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(b Schweidnitz [now Świdnica, Poland], Dec 25, 1635; d Berlin, Aug 8, 1702).

German sculptor, architect and ivory-carver. After receiving early training from his father, Johann Michael Döbel, he was granted a scholarship by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, which allowed him to travel extensively in Europe and to visit Egypt (1655–8). In 1663–4 he and his brother Johann Christoph Döbel (1640–1713) assisted their father in the execution of the marble monument to Chancellor Johann von Kospoth for Königsberg [now Kaliningrad] Cathedral (in situ). Having moved to Berlin in 1665, he married the daughter of the Court Sculptor, Johann Arnold Villars. His appointment as state architect of Prussia in 1667 took him back to Königsberg, but when he was appointed Court Sculptor and Architect in 1702 he returned to Berlin, leaving his brother in charge of his Königsberg office. Among Döbel’s major works were the sculptural decoration (1676–7) for the Elector of Brandenburg’s summer palace at Bornim (destr. ...


Ulrich Knapp


German family of masons and architects. Thomas Daisenberger (1642–81), his son Matthias Daisenberger (d 1712) and his nephew Joseph Dossenberger (i) (b Wollishausen, nr Augsburg, 17 Feb 1694; d Wollishausen, 22 May 1754) were masons active in the region of Augsburg. In 1732 Joseph Dossenberger worked on the parish church in Agawang, near Augsburg, to the design of Joseph Meitinger, as well as the parish church at Reinhartshausen (begun 1739), a simple hall church with a chancel narrower than the nave. Joseph’s sons, Hans Adam Dossenberger (b Wollishausen, 25 Dec 1716; d Wollishausen, 5 April 1759) and Joseph Dossenberger (ii) (b Wollishausen, 9 March 1721; d Wettenhausen, nr Günzburg, 15 May 1785), also followed their father’s trade.

Hans Adam Dossenberger probably received his first training from his father and is thought to have served an apprenticeship with Dominikus Zimmermann. He is first mentioned in connection with the building of the church at Reinhartshausen, where his father was in charge. He and his ...


(b Como, Dec 31, 1669; d Bologna, June 3, 1759).

Italian architect. He came from a family of architects who practised in Bologna; he was the son of the architect Giovanni Paolo Dotti (fl 1659–70). Carlo Francesco was one of the most important architects in the first half of the 18th century in Bologna, and he developed a resolute and innovative Baroque style. His major works are the Arco del Meloncello and the sanctuary of Madonna di S Luca, which formed one of the main ecclesiastical complexes in Bologna. A competition was held in 1714 for an arch to provide a pedestrian passage across the Via Saragozza; Dotti’s design, uniquely, was a two-storey structure that spanned the road. The original drawing (Bologna, Archv Stato) shows the arch straight in plan; the executed work (1718–32), however, was doubly curved in plan and is asymmetrical, with one side concealing adjacent buildings. These scenographic features may suggest the involvement of Dotti’s contemporary, the stage designer ...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz and Liliana Herrera

Spanish family of architects, active in Mexico from 1690 to after 1750. It is assumed that José Durán, Miguel Custodio Durán, and Diego Durán Berruecos were related, although research to date has not produced any firm evidence. José Durán was responsible for the plan of the basilica of Guadalupe, which was built (1695–1709) by Pedro de Arrieta at the foot of the hill of Tepeyac, north of Mexico City. It is longitudinal in plan, with aisles, but centrally organized with a crossing dome equidistant from the sanctuary and the entrance. This dome presides over each elevation, framed by octagonal bell-towers at the corners. A possible stylistic source is the Basílica del Pilar (begun 1681), Saragossa, Spain.

Miguel Custodio Durán is associated with a series of works carried out in Mexico City. The most important of these is the church of S Juan de Dios (1729) on the north side of the Alameda Gardens. The main elevation is dished inwards in the manner of a ...


(b Stralsund, W. Pomerania [now in Rostock], 1669; d Dresden, 1729).

Swedish–German architect. He first trained with his father, Nils Eosander, a military engineer, and served on Swedish fortification until 1697, when he left for similar work in Brandenburg. After a study tour in France and Italy (1698–9), he was appointed Court Architect to Frederick I of Brandenburg (later King of Prussia) in 1699, First Building Director in 1702 and Quartermaster-General in 1705. Under Frederick, Eosander succeeded Andreas Schlüter on the building of the Berlin Königliches Schloss, the latter having been forced to resign in 1708 because of engineering failures.

Eosander’s most prominent extant work is the Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin (see Display of art §VI), which he extended in 1704–12 with wings, an orangery and a central salon under the cupola. His most important commission in Berlin, however, was the completion of the Königliches Schloss, to which he added the western wings round a grand courtyard and a monumental entrance archway known as the Eosanderbau (...


J.-P. Esther

(fl Antwerp, second half of the 17th century).

Flemish architect, possibly related to the Antwerp family of sculptors of the same name. His major work was the new abbey church at Averbode, for which he was awarded the commission in 1644 after Lucas Faydherbe’s plans had been rejected. The ground-plan of this Baroque church combines a centralized cruciform space to the west for the laity with a deep choir, necessary for Norbertine choral services. Van den Eynde probably based this combination of central and axial plans, resulting in an imposing and spacious interior, on other Flemish Baroque churches, such as the abbey church of St Pieter (1629–1722), Ghent, by Peter Huyssens. The design combined Gothic structural forms, such as ribbed vaults, with Renaissance ornamental details. No dome was built over the central section because in January 1668 one of the major piers and a portion of the vault collapsed, indicating that van den Eynde did not have sufficient knowledge of the structure of domes based on Roman models. The church, built entirely of natural white stone, was completed in ...


(b Emden, c. 1587; d Emden, April 13, 1648).

German painter, draughtsman and architect. The son of a goldsmith, he apparently studied mathematics at Groningen, where he came into contact with French, Italian and Netherlandish painting. In 1611 he travelled to Rome and Naples, encountering the Dutch painter Louis Finson, through whom he came under the powerful influence of Caravaggio’s style. He followed Finson to Aix-en-Provence in 1613, then to Toulouse and Bordeaux, and is thought to have contributed some of the landscapes in Finson’s works. In Provence they painted matching self-portraits (1613; Marseille, Mus. B.-A.). In Paris the collaboration ended, and in 1616 Faber returned to Emden, where he joined the painters’ guild in 1618 and was elected Ratsherr in 1628 and 1631. He became known for his Italianate landscapes and religious paintings, such as the Caravaggesque Liberation of St Peter (after 1616; Emden, Rathaus).

Faber’s drawings, however, mainly of landscapes, are typical of the Central European international style stemming from the court at Prague. The subject-matter of his ...


Maria Ida Catalano

(b Rovetta, Bergamo, Aug 26, 1659; d Rovetta, July 25, 1734).

Italian sculptor, architect and furniture-maker. He was the eldest son of the sculptor and carver Grazioso Fantoni (1630–93) and trained in his father’s flourishing workshop, which played a leading part in the supply of church furnishings in Bergamo, Parma and the surrounding provinces. In 1674 documents record Andrea in Parma, but in 1675 he was at Edolo, where he is recorded as an apprentice in the workshop of Pietro Ramus (?1639–82), a sculptor active in Valcamonica. It is thought that around 1678 he went to Venice to work in the workshop of the Genoese sculptor Filippo Parodi, a pupil of Bernini and a friend of Pierre Puget. Certainly Fantoni’s work gives stylistic evidence of contacts with Genoese and Venetian circles. In 1679 he returned to Rovetta, taking part from the early 1680s in a process of extensive stylistic modernization in the family workshop. This change can be seen in the contrast between Grazioso’s carved and inlaid wooden decorations and furnishings in the first sacristy (...


Richard Bösel

(b Clusone, Bergamo, 1591; d Naples, Feb 13, 1678).

Italian architect, sculptor and interior designer. His prowess in many fields of art and his remarkable facility of production led him to a position of unchallenged supremacy in 17th-century Neapolitan architecture, where his styles exhibit every nuance, from the severe classicism of Early Baroque via an exuberant use of coloured marbles and the occasional exploitation of Mannerist detail, to a scenographic Late Baroque.

Fanzago came from a patrician family whose members included engineers, architects and bronze-casters. In 1608 he went to Naples, where he trained as a mason and sculptor in the workshop of Geronimo d’Auria. From 1612 to 1620 he ran a workshop in partnership with his father-in-law, the marble-worker Angelo Landi (d 1620), and during that time produced many works of sculptural decoration, in particular for Neapolitan churches and chapels (e.g. three stremmi for the façade of the Palazzo degli Studi in 1614–16; unspecified works for Naples Cathedral), but also at Catanzaro and Barletta (e.g. the decoration of the Gentile Chapel in Barletta in ...


(b Mechelen, Jan 19, 1617; d Mechelen, Dec 31, 1697).

Flemish sculptor and architect. His father, Hendrik Faydherbe (1574–1629), a painter and sculptor, died when Lucas Faydherbe was 12, so it was his stepfather, Maximiliaan Labbé (d 1675), who between 1631 and 1634 trained him as a sculptor. Faydherbe then travelled to Antwerp to continue his training in the studio of Peter Paul Rubens, under whose guidance he executed a number of ivory-carvings, such as Leda and the Swan (Paris, Louvre). Abandoning a planned trip to Italy, Faydherbe in 1640 married and settled in Mechelen.

Faydherbe’s work can be divided into three periods. The first, from 1640 to 1660, is characterized by the strong influence of Rubens but lacks his vigour and dynamism. Faydherbe’s attempts during this period to develop a personal style are seen most clearly in his over life-size statue of St James the Greater (white stone, h. 3 m, 1650) for Brussels Cathedral. It is a lifelike work with a powerful anatomy; the heavy folds of the draperies add a further impression of strength to the figure. The statue is more ponderous in appearance than contemporary sculptures inspired by Italian Baroque prototypes, so stressing the Flemish character of Faydherbe’s art....


Andrzej Rottermund

(b ?Rome, c. 1660; d Rydzyna, May 15, 1736).

Italian architect, active in Poland. Only two of Ferrari’s works dating from his period in Italy are known, a design for a monastery (1678) and a scheme for a palace (1681): both were awarded prizes by the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. He was brought to Poland by the governor of Poznań, Stanislav Leszczyński, son and heir to Rafal, King of Poland. It was for them that Ferrari planned the reconstruction of the royal palace in Leszno (destr. 1707) and rebuilt (c. 1700) the west wing of the castle in Rydzyna. Also for them, he drew up a plan (after 1707) for the church of the Czech Brothers of St John in Leszno. He settled permanently on the Leszczyński estates in Rydzyna, where in 1703 he married Anna Rozyna Eitner. Ferrari’s works include the parish churches at Obrzyck (1714–28) and Wschów (...


Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Rome, ?1634; d Rome, Sept 13, 1689).

Italian painter, sculptor, architect and draughtsman. He was the most gifted pupil of Pietro da Cortona, and his style, in frescoes, easel paintings and drawings, remained a remarkably true interpretation of the latter’s Roman Baroque; Pascoli wrote of Ferri: ‘No pupil followed Cortona’s style more closely than Ciro; none so nearly approached the beauty of his art, and the originality of his invention.’ The work of the two artists is at times so close that attributions, especially among their drawings, have often been confused. In his designs for sculpture, architecture and decorative ornament, Ferri was indebted to both Cortona and Bernini. Ferri’s art was important in spreading the decorative style of the Roman Baroque to Florence and to other cities.

About 1650 Ferri’s father, Giovanni Stefano Ferri, a Genoese woodworker, sent him to study under Pietro da Cortona, in whose studio he remained for about ten years and learnt the principles of art, partly by copying Classical statues and Renaissance paintings. Ciro Ferri formed a close friendship with Cortona, and their collaboration meant that, early in his career, Ferri was involved in the major decorative commissions of the time. In ...


(b Utiel, Cuenca, ?1650; d Seville, bur April 10, 1730).

Spanish architect. He trained as a mason before going c. 1670–75 to Seville, where all his major works were executed. His first major work was the façade and courtyard of the Hospital de los Venerables, which he took over from Juan Domínguez in 1687. The façade, in a narrow street, has a triple arcade at ground-floor level. The first floor features a niche flanked by columns with ornately figured shafts, capped by a curved open-topped pediment twisted inwards like a plant stem. The patio is arcaded at ground-floor level, with large flat-headed windows at the upper floor protected by balustrades. Brick pilasters marking off the bays recall Juan de Herrera’s usage. From 1691 to 1709 Figueroa rebuilt the Mudéjar church of La Magdalena (formerly the convent of S Pablo), raising the height of the nave above that of the aisles and piercing each bay with a large clerestory window on either side. Above the crossing he set a dome on an octagonal drum and topped it with an undulating lantern, the whole picked out externally with polychrome tiles. The external walls are articulated by sober pilasters again in the manner of Herrera, which contrast with the angle lesenes surmounted by foliated brackets over ...


Charles Avery

(b Florence, April 25, 1652; d Florence, April 12, 1725).

Italian sculptor and architect. The foremost Florentine sculptor of the late Baroque period, he was first apprenticed to two painters successively but soon showed a greater propensity for sculpture. In 1673 he was sent by the young Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III de’ Medici, to study in the newly instituted Accademia Fiorentina in Rome. There he remained for three years, studying under Ercole Ferrata, a sculptor of the second Baroque generation, and Ciro Ferri, a painter who was a close follower of Pietro da Cortona. His precocious ability at this period is demonstrated in a terracotta relief of the Slaying of the Niobids (Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure & Lab. Rest. Opere A.); a marble relief of the Adoration of the Shepherds (St Petersburg, Hermitage); and a bronze relief of the Crucifixion (Florence, Pitti), until recently ascribed to the court sculptor of the day, Ferdinando Tacca. These early works established his characteristic style, a novel late Baroque manner that changed little throughout his career....


Andrew Stoga

(b Chiasso, July 26, 1661; d Chiasso, Oct 6, 1733).

Italian stuccoist and architect, active in Moravia and Poland. He was a pupil of Carlo Fontana and Antonio Raggi. Most of Baldassare Fontana’s surviving works date from his early period in Moravia, including the decoration of the Archbishop’s Palace in Kroměříž and his most important decorative work at the Norbertine monastery (1692, 1694, 1704–5) in Hradisko near Olomouc, in the residence (1693–4) at Hrubčice and in the Norbertines’ summer residence (1694–5) in Šebetov. In 1693 Fontana was invited to Poland for the first time by the church of St Clement in Wieliczka near Kraków to decorate the chapel of the Mnisze family. He returned to Poland in July 1695 to begin the most important work of his life: the decoration of the church of St Anna in Kraków, where he adorned the nave piers with swags and medallions and the high altar with saints and angels. He worked on this intermittently until ...


Alison Luchs

(b Settignano, nr Florence, 1670; d Florence, 1736).

Italian sculptor, medallist, architect and festival designer. He was a leading figure in the generation of sculptors trained in Florence after the dissolution of the Accademia Fiorentina in Rome (1686). Taught by Carlo Marcellini and Giuseppe Piamontini, he worked under Giovanni Battista Foggini on sculpture for the Feroni Chapel in SS Annunziata, Florence (1691–3), and the nave of SS Michele e Gaetano (1694–6). His principal sculptures are marble works for the high altar of SS Annunziata (1704–6) and portraits. His statues of St Filippo Benizzi and St Giuliana Falconieri for the Annunziata altar, with their animated balance and restrained intensity, are among the best of their date in Florence. Several portrait busts and reliefs, with an unsparingly detailed realism tempered by coolly imperious expression, have been attributed to him. The basis for these attributions is the signed marble effigy of Baron Philipp Bertram Degenhard Joseph von Hochkirchen...



(b ?Antwerp, ?1583; d Brussels, bur Jan 6, 1651).

Flemish architect, painter, draughtsman, engineer and writer. He was the son of an Antwerp painter, Jacques Francart (b before 1550; d 1601), and he was trained as a painter in Rome, where his father worked for some years. He greatly admired Michelangelo, Jacopo Vignola, Giacomo della Porta and Carlo Maderno. In 1599 the Flemish painter and architect Wenzel Coebergher married Francart’s younger sister in Rome. After Coebergher had been appointed Court Engineer in 1605 to the Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella in Brussels, Francart likewise returned to the Low Countries in 1608 to begin a career as a painter and architect in the service of the Archduke, where he remained until the death of Isabella.

In 1622, influenced by his Roman sojourn, Francart published his Premier livre d’architecture in November 1616, a work of great importance to the development of the early Baroque style in the southern Netherlands. One month after its publication he was given the task of completing the Jesuit church in Brussels (destr. ...


(b Kaufbeuren, c. 1590–95; d Ausburg, ?autumn 1675).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and organist. He was apprenticed to his father, the Kaufbeuren painter and town architect Daniel Erbe (‘Franckh’; b 1573; fl 1603). In 1630 he painted SS Cosmas and Damian (Kaufbeuren, Kirche bei Kauf), which he signed as a ‘painter and organist’. By 1637, at the latest, he had moved to Augsburg: on 30 October 1638 he acquired citizenship there and a work permit as a retailer. His early career in Augsburg was devoted mainly to portraits, both drawings and paintings, but one painting depicts the Baptism of St Augustine (1638; Beuerberg, Augustines-Chorherrenstift). His later work includes drawings of Foxhunting (1645) and Artists and Connoisseurs (c. 1665; both Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) and the painting Jacob’s Reconciliation with Esau (1660; Warsaw, N. Mus.)

The best-known example of Franck’s graphic work is a sequence of 25 engravings (1643–56), possibly inspired by Jacques Callot’s ...


Ugo Ruggeri

(b Venice, c. 1645; d Venice, 1710).

Italian painter. He trained in Bologna under Domenico degli Ambrogi, a specialist in architectural perspective, but by 1668 he was in Venice, where he painted a Virgin and Saints, characterized by a monumentality reminiscent of the Carracci, in S Benedetto. He was influenced by Bolognese artists, particularly Ludovico Carracci and Alessandro Tiarini, and soon also became interested in the work of Veronese, so that he started to use elaborate architectural settings and brighter colours. This is apparent in the Virgin Appearing to Pius V (1674; Vicenza, S Lorenzo), whose monumentality foreshadows Tiepolo, whereas mosaics in S Marco, created in 1677 from Fumiani’s cartoons, are closer to the idiosyncratic art of Pietro della Vecchia. He contributed to the decoration of S Rocco (1675, 1676, 1678), where he painted a large canvas of the Charity of St Roch on the ceiling of the nave, and afterwards the decoration of S Pantaleone with scenes from the ...


Birgit Roth

(b Roveredo, nr Bellinzona, 1671; d Eichstätt, March 21, 1747).

Italian master builder and architect. In the early 1690s he was a master builder at the court of Prince John Adam of Liechtenstein in Vienna, where he worked at the Liechtenstein town palace, firstly under Domenico Martinelli and later (1705–6) completing it to his own plans, the staircase showing his influence most strongly. Gabrieli was summoned to Ansbach in 1694 by Markgraf Georg Friedrich to submit plans for rebuilding the palace there, and while the Margrave deliberated, Gabrieli took on other commissions in Ansbach. He built a garden house (1697–9; now the Prinzenschlossen) for Privy Counsellor Georg Christian Seefried above the palace quarter. Less well preserved is his summer-house (1696–1701) for Lieutenant-Colonel Jahnus in Pfaffengreuth. Gabrieli began work on the Ansbach Palace in 1705, after the Margrave’s death. A fire in 1709 facilitated a complete remodelling, and Gabrieli, who was promoted to court architect and Director of Building in ...