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Mark Jones

French family of medallists. Philippe Danfrie the elder (b 1531–5; d Paris, 1606) went to Paris in the 1550s and set up as an engraver of letter punches. He produced a number of books in partnership with Richard Breton in 1558–60 and later with Pierre Haman and Jean Le Royer. He also made mathematical instruments, globes and astrolabes and dies for marking bookbindings. In 1571 he cut his first dies for jettons. As Engraver-General of the French coinage from 1582, he provided the puncheons from which the dies used in every mint in France were taken. He also produced a number of medals (e.g. London, BM) commemorating the events of the first 15 years of Henry IV’s reign. His son Philippe Danfrie the younger (b ?Paris, c. 1572; d Paris, 1604) was appointed Controller-General of effigies in 1591. On his appointment it was claimed that he had demonstrated great skill in modelling portraits in wax and engraving puncheons. His most famous and only signed medal (e.g. London, BM) is cast rather than struck and celebrates the victory of Henry IV over the Duke of Savoy in ...

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Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

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(b Blois, Feb 15, 1849; d Paris, Nov 14, 1899).

French medallist and sculptor. He was the son of a painter and became a student at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris when only 16 years old. In 1872 he won the Prix de Rome for medals. On his return from Rome he exhibited cast portrait medals of Charles Bayet, Antonin Mercié and Luc Olivier Merson, evincing in these his admiration for Renaissance medals. Daniel-Dupuis was a prolific medallist, who executed numerous commemorative pieces, such as those for the Election of Jules Grévy as President (1879); the Municipality of Paris (1880); the Chamber of Deputies (1884); the Société des artistes français (1885); and the Exposition Universelle of 1889. In a lighter vein, he also executed one of the first motoring medals (1896) for the Automobile Club of France; while his plaquettes, such as the Source (originally modelled in 1873, reduced, engraved and issued in ...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

Philip Attwood

Swiss family of medallists. Jean [John] Dassier (b Geneva, 17 Aug 1676; d Geneva, 15 Nov 1763) trained under his father Domaine Dassier (1641–1719), chief engraver at the Geneva Mint, and studied in Paris under Jean Mauger and Joseph Roettier. From around 1696 he was assistant engraver at the Geneva Mint and in 1720 succeeded his father as chief engraver, a post he held until his death. In 1711 he executed his first series of medals, based on Ovid’s Metamorphoses (60 medals). This was followed in 1723–4 with a series of illustrious men from the time of Louis XIV (73 medals). Religious reformers (24 medals) followed in 1725. In 1728 he visited England in search of work but returned to Geneva after a few months. He returned in 1731, having begun work on a series of medals dedicated to George II, depicting British sovereigns from William I to George II. Completed in ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Launceston, Cornwall, April 28, 1961).

English sculptor. After studying at Exeter College of Art and Design (1981–4), Davey took a Diploma at Goldsmiths’ College in 1985; his first solo exhibition followed at the Lisson Gallery, London, in 1987. Influenced by the sculpture of Tony Cragg and Richard Deacon in the early 1980s, Davey explored the formal character of the objecthood of sculpture often with a brisk humour. Button (painted steel, 0.36×1.5 m diam., 1998; London, priv. col., see 1989 exh. cat., p. 28) is characteristic of his early work: an overblown switch with cleanly finished grey top and cream-coloured rim, it borrows its form from mass-produced industrial objects, delighting in their highly finished quality, their bright colours and their abstract beauty, while denying their function. Gold (Table) (1991; see 1992 exh. cat.) marks a development towards larger work that addresses itself more directly to the viewer, in this case through its anthropomorphic size. Its title suggests a prosaic use, but its large size (with the top at head-height) again denies functionality, insisting instead on its identity as an object for pure aesthetic delectation. ...

Article

Martine Reid

(b Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, Nov 4, 1946).

Native American Haida sculptor, metalworker, printmaker and blanket-maker. He was the grandson of the Haida blanket- and basket-maker Florence Davidson (1895–1993), and great-grandson of the Haida wood-carver Charles Edenshaw. He began carving argillite as a teenager in Masset, and in 1966 he met Bill Reid, who offered him workshop space in Vancouver. There Davidson developed new carving skills and learnt the fundamentals of the two-dimensional (‘formline’) designs used by the Haida and other tribes of the northern Northwest Coast (see Native North American art, §III, 2). In 1969 he returned to Masset to carve a 12.2 m-high totem pole, the first heraldic column to be raised on the Queen Charlotte Islands since the end of the 19th century. In 1987 Davidson and his crew produced a set of three totem poles entitled Three Variations on Killer Whale Myths for the Pepsicola Sculptural Garden in Purchase, NY. In these totem poles Davidson worked within the strict conventions of the Haida style, refining it by introducing subtle variations in design but preserving a degree of conservative austerity in which movement and individual expression are sacrificed to overall unity of form. In his early work in silver Davidson used flat patterns influenced by Edenshaw, and he went on to develop these into an innovative style of his own in screenprints, silver and bronze. Davidson’s younger brother, ...

Article

(b Somerset, c. 1753; d London, Jan 12, 1841).

English art dealer, painter and medallist. He spent much of his early life in Italy and in 1774 was in Rome, where he was detained by the French during their war with Naples. While in Italy he studied and made copies of paintings, and he also made portrait medallions showing only the head of the sitter. On his return to London in 1800 he worked as a picture dealer, achieving brief public prominence in 1816 when he was called to give evidence before the Parliamentary Committee set up to investigate the merits of the Elgin Marbles. Of the many paintings he bought from abroad several were for the National Gallery, London, including Gaspard Dughet’s Landscape with Abraham and Isaac Approaching the Place of Sacrifice, Raphael’s St Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1507), Correggio’s Ecce homo (late 1520s), Anthony van Dyck’s Emperor Theodosius Forbidden by St Ambrose to Enter Milan Cathedral...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

[Catherine]

(b London, Oct 10, 1960).

English sculptor. She studied at the Camberwell School of Art (1980–83) and Goldsmiths’ College (1985–7). From the mid-1980s she made exquisite and intricate sculptures, at once seductive and grotesquely threatening. In the late 1980s her work carried an atmosphere of erotic restraint; Trace (galvanised steel, red silk chiffon, dimensions variable, six parts, 1990), was made by distending and bolting together metal strips to create brassiere-like structures. The latent sexual threat of her objects was often underscored in the early 1990s by provocative titles such as Defying Death I Ran Away to the Fucking Circus (1991; see 1997 exh. cat., p. 71), and Once Upon a Fuck (1992; see 1997 exh. cat., p. 70). Throughout this decade her work became more subtly seductive, early contrasts of red velvet and steel were exchanged for a faded, more ornamental aesthetic. From 1994 her work also became larger, more pictorial, often wall-mounted. ...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(b ?Paris, c. 1519; d Paris, 1583).

French goldsmith, medallist, draughtsman and engraver. He was recorded as a journeyman goldsmith in Paris in 1546 and was appointed to the royal mint in January 1552. He was, however, removed in June that year. A number of medals, including one of Henry II (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles), are attributed to him. He did not become an engraver until about 1557; his first dated prints, a series of 12 plates illustrating the Old Testament (Linzeler and Adhémar, nos 3–14) and two designs for hand mirrors (l & a 308–9), were made in 1561. He found his models in the work of such Italian artists of the Fontainebleau school as Rosso Fiorentino, Nicolò dell’Abate and especially Luca Penni, rather than in that of Francesco Primaticcio. The year 1569 seems to have marked the peak of Delaune’s Fontainebleau production, with about ten prints inspired by the Italian masters. As a Calvinist he left Paris at the time of the St Bartholomew’s Eve massacre on ...

Article

(fl 1471; d L’Aquila, 1504).

Italian sculptor and painter. He was probably the son of the goldsmith Giacomo di Paolo Sulmona, recorded as resident in L’Aquila by 1467. Silvestro is first documented in 1471, sharing a workshop with Giovanni Biascuccio, and again at the end of the decade in partnership with the Florentine Francesco Trugi. The earliest documented work by the sculptor is a tabernacle with St James (untraced) commissioned by the ecclesiastical authorities of Tornimparte on 12 February 1476. In 1476 he was also commissioned to execute, in L’Aquila Cathedral, a funerary monument (damaged 1703) to Amico Agnifili, Bishop of L’Aquila (reg 1431–76). A contract for materials dated 15 September 1476 allows a partial reconstruction of the original form of the marble monument. The surviving sepulchre with an effigy of Agnifili was flanked by niche figures (untraced) of St George and St Maximian. The lunette sculpture specified in the document can perhaps be identified with a relief of the ...

Article

Thorsten Opper

Greek bronze statue of the early 5th century bc from the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi (h. 1.8 m; Delphi, Archaeol. Mus.; see fig.). The Charioteer was discovered in 1896 together with bronze fragments of a horse team and chariot, the arm of a further, smaller figure (an outrider or groom) and an inscribed base block of Pentelic marble, all of which seem to have belonged to the same monument. A young man, the charioteer is clad in a xystis, the long, short-sleeved tunic typical of his profession, the long vertical folds of which highlight the statue's plain, column-like character. While the Charioteer stands erect, with his feet close together and his weight evenly distributed, his entire body turns to the right in an unusual, gradual spiral movement, perhaps an indication that the figure was meant to be seen in a three-quarter profile from the right. The statue was cast in seven main pieces, possibly in the direct lost-wax technique; only the left arm is now missing. Finer details were added in different materials (glass paste, black stone and brown onyx for the eyes, copper for eyelashes and lips, silver for the teeth, copper and silver for the inlaid meander pattern of the hair band). The remains of the dedicatory inscription (‘Polyzalos erected me… Make him prosper, glorious Apollo’) are essential for narrowing down the date and historical context of the monument. It seems likely that the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1797).

French bronze-caster who established a factory in Paris c. 1797. He produced sculptures, candelabra and furniture (both bronze furniture and wooden furniture with gilt-bronze mounts), but increasingly came to specialize in clocks, sometimes in collaboration with a bronze-caster called Matelin, with whom he made various objects for the American president James Monroe, including the Hannibal clock (...

Article

Mark Jones

(b Paris, Aug 30, 1792; d Paris, Sept 15, 1867).

French medallist. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1813 and trained there under Bertrand Andrieu, for medal making, and Pierre Cartellier, for sculpture. Early in his career he contributed to the medallic history of Napoleon I’s reign (Conquest of Illyria; French Academy at Rome; Orphanage of the Legion of Honour) and to James Mudie’s National Medals (George III; Return of Napoleon; British Army in the Netherlands; Charge of the British at Waterloo). He was responsible for a number of the portraits in the Galerie métallique des grands hommes français, including those of Antoine Arnaud (1817), Pierre Jolyot de Crébillon, Jacques Amyot (1819), Abbé Suger and Bayard (1822), also for Martin Luther (1821), among others, in the Series numismatica universalis virorum illustrium by Amédée Pierre Durand (1789–1873). Depaulis’s later work became increasingly ambitious in scale and in relief. His monumental commemorative medals for the ...

Article

Francis Woodman

(fl 1188; d 1245).

English cleric, sculptor, and possibly metalworker. A native of West Dereham in Norfolk, he has sometimes been identified with Master Elias, steward to Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of Rochester. He served in the household of Hubert Walter, Bishop of Salisbury and later Archbishop of Canterbury (1193–1205), and he was employed by other bishops in an executive capacity; he also arranged the distribution of the copies of Magna Carta (1215). With Walter of Colchester (d 1248) he organized the translation of the remains of St Thomas Becket to the new shrine at Canterbury Cathedral in 1220, apparently making and setting up the shrine itself. He was ‘director of the new fabric’ of Salisbury Cathedral (of which he was a canon) from its foundation in 1220 until his death. He built a house for himself in the Close at Salisbury (Leadenhall; destr. 1915). In 1233...

Article

(b Paris, May 26, 1860; d after 1913).

French medallist and sculptor. He studied under the French sculptors Augustin-Alexandre Dumont, Emile Thomas (1817–82), Hippolyte Moreau and Léon Delhomme (1841–95). He started exhibiting at the Salon Champs-Elysées in 1887 and was made a Sociétaire des Artistes Français in 1896. At the turn of the century be became a professor at the Ecole Supérieure Professionelle Estienne in Paris. Deschamps’s output consists mainly of relief plaques and medals depicting allegorical subjects and portraits, such as the relief plaque of a young girl ...

Article

Hermann Maué

(b c. 1500; d ?Vienna, after Oct 1571).

German sculptor and medallist. He is known to have married in Nuremberg in 1532 and to have become a citizen in 1537. He was recorded in 1547 as having made a two-year study journey that took him to Venice and Rome, from which he brought back numerous drawings and works of art; he was also said to be skilled in working marble. Except for this journey, Deschler mostly remained in Nuremberg; only the Imperial Diets were to him worth a journey, in order to obtain commissions, mainly for portrait medals. In 1534 he received a commission from Archduke Maximilian (later Emperor Maximilian II), and in 1548 from King Ferdinand of Bohemia and Hungary (later Emperor Ferdinand I); it was probably he who ordered the costly artefact that Deschler’s son delivered to Prague in 1553: the price paid was 1000 taler.

From the end of the 1550s Deschler lived in Vienna, where, as Maximilian’s court sculptor, he received a fixed salary until his death, the last payment being made in ...

Article

Stephen K. Scher

(fl 1456–76).

Italian medallist, goldsmith and metalworker. Originally from Mantua, he worked most of his life in Rome. In the capacity of metalworker, he repaired the antique Roman statue of Marcus Aurelius (Rome, Piazza del Campidoglio) in 1468. He is known to have visited Florence in 1462 and was making jewellery for Borso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, in 1466.

Cristoforo went to Rome in 1456 and seems first to have been employed by Lodovico Scarampi Mezzarota, Cardinal of S Lorenzo and Patriarch of Aquileia (d 1465). An unsigned medal with a forceful portrait of this cleric is usually attributed to the artist (Hill, Corpus, no. 756). He then entered the papal service and in 1469 received payment for medals of Paul II to be buried in the foundations of the Palazzo Venezia, Rome. None of the many surviving medals of this pope, who was an enthusiastic collector of ancient coins, bears Cristoforo’s signature. Nonetheless, a large number of medals of Paul II have been attributed to him (Hill, nos 759–74). Although they follow the normal serial production of papal medals, the portraiture has the strength and individuality of Scarampi’s medal....

Article

Francesco Paolo Fiore and Pietro C. Marani

(Pollaiolo) [Francesco di Giorgio]

(b Siena, bapt Sept 23, 1439; d Siena, bur Nov 29, 1501).

Italian architect, engineer, painter, illuminator, sculptor, medallist, theorist and writer. He was the most outstanding artistic personality from Siena in the second half of the 15th century. His activities as a diplomat led to his employment at the courts of Naples, Milan and Urbino, as well as in Siena, and while most of his paintings and miniatures date from before 1475, by the 1480s and 1490s he was among the leading architects in Italy. He was particularly renowned for his work as a military architect, notably for his involvement in the development of the Bastion, which formed the basis of post-medieval fortifications (see Military architecture & fortification, §III, 2(ii) and 4(ii)). His subsequent palace and church architecture was influential in spreading the Urbino style, which he renewed with reference to the architecture of Leon Battista Alberti but giving emphasis to the purism of smooth surfaces. His theoretical works, which include the first important Western writings on military engineering, were not published until modern times but were keenly studied in manuscript, by Leonardo da Vinci among others; they foreshadowed a number of developments that came to fruition in the 16th century (...

Article

James David Draper

(b ?Florence, c. 1430–1440; d Poggio a Caiano, nr Florence, Dec 28, 1491).

Italian sculptor and medallist. Throughout most of his career he was a member of Lorenzo the Magnificent’s Florentine household and in his old age was put in charge of the academy that met in the Medici sculpture garden. Bertoldo’s work contributed to the antique revival, and, in particular, he developed the genre of the bronze statuette, of which six examples by him survive. He also produced bronze reliefs and medals as well as working in other media. It is very likely that he is identifiable with one Bertoldo di Giovanni di Bertoldo, who was involved in a minor commercial transaction in 1463.

According to Vasari, Bertoldo was a pupil of Donatello, responsible for chasing his master’s late works, including the bronze reliefs for the pulpits in S Lorenzo. Writing to Lorenzo de’ Medici on 29 July 1479, Bertoldo called himself a ‘disciple of Donato’, but the hypothesis that he might have designed some of the pulpit reliefs has been rightly denied by Bode (...