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Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cuillé, Mayenne, 1680; d Paris, May 11, 1723).

French sculptor, designer and engraver. A pupil of François Girardon, he went to Potsdam in 1701, where he executed decorative sculpture for the Portal of Fortuna (destr. 1945) to the designs of Jean de Bodt. On his return to France he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1707 with a Death of Adonis (plaster; untraced), changing the subject for his morceau de réception of 1713 to the Death of Meleager, an affecting recumbent statuette (marble; Paris, Louvre). Chiefly active as a decorative sculptor specializing in trophies, he also contributed to the decoration of the chapel at the château of Versailles (1708–10; various works in situ), the choir of Notre-Dame, Paris (1711–14; destr.), the Tuileries Palace (1713; destr.), the Luxembourg Palace (1717; destr.), the Louvre (1717–22; destr.), the Château de la Muette, Paris (1720; destr.) and the church of St Roch, Paris (...

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David Alexander

(b ?London, 1710; d London, ?May 1758).

English engraver and draughtsman of French Huguenot descent. His early work includes a Watteauesque View of Richmond Palace (1736; Le Blanc 18) and a drawing manual, A New Book of Landskips (1737), both published by J. Rocque (d 1762). He was soon recognized as one of the best of the French landscape engravers in London, with great skill in preliminary etching, and was employed by Arthur Pond on his ambitious set of 44 Italian Landscapes (1741–3). Others who used Chatelain included the topographical artist William Bellers (fl 1761–73), for whose plates of The London Hospital (1753) and Six Views in the North of England (1754; see Upcott, pp. 126–7) Chatelain provided the etching. He does not appear to have published prints himself. As well as working as a printmaker, he was in demand as a teacher and draughtsman. He made many fine landscape drawings, several of which are in the British Museum; they include ...

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Vivian Atwater

(b Châlons-sur-Marne, Nov 14, 1705; d Châlons-sur-Marne, June 1, 1763).

French printmaker and draughtsman. He studied in Paris with François Lemoyne and Laurent Cars and was active there during the 1740s and 1750s, distributing many of his prints through Marguerite Chéreau, widow of François Chéveau I. Chedel excelled as a reproductive printmaker; his more than 500 extant works range from interpretations of Dutch and Flemish paintings to biblical subjects and book illustrations for contemporary novels. The Mercure de France described him as an engraver ‘connu depuis longtemps par sa touche fière et hardie’ and commended his ‘précision qui ne laisse rien à désirer’. During the 1750s he was among the printmakers commissioned to engrave paintings in the celebrated collection of the Comte de Vence; his pieces included Humility Rewarded and Landscape after paintings by Bartholomeus Breenbergh (Karlsruhe, Staatl. Ksthalle) and a genre scene after Karel Dujardin. Other works after Netherlandish painters to receive critical acclaim included the Fish Market at Schevelinghe...

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David Alexander

(b 1760; d after 1834).

English engraver and miniature painter. He was a pupil of Francesco Bartolozzi, presumably by 1777, when Bartolozzi drew his profile (London, N.P.G.), signing some plates as such up to c. 1788. His output comprised allegorical and mythological subjects and portraits, among them a stipple engraving after George Romney’s Lady Hamilton at the Spinning-wheel (or The Spinstress; 1782–6; London, Kenwood House), for which Cheesman was paid £100 by J. & J. Boydell, the print publishers, in 1782–6 (see Boydell, John). Cheesman was not content to remain a reproductive engraver and in 1790 enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools, London. There is a chalk drawing by him of Roxalana (London, BM), a subject taken from Jean-François Marmontel’s Contes moraux (1761). He made an engraving of this in 1792. According to de Vesme and Calabi he continued to assist Bartolozzi, notably with designs by Lady Diana Beauclerk (1734–1808...

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Vivian Atwater

(b Paris, c. 1718 or 1730; d c. 1800).

French printmaker. At some time during the early 1740s he trained with Jacques-Philippe Lebas, who also taught Chenu’s sisters, Thérèse Chenu and Victoire Chenu. During the 1740s and 1750s Chenu joined Lebas’s circle of engravers, which was contributing significantly to the acceleration of the vogue for Netherlandish art in 18th-century France by producing and disseminating many brilliant engravings based on Dutch and Flemish paintings. Chenu’s earliest prints at Lebas’s address are dated 1743 and include the Flemish Baker after Adriaen van Ostade and the Flemish Drinker after David Teniers II. Around 1750 Chenu opened his own studio near Lebas in the Rue de la Harpe, Paris, and entered his most productive decade. Between 1750 and 1751 he engraved the Inquisitive Man (or The Painter) after Job Berckheyde and The Bathers after Eglon van der Neer and Adriaen van der Werff for the Cabinet de S.E.M. Le Comte de Brühl...

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Véronique Meyer

(b Blois, March 20, 1680; d Paris, April 15, 1729).

French engraver, print publisher and print-seller. He was the son of a joiner and was trained in Girard Audran’s workshop in Paris. In 1715 he was accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale and was received (reçu) in 1718 with his engraving after a Self-portrait by Louis Boullogne (i) (Roux, no. 28). In that same year he bought Girard Audran’s business, called Les Deux Piliers d’Or, from his widow, and with it part of its stock of plates. He published chiefly high-quality prints and was one of the first to be interested in engravings after Watteau. He was esteemed as an engraver, even though his oeuvre comprises only 56 finished plates. Although Chéreau engraved some paintings on sacred subjects after such artists as Domenichino, Guido Reni (Crucifixion, r 4) and Raphael (St John the Baptist in the Wilderness, r 2, for the Recueil Crozat), he chiefly engraved portraits, a genre in which, according to Pierre-Jean Mariette, only the Drevet family could rival him. Most of the portraits are engraved after ...

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Philip Attwood and D. Brême

French family of artists. Jean-Charles Chéron (fl 1630s), a jeweller and engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, was the father of (1) Charles-Jean-François Chéron. The brother of Jean-Charles, the painter of miniatures and engraver Henri Chéron (b Meaux; d ?Meaux or Lyon, ?1677) trained his daughter (2) Elisabeth-Sophie Chéron. Another daughter, Marie-Anne Chéron (b Paris, 22 July 1649; d before 1718), was also active as a painter of miniatures. As Protestants, several members of the family were threatened with persecution; while Elisabeth-Sophie converted to Catholicism, her brother (3) Louis Chéron fled to England rather than work in the unsympathetic atmosphere that followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1685 (see Huguenots).

Philip Attwood

(b Lunéville, May 29, 1635; d Paris, March 18, 1698).

Medallist. He trained under his father before travelling to Rome in 1655. There he studied medal-engraving under ...

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M.-E. Hellyer

(b Frankfurt an der Oder, 1729; d Paris, before Nov 16, 1790).

German engraver, active in France. He was probably of French descent and studied engraving under Georg Friedrich Schmidt (1712–75) in Berlin before moving to Paris, where he completed his training under Jean-Georges Wille. His connection with Wille was to serve him well: he married Mlle Deforge, the younger sister of Mme Wille, and throughout his life enjoyed Wille’s benevolent interest in his career. Wille gave him work that he was too busy to do himself, added finishing touches to Chevillet’s plates and even agreed terms of payment on Chevillet’s behalf. In short, Chevillet lived in Wille’s shadow, and as a result his work has never been considered better than that of a good pupil. Two of Chevillet’s most successful engravings, the Good Example and Mademoiselle sa soeur (1762; Paris, Bib. N. cat. nos 8–9), are after Johann Caspar Heilmann (1718–60), a close friend of Wille; he also engraved numerous designs after Wille’s son, ...

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Irene Haberland

(b Danzig [now Gdańsk, Poland], Oct 16, 1726; d Berlin, Feb 7, 1801).

German painter, draughtsman and engraver. He first learnt painting from his father, Gottfried Chodowiecki (1698–1740), a Danzig grain merchant of Polish ancestry who was an amateur painter. Moving to Berlin in 1743, Daniel, while training as a salesman, met the Augsburg painter Johann Lorenz Haid, who taught him enamel painting, and attended life drawing evenings held by Christian Bernhard Rode; Antoine Pesne also encouraged him. Nevertheless he described himself as mainly self-taught: ‘I made a few drawings after paintings, more from plaster casts, but I mainly drew from nature. It was in the latter that I found the most satisfaction’ (Bauer, p. 223).

At first Chodowiecki painted only miniatures, often on snuff-boxes, and small oil paintings; these were soon so successful that he became self-supporting by 1754. Etchings by him are documented from 1756. He became a member of the Berlin Kunstakademie in 1764 and was already painting for the court by this time. His painting ...

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Christian Michel

(b Paris, March 19, 1730; d Paris, March 7, 1809).

French engraver, illustrator and writer. He came from a poor family and trained with Guillaume Dheulland (c. 1700–c. 1770) by drawing cartouches for maps. He also had lessons from Pierre-Edmé Babel, a goldsmith and designer of ornament. Having designed mainly cartouches, coats of arms and various types of ornament in the 1750s, he gained recognition as a designer of culs-de-lampe and fleurons, which were considered indispensable for all lavishly produced books. In particular, he produced 57 illustrations for La Fontaine’s Contes in the Fermiers Généraux edition (Paris, 1762) and 38 fleurons and culs-de-lampe for Ovid’s Metamorphoses in Lemire’s and Bassan’s edition (Paris, 1767–71). His long-standing acquaintance Charles-Nicolas Cochin II entrusted him with engraving two plates for the Conquêtes de l’Empereur de la Chine (1767–73; Roux, nos 227–8), an important series of large-scale prints on which the best French engravers were being employed. Large plates are, however, rare in Choffard’s oeuvre; he devoted himself mainly to book decoration, such as fleurons for the Abbé de Saint-Non’s ...

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Brenda G. Jordan

(fl c. 1780–early 1800s).

Japanese painter and woodblock-print designer. He is thought to have studied under Toriyama Sekien (1712–88), the teacher of Kitagawa Utamaro. Chōki specialized in compositions of beautiful women (bijinga), sometimes with little or no background but more often with atmospheric backgrounds in which there is a limited sense of depth. He was influenced by Utamaro, Torii Kiyonaga (see Torii family §(8)) and Tōshūsai Sharaku, but developed his own style of tall, slender figure. He left a number of superbly printed designs. Chōki was particularly skilful at depicting half-length figures; many of his best designs are compositions of two such half-length figures. Examples include the colour woodblock-print Girl with an Umbrella and a Servant (c. mid-1790s; e.g. Tokyo, N. Mus.), with a background of falling snow and, in the foreground, a girl holding an umbrella and leaning on the back of her manservant as he bends to (presumably) clear the snow from her sandal. In ...

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Maxime Préaud

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Maxime Préaud

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Jens Peter Munk

(b Gollnow, nr Stettin, Pomerania (now Sczecin, Poland), Nov 29, 1748; d Copenhagen, Nov 5, 1831).

Danish engraver. He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi during 1761–73 under J. E. Mandelberg (1730–86) and J. M. Preisler (1715–94). His friendship with two of the most important contemporary Danish artists, Jens Juel and Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard, was vital to him as an aspiring young engraver. Among Clemens’s 70 engraved portraits many are taken from originals by Juel, for example Crown Prince Frederick (1782; Copenhagen, Kon. Dan. Kstakad.) and his consort Princess Louisa Augusta (Copenhagen, Rosenborg Slot; engraved 1785). The general public could also enjoy Abildgaard’s art through his work. He illustrated two volumes of Ludvig Holberg’s work, Peder Paars (Copenhagen, 1772; after drawings by Johannes Wiedeweldt) and Niels Klim (Copenhagen, 1789; after Abildgaard’s originals). Between 1773 and 1777 Clemens lived in Paris, where he was influenced by the virtuoso technique and sensitive style of Charles-Nicolas Cochin (ii); this can clearly be seen in Clemens’s charming vignettes for Charles Bonnet’s ...

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Joan Hichberger

(b Morpeth, April 8, 1781; d London, Feb 9, 1840).

English painter and engraver. The son of a farmer, he was initially apprenticed to his uncle, a tanner and grocer, before becoming the pupil of the engraver Thomas Bewick in 1797. He produced his most important work as a wood-engraver between 1799 and 1803 when he acted as principal assistant to Bewick on the second volume of the latter’s History of British Birds (1804). This book, more than any other, established the woodcut as an acceptable medium for high-quality book illustration. After completing his seven-year apprenticeship with Bewick he moved to London, where he married a daughter of the copper-engraver Charles Turner Warren (1762–1823). As a result of his marriage he became acquainted with such book illustrators as William Finden and Abraham Raimbach. He completed engraving projects for Bewick and engraved Thomas Stothard’s illustrations to Robert Bowyer’s Historic Gallery, an illustrated edition of David Hume’s History of England...

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Geoffrey Ashton

(b Holborn, London, April 12, 1770; d Kensington, London, May 10, 1854).

English engraver and painter. He worked as an apprentice fishmonger, a lawyer’s clerk, a house painter and a bookseller, before he began painting miniatures and watercolour copies of popular engravings. He also had a talent for mezzotint engraving, and this career came to a well-publicized climax in 1819 with the appearance of the large mezzotint after George Henry Harlow’s The Court for the Trial of Queen Katharine (exh. RA 1817; Sudeley Castle, Glos), owned by Thomas Welsh. Because of its large size and the serious nature of the subject, Harlow had intended this work to be seen as a history painting, but some observers felt that it was merely theatrical. Nevertheless, Harlow’s attempt to create a history painting out of a theatrical scene haunted Clint during his subsequent artistic career and inspired his most important painting The Last Scene in ‘A New Way to Pay Old Debts’ (exh. RA 1820...

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Christian Michel

French family of artists. The engraver Nicolas Cochin (1610–after 1649) left Troyes for Paris in the 1640s; he made numerous small engravings, chiefly religious subjects and landscapes, including several for Jules, Cardinal Mazarin, for example the Royal Hunt (Weigert, no. 634). His prints, signed N. Cochin, are often confused with those of his half-brother Noël Cochin (1622–after 1687). It is not clear how they were related to (1) Charles-Nicolas Cochin I and his more celebrated son (2) Charles-Nicolas Cochin II, both of whom were employed in Paris to make reproductions after the most distinguished artists of their day. In addition to his activities as an engraver, draughtsman and writer on the theory of art, Cochin le fils enjoyed an illustrious public career as Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture.

(b Paris, April 29, 1688; d Paris, July 16, 1754)....

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David Alexander

[John]

(b France, 1767; d London, July 1794).

French engraver and draughtsman, active in England. He entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, as a painter in 1787 and began to engrave small portraits in stipple, such as Baron de Wenzel (1789; see O’Donoghue, 1). In 1789 he engraved the first of some 20 drawings and miniatures by Richard Cosway; these sensitive prints, his largest group after another artist, included such acclaimed prints as Mrs Fitzherbert (1792; see O’Donoghue, 1). Condé engraved several fancy prints as well as many small stipples for the Thespian Magazine, the European Magazine and other periodicals, which are far above the usual standard of such work and include several after his own drawings. His brother Peter Condé (fl 1806–40) also worked in stipple but was best known as a miniaturist, exhibiting at the Royal Academy between 1806 and 1824.

O’Donoghue; Thieme–Becker J. Frankau: Eighteenth Century Colour Prints (London, 1900, 2/1906)...

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Gerald W. R. Ward

(b Boston, MA, Jan 5, 1656; d Boston, Aug 20, 1722).

American silversmith, goldsmith and engraver. The son of a cooper, Coney probably served his apprenticeship with Jeremiah Dummer (1645–1718) of Boston. Coney may have engraved the plates for the first banknotes printed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1690 and certainly engraved the plates for those issued in 1702. His patrons included important citizens of Boston, churches throughout New England, local societies and Harvard College. Active as a silversmith and goldsmith for 45 years, he produced objects in three distinct styles—that of the late 17th century (characterized by engraved and flat-chased ornament and scrollwork), the early Baroque and the late Baroque (or Queen Anne)—and introduced specialized forms to New England, for example the monteith and chocolatepot. Although derived directly from the English silversmithing tradition and thus not innovative in design, Coney’s work exhibits excellent craftsmanship in all technical aspects of gold- and silversmithing. Two lobed sugar-boxes (Boston, MA, Mus. F. A., and Manchester, NH, Currier Gal. A.), a large, gadrooned, two-handled cup (...