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Roberto Segre

(b Venice, Jan 30, 1927).

Italian architect, stage designer and teacher, active in Cuba. He graduated from the Istituto Superiore d’Archittetura in Venice in 1952, where he was a pupil of Carlo Scarpa, Franco Albini and Luigi Piccinato (b 1899). He began his professional career in BBPR Architectural Studio in Milan. In 1957 he went to Venezuela to work in a local studio and in 1960 was invited to join a Cuban programme. Thereafter he trained architectural students in the problems of creativity and plasticity as professor of Basic Design of the Faculty of Architecture in Havana. In 1961 he took part with Ricardo Porro and Vittorio Garatti in designing the Escuelas Nacionales de Arte at Cubanacán, Havana, his particular role being the designing of the Escuela de Artes Dramáticas. In this building he combined the compact volumetric tradition of brick walls and the irregular urban spaces of medieval Italian cities with the internal courtyards of Spanish colonial tradition. The work was broken off in ...

Article

Pontus Grate

(b Stockholm, Aug 14, 1896; d Stockholm, Aug 3, 1983).

Swedish sculptor, painter and stage designer. After studying at the Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm and travelling in Germany, Italy and Greece (1922–4), he lived in Paris until 1933. At that time his art developed in two directions, one more traditional, at times classical, the other modernist. Grate largely relinquished his modernist work in the alien cultural climate on his return to Sweden. His more traditional style was inspired by ancient Greek and Renaissance sculpture, and influenced by Aristide Maillol and Charles Despiau, among others. A series of female and male figures culminated in the Four Seasons (1937–44; entrance hall of the Kanslihus, Stockholm) and the powerfully simplified form of Goddess at the Hyperborean Sea (1949–56; in front of Gävle Stadshus), while a more complex, fanciful and narrative style led to the rich granite architecture of the Fountain of Transformations (1943–56; Sundbyberg, Marabou Park). By the time of the last two commissions Grate had resumed his modernist style. He was stimulated in particular by non-Western art, Kandinsky, Klee and later Surrealism. Although he never considered himself a Surrealist, many of his works are related to Surrealism, for example ...

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, 1920).

Colombian painter, sculptor, printmaker, film maker and stage designer. He studied at the Art Students League in New York from 1941 to 1943 and subsequently visited Italy, where he studied fresco and etching techniques before settling again in Colombia. Consistently devoted to the human form, he initially depicted figures with angular heads and striped tunics in a strong light, with symbolic objects such as eggs, masks or cages.

In such later paintings as Boy with Umbrella (1964; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas) Grau’s figures were transformed into plump, fleshy and voluptuous beings, richly arrayed with lace, feathers, hats and fans, like characters taken from the theatre or from popular turn-of-the-century postcards. His scenes were gradually filled with anecdotal details and numerous objects, including cupboards, easels, boxes, masks and flowers, through which he suggested emotionally charged atmospheres. Grau also produced murals, prints, stage sets, films and especially sculptures. The first of these were assemblages of antique and industrial objects, but he subsequently made cast-bronze sculptures that convey a sensuousness, mystery and nostalgia similar to that evoked by his paintings....

Article

Jacqueline Stare

(Hirsche)

(b Stockholm, Sept 2, 1888; d nr Oslo, May 22, 1946).

Swedish painter, stage designer and teacher. He studied at the Konstnärförbund school in Stockholm (1905–8), then travelled to Paris and studied at Matisse’s school (1908–11). He was a member of the Young Ones group. In 1911 he married Sigrid Hjertén. Grünewald was greatly influenced by Matisse between 1910 and 1920, and Fauvism was generally important to him. His prize-winning design (1912–14) for decorating the Register Office of Stockholm Town Hall was purely Fauvist, and he was forbidden to execute the project. This French influence can be seen in Ivan in the Armchair (1915; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.). Cézanne’s paintings also had an early significance for him. In 1915 he exhibited together with his wife at the Sturm-Galerie in Berlin. Grünewald carried out the first of many stage designs for a production of Samson and Delilah at the Kungliga Teater, Stockholm, in 1921. He was a sought-after decorator during the 1920s and worked in a classical spirit. He was also an able portrait painter and illustrator, e.g. ...

Article

Lucius Grisebach

(b Berlin, Sept 30, 1937).

German painter and stage designer. From 1957 to 1964 he studied under the German painter Peter Janssen (b 1906) at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in West Berlin. At first he painted figurative works influenced by Baroque models and by 19th-century history painting. In aligning himself with the great tradition and the values of figurative painting in the idiom of Rubens or Hans Makart, he deliberately set himself apart from all the artistic tendencies predominant in West Germany in the 1950s and 1960s. Characteristic of his painting is a theatrical element that in the 1960s occasionally took on a quality of caricature. This is in keeping with his interest in the theatre, in which he also worked as an actor, musician, playwright and scene painter (particularly in the 1980s, when he was associated with the director Peter Zadeck in Berlin and Hamburg). As a 20th-century artist who thought in historical terms, Grützke played on the contradiction between the traditional form of figure painting and its contemporary content. In some works, such as ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

[Vladimir] (Davidovich)

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], March 30, 1896; d Tbilisi, July 20, 1980).

Georgian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and stage designer. From 1910 to 1914 he trained at the Tiflis School of Painting and Sculpture and from 1919 to 1926 at the Académie Ronson in Paris. While in Paris he became closely acquainted with Modigliani, Ignacio Zuloaga, Natal’ya Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov. His early works, with their theatrically romantic depictions of Georgian national life, fantastic and Symbolist motifs and surreal effects of colour, combine elements of the grotesque with a charming poetic mystery (e.g. the ‘Tsotskhali’ Fish, 1920; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.). His affinity with ancient Georgian and Persian art, of which he was a connoisseur, intensified on his return to Georgia in 1926; his colours became shimmering and tinged with gold, and, at the same time, the visual link with theatre became even stronger (many of his paintings have opera or ballet performances as their subjects or portray actresses in costume). He frequently depicted fantastic and mythological subjects (e.g. ...

Article

[Guillet, Georges]

(b Thiers, Puy-de-Dôme, c. 1624; d Paris, 16 April 1705). French writer and stage designer. He began his career as a stage designer for the actors at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, Paris. His first important work was Athènes ancienne et nouvelle (1675), an account of the history and customs of Athens. Although he claimed that this work was an account of the travels of his brother La Guilletière, in fact it relied on missionaries’ letters and a large measure of the author’s imagination, and it brought furious criticism from the antiquary Jacob Spon. However, although often inaccurate, the work contains interesting material on social institutions. The sequel, Lacédémone ancienne et nouvelle (1676), is even more fantastic. He followed this success with Les Arts de l’homme d’épée, ou: Dictionnaire du gentil’homme (1676), a manual of the manners of polite society, which reached its definitive form in the fifth edition (...

Article

Éva Bajkay

(b Budapest, Oct 12, 1882; d Budapest, Feb 2, 1932).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman, stage designer and writer. He studied at the School of Crafts and Design in Budapest (1900–01); in 1902 he registered at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence and in 1903 at the Accademia in Rome. From 1902 his work was regularly included in the exhibitions of the Budapest National Salon. In 1906 he went to Paris and from there travelled extensively. His work was inspired variously by small Italian towns, by Giotto, Botticelli and Alessandro Magnasco; in his early work the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites is also noticeable, as is that of the Viennese Secessionist style (e.g. Paolo and Francesca, 1903; Budapest, N.G.). In 1907 he exhibited with Ödön Márffy at the Uránia bookshop in Budapest, and the following year he took part in an international exhibition in London. In 1909 he took part in a travelling exhibition of Neo-Impressionist painters and literary figures. He sought to express himself through the themes and forms of the past: his ‘Rococo’ period was directly inspired by Italian and French art, and is characterized by its finesse, as well as by the use of the grotesque and the tragi-comic. The work of Toulouse–Lautrec was also influential on Gulácsy’s style. He called his Rococo works ‘Biedermeier frolics’, and he professed to live in a world of ‘noble dreams’. His work as a whole expresses raw feelings with soft lyricism, as in ...

Article

Barbara Lange

revised by Andrés Mario Zervigón

[Herzfeld, Helmut ]

(b Berlin, June 19, 1891; d Berlin, April 26, 1968).

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in 1913, where he and his brother Wieland Herzfeld made contact with avant-garde circles. (Wieland changed his surname to Herzfelde in early 1914.) Heartfield’s experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art was that which took account of social realities (see Eclipse of the Sun on the Rhine, 1957). He destroyed all his early work.

From 1916 Heartfield collaborated closely with George Grosz and in the summer of 1917, like Grosz, anglicized his name, although he did not adopt this form officially until after the war. His earnest criticism of bourgeois society found its expression in his commitment to the ...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

In 

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

(Nightingale)

(b London, March 25, 1929; d Brightwell Baldwin, March 29, 1998).

English designer. He was educated at Charterhouse School, Surrey, and studied painting, illustration, typography, and stage design at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London. He served in the British Army Educational Corps (1949–51), then travelled in Europe for a year, pursuing a keen interest in architecture and interiors. In 1953 he redecorated his mother’s London house, a photograph of which was published and led to several similar commissions, and established his own design studio in London. In 1955 he formed a partnership with an English antiques dealer, Tom Parr (1930–2015), and together they ran Hicks & Parr, a small decorating and antiques shop in Chelsea. Among their early successful projects were the redecoration of the residences of Sir Rex and Lady Benson, Frederick and Mary Ponsonby, 10th Earl and Countess of Bessborough, and President Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana. In 1959 Hicks set up independently as David Hicks Ltd, then as David Hicks Associates, and later David Hicks International Marketing, with branch offices in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Pakistan, and Australia. During the 1960s Hicks became one of the most fashionable decorators in Britain, noted for his eclectic tastes, use of strong colours, and designs for geometric-patterned carpets and textiles, inspired by the work of Matisse and Edouard Vuillard. His employment of wall-to-wall carpeting in geometric-repeat motifs, together with his mix-and-match furnishing fabrics, became widely popular. He supplied designs to some 500 furnishing fabric and carpet manufacturers in North America and Britain during the 1960s and 1970s. He decorated the private apartments (...

Article

S. Kontha

(b Budapest, April 17, 1904; d Budapest, Jan 26, 1986).

Hungarian painter, illustrator, mosaicist, tapestry designer, stage designer, poster designer, printmaker, sculptor, teacher and administrator. From 1922 to 1929 he studied at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts (Magyar Kepzőmüvészeti Főiskolá) in Budapest under Gyula Rudnay (1878–1957) and János Vaszary (1867–1939). In the mid-1920s he became acquainted with Béla Uitz’s General Ludd series (1923; Budapest, N.G.) and in Venice he saw the work of such Russian avant-garde artists as Rodchenko and El Lissitzky and such Italian Futurists as Severini. In 1926 in Paris he studied the works of Léger, Braque, Picasso and others in the collection of Léonce Rosenberg. He was also influenced by the art of Brancusi and Joseph Csáky, as well as André Breton’s Manifeste du surréalisme (Paris, 1924). From the outset, Hincz’s work revealed a number of different objectives. Although he experimented with abstraction, the reference to the figure is always present in one form or another. His profound interest in humanity and its social interaction was based on, and motivated by, this interest in the figure. His early paintings are expressionist in mood and are composed of flattened forms in a shallow space in a manner reminiscent of Cubo–Futurist art. Elements of Purism and Surrealism are also present. After World War II he became increasingly preoccupied with realism, political agitprop art and the problems inherent in creating new symbols; a study trip to Korea, China and Vietnam in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Bradford, July 9, 1937).

English painter, printmaker, photographer, and stage designer. Perhaps the most popular and versatile British artist of the 20th century, Hockney made apparent his facility as a draughtsman while studying at Bradford School of Art between 1953 and 1957, producing portraits and observations of his surroundings under the influence of the Euston Road School and of Stanley Spencer. From 1957 to 1959 he worked in hospitals as a conscientious objector to fulfil the requirements of national service. On beginning a three-year postgraduate course at the Royal College of Art, London, in 1959, he turned first to the discipline of drawing from life in two elaborate studies of a skeleton before working briefly in an abstract idiom inspired by the paintings of Alan Davie.

Encouraged by a fellow student, R. B. Kitaj, Hockney soon sought ways of reintegrating a personal subject-matter into his art while remaining faithful to his newly acquired modernism. He began tentatively by copying fragments of poems on to his paintings, encouraging a close scrutiny of the surface and creating a specific identity for the painted marks through the alliance of word and image. These cryptic messages soon gave way to open declarations in a series of paintings produced in ...

Article

Andreas Franzke

(b Bleckede, nr Lüneburg, June 14, 1945; d Düsseldorf, May 28, 2007).

German painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He entered the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf in 1963, spending three semesters studying stage set design before becoming a student of Joseph Beuys. After producing a series of pictures in 1966 using babies as his prime motif, he adopted a word suggestive of baby talk, ‘Lidl’, for performances and political demonstrations in Düsseldorf and other cities from 1968 to 1970. These activities, for which he enlisted the support of other artists, continued after he began teaching art in 1968 at a secondary school in Düsseldorf; he remained a teacher there until 1980.

Immendorff’s renewed application to painting coincided with his first meeting with A. R. Penck in East Berlin in 1976. They wrote a brief manifesto on working collaboratively and met again in 1977, when they decided to organize joint artistic activities and exhibitions. It was at this time that Immendorff began his Café Deutschland series, e.g. ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Northwood, Middx, Jan 31, 1942, d London, Feb 19, 1994).

English film maker, theatre designer, writer and painter. After attending King’s College, London (1960–62), he studied painting and stage design at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1963–7), where he developed a sparse figurative style influenced by that of David Hockney. He exhibited widely after his graduation, participating in the opening exhibition of the Lisson Gallery in London (founded by fellow Slade student Nicholas Logsdail), Young Contemporaries (London, Tate), the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, Liverpool, and the fifth Biennale des Jeunes Artistes (Paris, Mus. A. Mod., Ville Paris). He soon moved away from the influence of Hockney, painting abstracted landscapes that dwelt on the magical and mythological elements of a location, making reference to the work of Paul Nash. Although he continued painting sporadically during the 1970s, his energies were principally directed in this decade toward film making and theatre design; commissions included two productions in London in ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Nestorovich)

(b Kukhi, nr Kutaisi, Aug 20, 1889; d Tbilisi, May 10, 1952).

Georgian painter, collagist, stage designer and film maker. He was born into a peasant family and studied from 1909 to 1916 in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 to 1915 he also studied painting and drawing in the studio of L. Ye. Dmitriyev-Kavakazsky (1849–1916). With Pavel Filonov he became a member of the St Petersburg artistic group Intimnaya Masterskaya (The Intimate Studio). The group’s manifesto (1914) proclaimed the beginning of a new era in art, awarded a central importance to Filonov’s principle of sdelannost’ (‘madeness’) and drew attention to the fundamental structural principles of artistic language. The manifesto was one of the most original developments of the pre-revolutionary avant-garde in Russia.

Kakabadze was an outstanding representative of the artistic avant-garde in Georgia. In his work innovation was always combined with a deep interest in Georgian national traditions, on which he was an expert. He studied medieval Georgian ornament while still a student, and in ...

Article

Vivian Endicott Barnett

[Vassily; Wassily] (Vasil’yevich)

(b Moscow, Dec 4, 1866; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Dec 13, 1944).

Russian painter, printmaker, stage designer, decorative artist and theorist. A central figure in the development of 20th-century art and specifically in the transition from representational to abstract art, Kandinsky worked in a wide variety of media and was an important teacher and theoretician. He worked mainly outside Russia, but his Russian heritage continued to be an important factor in his development.

Kandinsky grew up in Odessa and from 1886 to 1893 studied economics, ethnography and law in Moscow, where he wrote a dissertation on the legality of labourers’ wages. He married his cousin Anya Shemyakina in 1892 (divorced 1911). In 1896 Kandinsky decided to become an artist and went to Munich. There he studied from 1896 to 1898 at the art school of Anton Ažbe, where he met Alexei Jawlensky and Marianne von Werefkin, and then in 1900 at the Akademie with Franz von Stuck. The following year he was a co-founder of the ...

Article

Anna Bentkowska

(b Wielopole, nr Kraków, April 6, 1915; d Kraków, Dec 8, 1990).

Polish painter, draughtsman, theatre director and stage designer. He studied painting and stage design under Karol Frycz (1877–1963) at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków, graduating in 1939. After the outbreak of World War II he organized in Kraków an experimental underground theatre (1942–4), exhibitions and art discussions. He painted and produced numerous drawings and stage designs for future performances. He was influenced by various artistic movements such as Constructivism, Expressionism and Futurism, as well as by the writings of Bruno Schultz (1892–1942) and Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (ii), whose plays he later staged. In 1947 he went to Paris, where at the Palais de la Découverte he ‘discovered’ the infinity of nature that he examined through the microscopic images of cells and cross-sections of minerals. As the scientific approach to this was beyond his means, he began to explore the natural world by developing the concept of inner, intellectual and spiritual space through the act of artistic creation. He called it ‘the umbrellic space’. A series of abstract and metaphorical paintings and drawings followed, with the motif of an umbrella that could ‘fold’ and ‘unfold’ the space (e.g. ...

Article

John E. Bowlt

(Nikolayevich)

(b Pereslavl’-Zalessky, Yaroslavl’ province, Sept 6, 1866; d Pereslavl’-Zalessky, Feb 9, 1943).

Russian illustrator and stage designer. After studying law at Moscow University, he enrolled in 1892 at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, where his principal mentors were Pavel Chistyakov (1832–1919) and Il’ya Repin. In 1896 he moved to Munich and with Grabar’ attended the private studio of Anton Ažbé. In 1900 he returned to St Petersburg, receiving his Academy diploma (1902) and in 1907 becoming a professor there. Kardovsky was one of the foremost students of the great draughtsman Chistyakov, whose graphic principles he maintained in his precision, sobriety and sense of measure. Although Kardovsky explored various styles, including Impressionism and Jugendstil, and enthusiastically supported Mikhail Vrubel’, whose posthumous exhibition he organized in 1912, he was concerned more with faithful representation than with formal experiment, demonstrating his consistency and common sense from 1902 in his prolific output as a book illustrator. Occasionally Kardovsky explored the discipline of political caricature, as in his illustrations for the radical journals ...