important were the interiors of three chapels in S Andrea della Valle, Rome, notably the Barberini Chapel (...

Article

Bruce Boucher

(b Colonnata, Carrara, c. 1509; d Padua, 1572).

Italian sculptor. His family lived in the mountains of Carrara and was connected with the marble trade. Vasari placed him among the pupils of Sansovino before the Sack of Rome in 1527, and when his master moved to Venice, Cattaneo followed. His earliest surviving independent work is a statuette of St Jerome, made in competition with a St Lawrence (both Venice, S Salvatore) by Giacomo Fantoni in 1530. It is an accomplished semi-nude figure in the style of Sansovino, a style that Cattaneo sustained throughout his career. During the 1530s Cattaneo was briefly involved in the stucco ceiling decoration of the chapel of S Antonio in the Santo in Padua, and he also collaborated with Fantoni on Serlio’s high altar for the church of the Madonna di Galliera in Bologna. Vasari (v, p. 91) credited him with a relief portrait of Duke Alessandro de’ Medici, but this has not survived. Probably his first major surviving commission was for the marble statue of a ...

Article

(fl 1486–1523).

Italian illuminator, painter and sculptor. He was principally active as an illuminator and ran a workshop of considerable repute in Bologna. In 1486 he collaborated with Martino da Modena (fl 1477–89) on the decoration of choir-books for S Petronio, Bologna, and this contact with Martino undoubtedly influenced his style. In 1509 and 1511 and then in 1522 and 1523 he and his collaborators received payments for the illumination of a number of choir-books for the same church (Bologna, Mus. S Petronio).

Cavalletto’s only surviving signed and dated work is a full-page miniature of the Coronation of the Virgin (1523; Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), from the statute book of the guild of merchants and drapers of Bologna. The miniature, with the Virgin enthroned on a podium in a columned room, is strikingly monumental in its conception. Here, as in the best of Cavalletto’s work as an illuminator, the marked influence of the Ferrara school fused with the traditional style of Bologna is apparent. Also attributed to Cavalletto are the frontispiece miniature of the statute book of the College of Jurists of Bologna representing the ...

Article

Andrea S. Norris

(b Viadana, c. 1454; d after 1508).

Italian medallist, sculptor and goldsmith. He was the son of a notary, Andrea Cavalli. First recorded as a goldsmith in June 1481, he executed the foot of a large tabernacle dedicated to the feast of Corpus Christi for Mantua Cathedral between 1483 and 1485 and a large Crucifix for the chapter house of the cathedral (1490–91); none of this work survives. In 1497 Cavalli probably began working for the Mantuan mint. The commissions from Ludovico Gonzaga, Bishop of Mantua, date from 1499 and 1501 (Rossi, 1888): a bronze statuette of the Spinario and four silver roundels with Signs of the Zodiac. Cavalli worked as a sculptor and medallist for the Gonzaga family from 1501 to 1505. He witnessed Andrea Mantegna’s will on 1 March 1504 and the granting of Mantegna’s funerary chapel in S Andrea, Mantua, on 11 August.

From March to June 1506 Cavalli is documented at the mint of the Holy Roman Emperor, ...

Article

Stephen K. Scher

(b Padua, May 16, 1500; d Padua, Sept 5, 1570).

Italian medallist and goldsmith. His entire career seems to have been spent in Padua, where he benefited from rich traditions of sculpture, bronze-casting, Classical studies and collecting. His artistic training appears to have been acquired in the workshop of Andrea Riccio, who named Cavino as one of the executors of his will. Cavino worked in both bronze and gold and is documented as the author of a number of such ecclesiastical objects as candlesticks, censers and reliquaries; however, these works no longer exist. His fame derives in part from his having carved the dies for a series of struck pieces that imitated very closely ancient coins, particularly Roman sesterces. Such copies are now often found in cast versions, although many of the original dies are preserved in Paris (Bib. N., Cab. Médailles). Although it is not known whether Cavino’s intention was to deceive, his imitations were so cleverly made that even the modern collector must beware of them. According to Gorini, they were produced between ...

Article

Alessandro Nova

(b Florence, Nov 3, 1500; d Florence, Feb 13, 1571).

Italian goldsmith, medallist, sculptor and writer. He was one of the foremost Italian Mannerist artists of the 16th century, working in Rome for successive popes, in France for Francis I and in Florence for Cosimo I de’ Medici. Among his most famous works are the elaborate gold figural salt made for Francis I (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.; see fig. below) and the bronze statue of Perseus (Florence, Loggia Lanzi). His Vita is among the most compelling autobiographies written by an artist and is generally considered to be an important work of Italian literature.

Cellini came from a middle-class Florentine family. His grandfather Andrea was a mason and his father Giovanni Cellini (1451–1528), who married Elisabetta Granacci in 1480, was a well-educated and expert carpenter who built the scaffolding put up to allow Leonardo da Vinci to paint the Battle of Anghiari (destr.) and who was a member of the committee responsible for choosing the site for Michelangelo’s statue of ...

Article

Antonia Boström

[il Grechetto; il Greco]

(b Cyprus; fl 1538–64).

Italian medallist and gem-, cameo- and die-engraver. His father was Milanese and his mother Cypriot. At an early age he moved to Rome, where he was introduced by Annibale Caro into pontifical circles dominated by the Farnese family. As a result, he was appointed Incisore e Maestro delle Stampe at the papal mint, where he is documented in 1554 as having worked with Gian Federico Bonzagna, whose dies are difficult to distinguish from Cesati’s. He remained at the mint until 1561 under Paul III and his successors, Julius III, Paul IV and Pius IV.

Cesati continued to receive commissions from other members of the Farnese family. His most famous medals include one of Pier Luigi Farnese, 1st Duke of Parma (c. 1546), one of Alessandro Farnese as Cardinal with Apollo Shooting at Python on the reverse (Florence, Bargello) and one of him when he became Paul III, with the reverse, so highly praised by Michelangelo (Vasari, ...

Article

Pedro Dias

(b France, c. 1485; d Évora, c. 1555).

French sculptor, active in Spain and Portugal. He brought the art of the Renaissance to Portugal, carving in stone works of great quality at Lisbon, Coimbra and Évora. His career bears witness to the changing status of the arts in Portugal and Spain in the early 16th century: he was an artist of a new mould, associating with scholars rather than with the guilds of his craft.

While an indictment made against Chanterene to the Inquisition speaks of him as French, it is not known whether he worked in France or if he trained in Italy. His style, however, is essentially French and at its outset uses Lombard ornament in the style of the reign of Francis I (1494–1547). The earliest references to Chanterene are for payments made between 1511 and 1513 for 15 carvings (in situ) for the columns of the transept in the chapel of the Hospital Real, Santiago de Compostela, built by ...

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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Ingeborg Krummer-Schroth

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Günter Irmscher

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Martin Raumschüssel

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Martin Raumschüssel

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Andrea Bayer

(b Crema, doc. from 1470; d Crema, c. 1544).

Italian painter and sculptor. Although living in Milan in 1487, he was primarily active in Brescia and Crema, as well as smaller centres in the vicinity, arriving in the former city around 1490. He was influenced by Vincenzo Foppa, with whom Vasari and Lomazzo confused him. In 1493 he was commissioned to paint frescoes (destr.) depicting the Life of the Virgin in the presbytery of the Old Cathedral, Brescia. Extant works from those years include the Road to Calvary and the Deposition (1490; Travagliato, SS Pietro e Paolo) and a polyptych depicting St Nicholas of Tolentino (1495; Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo) painted for S Barnaba, Brescia. Recent restoration has revealed that the left panel of St Sebastian was painted and signed by an artist who worked in the style of Leonardo and was active in Milan, Francesco Galli, called Francesco Napoletano (d 1501). Not only do these works show strong ties with Foppa and such Milanese artists as Bernardo Zenale but they also contain clear references both to German engravings (e.g. Martin Schongauer’s ...

Article

Philippe Rouillard

(b Grenoble, c. 1480; d Blois, before March 3, 1525).

French sculptor. He was one of the chief monumental sculptors in France in the generation after Michel Colombe, running a large workshop in Grenoble, but most of his documented works are either destroyed or untraced. In May 1517 he worked for the Poysieu family at Montereau-Faut-Yonne, Seine-et-Marne, being responsible (Thieme–Becker) for the reredos of the Saint-Claude Chapel (in situ). It is possible that he contributed to the decoration of the Palais de Justice, Grenoble, before 1519. That year he received his most important commission: three tombs for the La Trémoille family, erected in the chapel of the château de Thouars, Deux-Sèvres (destr. 1793, but recorded in a drawing by Robert de Gaignières, Paris, Bib. N.). In 1521 he sculpted the tomb of Charlotte d’Albret in the church of La Motte-Feuilly, Indre (fragments).

As a result of these commissions Claustre settled in Blois, where in 1524 he was engaged to construct the tomb (untraced) of ...

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(b c. 1535; d Rome, burJune 1, 1615).

Flemish sculptor active in Italy. According to Baglione he trained with Guglielmo della Porta, under whose supervision he made a number of reliefs in wax and clay, which served as models for goldsmiths in Rome. His ivory carvings were also regularly used for this purpose. Cobaert’s production consists almost exclusively of small relief sculptures, usually made to decorate basins, ewers or platters. In most cases the objects were showpieces; for example an ivory ewer and basin in the Grünes Gewölbe, Dresden, decorated with elegantly designed scenes from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Another similar work is a magnificent ewer (820x770 mm) in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, at the centre of which is a relief of the story of Romulus and Remus. Cobaert’s only statue—a marble St Matthew (Rome, Santa Trinità de’ Pellegrini) commissioned in 1587—remained unfinished.

Thieme–Becker G. Baglione: Vite (1642); ed. V. Mariani (1935), pp. 100–01 E. Marchal: La Sculpture et les chefs d’oeuvre de l’orfèvrerie belges...

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(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...

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Portuguese family of wood-carvers. Gaspar Coelho (b Portalegre; fl 1582–1605) and his brother Domingos Coelho (fl 1582–96) worked in collaboration constructing altarpieces. They introduced a new form that was widely adopted in Portugal until the 1630s, the key element of which was concentric arches, giving the whole design a closed appearance basically different from the open termination in separated units of, for example, the contemporary Spanish retable. This type of Portuguese retable, which completely filled the terminal wall of the apse, often ended in a pair of columns that maintained the rhythm of paired columns below and that eventually tended to frame full-length statues rather than paintings.

The works of the Coelho brothers include the retable of the church of the Colégio of Nossa Senhora do Carmo, Coimbra, which contains paintings on panel by Simão Rodrigues. Gaspar was responsible for the main retable of the church of Santa Cruz, Coimbra (destr.), and the choir-stalls of the convent of S Maria de Celas, Coimbra (both ...

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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b Mechelen, c. 1526; d Innsbruck, Aug 17, 1612).

Flemish sculptor, active in Austria. He was one of the foremost sculptors active at the Habsburg courts in Innsbruck, Prague and Vienna, but his activities before 1558 are unclear. Colin may have trained c. 1540 with his uncle, Symon Colyns (fl 1518–42), a sculptor or stonemason in Mechelen. Dressler (1973) has suggested on the basis of style that the young sculptor was at Fontainebleau in the 1540s and then went to Italy, possibly to Milan. His reputation was well established by March 1558, when he is documented working on the façade sculpture of the Ottheinrichsbau of Heidelberg Castle with 12 journeymen. In 1559 or 1560 he returned to Mechelen where two years later he married Marie de Vleeschouwer, probably the daughter of Anthoni de Vleeschouwer (d 1558), a sculptor whom Colin succeeded at Heidelberg. Late in 1562 Colin moved to Innsbruck where he spent most of the rest of his career....