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Article

Gertrud Seidmann

(bapt London, Oct 30, 1730; d London, Feb 1814).

English gem-engraver, medallist, wax modeller and miniature painter. Of humble origins, he was self-taught as an engraver but studied drawing and modelling at the St Martin’s Lane Academy and in the gallery of casts belonging to Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, known as the Duke of Richmond’s Academy. He exhibited with the Society of Artists, of which he was a director, from 1760 until 1769, and gained three premiums from the Society of Arts between 1763 and 1766. In 1769 he enrolled at the Royal Academy as a student, became an ARA the following year and in 1771 was the first of the elected Academicians, presenting as his diploma work a cornelian intaglio of Neptune (London, RA). He enjoyed great success and attracted wide patronage for more than two decades, engraving principally antique subjects (e.g. Sabina, yellow sard intaglio; Baltimore, MD, Walters A.G.), allegorical scenes (e.g. Sacrifice to Minerva...

Article

(b Filipstad, Värmland, Dec 18, 1783; d Rome, March 13, 1848).

Swedish sculptor. He studied under Johan Tobias Sergel at the Konstakademi in Stockholm from 1803 to 1809, and in 1810 moved to Rome where he lived thereafter when not working or teaching in Sweden. In Italy he owned a marble quarry at Carrara and thus executed most of his sculptures in this high-quality stone. In Rome he studied antique sculpture and made copies of works there, such as Head of Bacchus (Stockholm, Nmus.). In his own work he invariably used subjects derived from Classical mythology, executing them in a Neo-classical style influenced by Antonio Canova, as in Juno with the Baby Hercules (1818; Stockholm, Nmus.), of which various versions exist. In this large work Juno is shown asleep with the young Hercules playing by her side. The outstretched goddess is elegantly carved and the drapery is especially fine, though the overall composition is rather heavy and lifeless, a fault of much of Byström’s work....

Article

Camillo Semenzato

(b Venice, 1665; d Venice, April 15, 1737).

Italian sculptor. His first known work is the marble St Benedict (1695) for S Michele in Isola, Venice. Illness forced him to move around 1698 to Dalmatia, where he stayed at Ragusa (now Dubrovnik) and at Cattaro. There he completed the high altar with SS John, Dominic, Bruno and Chiara for S Chiara, an altar for S Giuseppe and the marble altar of the chapel of S Trifone for S Trifone. He returned to Venice in 1708 but retained contacts with Dalmatia. In 1711 he executed his best-known work, the reliquary, with panels representing the Crucifixion, the Deposition and the Pietà, for the sacristy of S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. He also worked in Gorizia. In Venice he carved a figure of Bellona in stone for the entrance to the Arsenal and statues of the Trinity, SS Peter and Paul and other figures for the courtyard of the Frari. On the façade of the church of the Gesuiti are ...

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Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

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Guilhem Scherf and Jean-Dominique Augarde

[Caffieri; Caffier]

French family of artists of Italian descent. (1) Philippe Caffiéri (i), the son of Daniele Caffiéri (1603–39), chief engineer to Pope Urban VIII, left Rome for Paris in 1660. His virtuosity of craftsmanship and mastery of detail were characteristics that were shared by other members of the family, as was employment as a sculptor in the naval yards. Philippe was associated with Le Havre while his eldest son, François-Charles Caffiéri (1667–1729), François-Charles’s own son, Charles-Philippe Caffiéri (b 1695), and grandson, Charles-Marie Caffiéri (b 1736), all worked as sculptors in the naval yards of Le Havre and Brest. (2) Jacques Caffiéri, another of Philippe’s sons, was one of the most celebrated bronzeworkers in the reign of Louis XV. Jacques’s eldest son, (3) Philippe Caffiéri (ii), was also a bronze-caster and chaser and had a large private clientele in France that included the Marquise de Pompadour, the Prince de Condé and Mme du Barry. Jacques’s younger son, ...

Article

(b Florence, Sept 22, 1807; d Florence, April 7, 1895).

Italian sculptor. The son of the sculptor Pietro Cambi, he studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti e Liceo Artistico in Florence and in 1833, after winning a four-year stipendium, continued his training in Rome. While there he completed several works in gesso, including a Daphnis and Chloe (1834; Florence, Pitti; marble version, 1841) executed in an academic classical style. He returned to Florence about 1837 and for a time struggled to gain recognition, but by 1841, after having been nominated to, and given a professorship in, the Accademia, he began to obtain numerous important commissions. He gained esteem for his funerary monuments, among them one to the painter Luigi Sabatelli (1844; Florence, Santa Croce) that is noted for its unsparingly realistic depiction of the dying man’s wasted body. Commissions for other memorials followed: Benvenuto Cellini (1845; Florence, Uffizi) and the dramatist Carlo Goldoni (1873...

Article

Donatella Germanó Siracusa

(b Rome, 1669; d Rome, July 1736).

Italian sculptor. His family came from Gattinara in Piedmont—a town famous for its engravers—and he served a long apprenticeship in the workshop of Lorenzo Ottoni in Rome. His first known works are the marble relief of the Canonization of St Ignatius (1695–8; Rome, the Gesù, chapel of S Ignazio), based on a design provided by Andrea Pozzo, and the monument to Count Vladislav Constantine Wasa (1698–1700; Rome, Stimmate di S Francesco), commissioned by Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani (later Clement XI). In the Lazio region Cametti was also active at Frascati, where he produced a relief (1704) for the façade of the cathedral; and at Palestrina, with the funerary monuments to Prince Taddeo Barberini and Cardinal Antonio Barberini (both 1704; S Rosalia), where he experimented with a new concept in tomb design which he used again in the monument to Gabriele Filippucci (c. 1706; Rome, S Giovanni in Laterano)....

Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Mataró, April 12, 1771; d Barcelona, July 7, 1855).

Spanish sculptor and teacher. He began studying at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de la Lonja in Barcelona at the age of 14, and he worked in the studio of Salvador Gurri (fl 1756–1819), a late Baroque sculptor with Neo-classical tendencies. Campeny left the studio after he was attacked by Gurri, who, as a teacher at the Escuela (1785), continued to persecute him and threw him out. Campeny then worked in Lérida, Cervera and Montserrat. He produced his first major work, St Bruno (1795; destr. 1831), in carved polychromed wood. He also trained with Nicolás Traver and José Cabañeras, both late Baroque artists. Stylistically, Campeny began with a moderate and personal naturalism, later assimilating some of the Baroque influences from his Catalan teachers. Readmitted to the Escuela, in 1795 he won a scholarship to complete his studies in Rome, where he went in 1796...

Article

Donatella Germanó Siracusa

(b Massa Carrara, 1668; d Rome, Aug 17, 1764).

Italian sculptor. Nothing is known of his apprenticeship, but at the age of 34 he was awarded third prize for sculpture in the Concorso Clementino. In Rome, where he lived with his brother Andrea Campi, also a sculptor, he was employed in the workshop of Pierre Legros (ii), whose assistant he became until the master’s death in 1719. Having been introduced to the Abbot of Montecassino by Legros, Campi sent numerous sculptures to the abbey, taking full advantage of his brother’s assistance. He was commissioned to execute eight monumental statues for the cloisters: Pope Gregory II and Duke Gisulf I (both 1712), the Popes Zacharias and Alexander II and Conrad I (both 1717), Victor III (1720), Benedict XIII (1726), and St Benedict and St Scholastica (both 1735). He also completed (1720) the statue of Charlemagne begun by Legros in 1714. All the works for Montecassino were dispatched by sea, which allowed the sculptor to continue working for his Roman patrons. For the series of sculptures representing the founders of the religious orders for St Peter’s in Rome, Campi took particular care in the execution of the ...

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Giuseppe Pavanello

(b Possagno, nr Treviso, Nov 1, 1757; d Venice, Oct 13, 1822).

Italian sculptor, painter, draughtsman, and architect. He became the most innovative and widely acclaimed Neo-classical sculptor. His development during the 1780s of a new style of revolutionary severity and idealistic purity led many of his contemporaries to prefer his ideal sculptures to such previously universally admired antique statues as the Medici Venus and the Farnese Hercules, thus greatly increasing the prestige of ‘modern’ sculpture. He was also much in demand as a portraitist, often combining a classicizing format with a naturalistic presentation of features.

Antonio Canova was the son of Pietro Canova (1735–61), a stonecutter of Possagno. He was brought up by his grandfather, Pasino Canova (1714–94), a mediocre sculptor who specialized in altars with statues and low reliefs in late Baroque style (e.g. Angels; Crespano, S Marco). In 1770 or 1771 Antonio was apprenticed to the sculptor Giuseppe Bernardi (d 1774) in Pagnano, near Asolo, later following him to Venice. After Bernardi’s death he worked for a few months in the studio of the sculptor ...

Article

Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli

(b Rome, June 20, 1761; d Rome, Dec 13, 1808).

Italian gem-engraver. He won prizes in sculpture at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, in 1780, 1782 and 1783. He is documented as an engraver from 1790 with a cameo bearing the Head of Maecenas, executed for the Pallavicini family. His works, signed ΚΑΠ, ΚΑΠΠΑ, ΚΑΠΠΑΡΟΝΙ and capparoni, include engravings in both intaglio and cameo, although he seems to have preferred the latter technique. Among his documented signed works are: Maecenas (Rome, priv. col., see Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli, no. 1); Hebe Giving Water to the Eagle (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.); Ganymede and the Eagle (see Guattani, 1807, p. 135); a Veiled Head of a Woman (St Petersburg, Hermitage); Paris (pbs 5); Brutus, in intaglio (pbs 6); and a bust of Napoleon (pbs 8), copied from a statue by Antonio Canova (London, Apsley House). Contemporary sources attribute about 20 other unsigned works to Capparoni; the most notable of these is the ...

Article

John Turpin

(b Tramore, Co. Waterford, c. 1782; d London, Nov 30, 1868).

British sculptor. Possibly the son of an Irish sculptor, he may have received some instruction in Dublin before going to London, where he assisted Sir Richard Westmacott from 1809 to 1823 and set up his own studio in 1821. His marble Arethusa (Petworth House, W. Sussex, NT) was bought by George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, in 1823. This led to a close association with Egremont; Petworth House has a superb collection of Carew’s work in marble, including Adonis and the Bear (1826), The Falconer (1831) and Prometheus and Pandora (1838), all examples of his Neo-classical mythologies, and a series of busts, one of which is a portrait of Egremont (1831).

Carew also made commemorative marble statues of public figures, including William Huskisson (1833; Chichester Cathedral), Edmund Kean (1835; London, Drury Lane Theat.) and his best-known, Sir Richard Whittington Listening to the London Bells...

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Julius Bryant

[Augustino]

(b Genoa, c. 1718; d London, Aug 15, 1790).

Italian sculptor, active in England. He had arrived in London by 1760 and in 1768 became, with Joseph Wilton and William Tyler (d 1801), one of the three sculptors to be appointed Foundation Members of the Royal Academy. He subsequently became the second Keeper of the Royal Academy in 1783, a position he retained until his death, when he was succeeded by Wilton. Carlini exhibited at the Society of Artists between 1760 and 1768 and at the Royal Academy between 1769 and 1787.

Carlini competed for, but failed to win, several major commissions, including that for a statue of Admiral Lord Rodney for Jamaica, but was fortunate in receiving patronage from friends intent on keeping him in England. His earliest datable work, a marble statue of the ‘quack’ doctor Joshua Ward (c. 1760–64; London, V&A) was commissioned by the sitter in exchange for an annuity. Carlini’s bold carving, technically superior to many of his British contemporaries, is evident in his marble bust of ...

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Lucia Pirzio Biroli Stefanelli

In 

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Tessa Murdoch

[Carpentière, Andries]

(b c. 1677; d London, July 1737).

English sculptor, of French or Flemish descent. According to Vertue, he learnt ‘the rudiments of drawing’ from Peter Eude, a portrait and history painter trained at the Académie Royale, Paris, who settled in England and later in Scotland. Carpenter became principal assistant to John van Nost (i), and he is recorded as present in London in 1702 by Ralph Thoresby, the Leeds historian. Thoresby regarded Carpenter’s marble statue of Queen Anne, commissioned c. 1710–12 by Alderman William Milner for Moot Hall, Leeds (c. 1710–12; Leeds, C.A.G.), as ‘generally esteemed…the best that was ever made’ and included an engraving of it in his Ducatus Leodiensis (1715). The statue of the Queen, in her Parliament robes with crown, globe, sceptre and Order of the Garter, demonstrates Carpenter’s ability to handle marble competently on a monumental scale. From 1716 to 1717 he was associated with Francis Bird in the production of statues for the pediment of St Paul’s Cathedral....

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Gérard Hubert

(b Paris, Dec 22, 1757; d Paris, June 12, 1831).

French sculptor. He was the son of a locksmith and studied at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin, Paris, and then in the studio of Charles-Antoine Bridan and at the Académie Royale. He failed to win the Prix de Rome and began to earn his living modelling decorative motifs for bronze founders. He also worked as an assistant to Joseph Deschamps (1743–88) on decorative sculpture for Queen Marie-Antoinette at the châteaux of Trianon and Saint-Cloud, near Versailles, taking over from Deschamps on his death. During the French Revolution he was one of a number of sculptors who collaborated on Antoine Quatremère de Quincy’s scheme to turn the church of Ste Geneviève, Paris, into a mausoleum, the Panthéon, to which he contributed a stone relief representing Force and Prudence (1792–3; destr.). He exhibited a terracotta statuette of Friendship (priv. col., see Hubert, 1980, p. 7, fig.) in the 1796...

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Ricardo Descalzi

[Chili, Manuel ]

(fl Quito, 18th century).

Ecuadorean sculptor. An Indian nicknamed Caspicara (wooden face), he lived in Quito, and his name and work were discovered in 1791 by the doctor and journalist Eugenio Espejo. He was a pupil of Bernardo de Legarda. He is considered the outstanding sculptor of religious images in polychromed wood of the colonial period in Quito because of the delicacy, grace, and feeling that he gave to human expressions and his attention to the details of anatomy and the movement of his figures. The elegant but natural carving of the drapery adds a Baroque quality to his sculptures. The most outstanding of his works in Quito, all of unknown date, include the Four Virtues and the Holy Shroud in Quito Cathedral; St Francis, the Twelve Apostles, and the Assumption of the Virgin in S Francisco; and La Virgen del Carmen, St Joseph, and the Coronation of the Virgin in the Museo Franciscano in Quito. In certain of his works he grouped the figures as if in a painting, as in the ...

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Joshua Drapkin

(b Azay-le-Ferron, Indre, June 3, 1756; d Versailles, Nov 1, 1827).

French draughtsman, engraver, sculptor and archaeologist. He received instruction in drawing from Joseph-Marie Vien, Jean-Jacques Lagrenée and Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1778 he departed for Italy, where he developed his landscape draughtsmanship and his passion for antiquity. He travelled incessantly, recording everything he saw and venturing out from Rome to Venice, Naples and Sicily. An example of the numerous drawings he produced is the Ruins of the Baths of Titus Seen from the Colosseum (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1782 a group of amateurs, under the patronage of Emperor Joseph II, commissioned from him a series of views of the Istrian and Dalmatian coast; these were eventually published in J. Lavallée’s Voyage pittoresque et historique de l’Istrie et de la Dalmatie. After a brief spell in France, Cassas followed Marie-Gabriel, Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, to his new ambassadorial post in Constantinople in 1784. He subsequently visited Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and Asia Minor, recording his impressions of Alexandria, Cairo, Smyrna, the Temple of Diana (Artemis) at Ephesos and the Palmyra and Baalbek ruins. Many of the 250 drawings dating from this trip were of hitherto unrecorded sights. With Choiseul’s assistance Cassas published these works in the ...

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Marjorie Trusted

(b Galicia [probably the region of Noya], 1704–11; d Madrid, Aug 25, 1775).

Spanish sculptor, teacher, critic and scholar. He was seminal in introducing the Neo-classical style to Spain and has been justly called the prototype of the academic artist (Bédat). The 14 years he spent in Italy (1733–47) studying ancient art and the work of such artists as Alessandro Algardi and Gianlorenzo Bernini were central to his career. De Castro’s earliest training was under Diego de Sande and then Miguel de Romay in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia). From 1724 to 1726 he worked in Lisbon, afterwards moving to Seville, where he entered the workshop of Pedro Duque Cornejo. He went to Rome in 1733, but no sculpture by de Castro is known to have survived from his stay in the city. He first joined Giuseppe Rusconi’s workshop and later that of Filippo della Valle. He also made contact with influential artists such as Anton Raphael Mengs. In 1739 he won first prize for sculpture at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome and as a result was given an annual allowance by ...