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Patricia Strathern

(b Verdun, Feb 14, 1838; d Bois-Colombes, nr Paris, March 12, 1917).

French photographer. He was one of the most accomplished architectural photographers of his time, and much of his work was devoted to constructions and monuments in France. He shared a studio in Paris until 1862 with Hyacinthe-César Delmaet (1828–62), and on the death of Delmaet that same year Durandelle married his widow, Clémence, who kept the surname Delmaet and became his partner. Their prints continued to be signed d & d after the two original partners. He photographed building work and sites in Paris (e.g. Le Pont d’Arcole, 1868; see Berger and Levrault, pl. 50), including a series of the Opéra (1865), which was published as two albums of 97 photographs. From 1870 to 1871 he photographed the events of the Paris Commune, and from 1874 to 1876 he worked on a series of Mont-Saint-Michel. From 1877 to 1890 he covered the various stages in the construction of the church of ...


Elizabeth Johns


(b Philadelphia, PA, July 25, 1844; d Philadelphia, June 25, 1916).

American painter, sculptor and photographer. He was a portrait painter who chose most of his sitters and represented them in powerful but often unflattering physical and psychological terms. Although unsuccessful throughout much of his career, since the 1930s he has been regarded as one of the greatest American painters of his era.

His father Benjamin Eakins (1818–99), the son of a Scottish–Irish immigrant weaver, was a writing master and amateur artist who encouraged Thomas Eakins’s developing talent. Eakins attended the Central High School in Philadelphia, which stressed skills in drawing as well as a democratic respect for disciplined achievement. He developed an interest in human anatomy and began visiting anatomical clinics. After studying from 1862 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where instruction was minimal, Eakins went to Paris to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in the studio of Jean-Léon Gérôme. From 1866 to the end of ...


Brian Coe

(b Waterville, NY, July 12, 1854; d Rochester, NY, March 14, 1932).

American inventor and photographer. He took up photography in 1877, and in 1878, dissatisfied with the cumbersome wet collodion process, he started making the new gelatin dry plates (see Photography §I). He decided to manufacture them commercially and invented a machine to end the need to hand-coat the glass. In January 1881 he founded the Eastman Dry Plate Company.

Eastman’s desire to bring photography to more people, and to satisfy the needs of the growing number of amateur photographers, led him to develop many new products. In 1885 his roll-holder adaptor allowed the heavy and fragile glass plates to be replaced by a roll of sensitive paper; the success of this device inspired him to design a new camera with the roll-holder built in. The result was the Kodak camera (1888), for which Eastman chose the name; it was designed for the general public, who had only to point it in the right direction and release the shutter. When the 100-exposure roll provided with the camera had been exposed, the whole apparatus was returned to Eastman’s factory, where the paper rollfilm was developed and printed, the camera reloaded and returned to the customer; ‘You press the button, we do the rest’ was his slogan....


G. Lola Worthington


(b Milan, OH, Feb 11, 1847; d West Orange, NJ, Oct 18, 1931).

American inventor, entrepreneur, film producer and businessman. Edison invented numerous electrically based technologies. His father, Samuel Edison (1804–96), and mother, Nancy Matthews Elliot (1810–71), lived very modestly. Home schooled after he performed poorly in school, his formal educational experience lasted only three months. A shrewd businessman his instinctive abilities combined with his innovative inventions furthered his extensive research. He famously “invented” the first practical incandescent light bulb. Nicknamed the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” he established the first large American industrial research laboratory in Menlo Park, NJ.

Credited with developing predominant technical designs and electrically powered mechanisms for numerous devices, his inventions were instrumental toward the arts. Some principal imaginative, mechanical creations are the phonograph, electrically powered generators, individual home electricity, motion picture cameras and audio recordings. Edison patented his first motion picture camera, the “kinetograph,” and began his foray into film. In 1891 his kinetoscope, which allowed individuals to view short films through a peephole at the top of a cabinet, became highly lucrative. In ...


Edwin Lachnit

[Trojer, Ingenuin Albuin]

(b Stribach bei Lienz, East Tyrol, Jan 29, 1868; d St Justina bei Bozen, South Tyrol [now Santa Giustina, Italy], Nov 4, 1926).

Austrian painter. He was the illegitimate son of a peasant girl, Maria Trojer, and the Austrian church artist and photographer Georg Egger (1835–1907). Later he adopted the name of his father and home town. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich from 1884 to 1893. The main subject-matter of his early works, which were painted in a naturalistic style and influenced by Franz von Defregger, was determined by his background: scenes from peasant life and from the Tyrolean freedom battles of 1809 against the French troops of Napoleon, for example Ave Maria after the Battle on the Bergisel (1893–6; Innsbruck, Tirol. Landesmus.). He moved in 1899 to Vienna, where his own style developed: its fresco-like monumentality, as in The Dance of Death of Year Nine (1908; Vienna, Belvedere), was a contrast to sophisticated metropolitan culture at the turn of the century. His style was characterized by a concentration on the clearly outlined large form and by a linear rhythm in the picture surface. Bulky figures combine to form voluminous masses that appear against the background as silhouettes. Colours are reduced to mainly monochrome earth-coloured tones of brown....


John Fuller

(b Cuba, May 13, 1856; d Falmouth, Cornwall, May 12, 1936).

English photographer. He lived in Cuba and the USA until his widowed English mother took her two sons to England in 1869. He studied medicine at King’s College Hospital, London (1879), and later received a BA (1883) and a Bachelor of Medicine degree (1885) from Cambridge University. While at Cambridge he studied photography, and after a brief medical practice he left the profession in 1886 for photography and writing. After becoming a member of the Photographic Society of Great Britain in 1883, he achieved recognition writing for such journals as Amateur Photographer.

In East Anglia Emerson used his nautical skills and knowledge of natural history while photographing the fen country and its people. The results were albums such as Life and Landscape on the Norfolk Broads (London, 1886; see fig.), which he co-authored with the English painter Thomas F. Goodall (1856–1944), ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Halle, Oct 14, 1874; d Gaienhofen, Feb 14, 1948).

German photographer. He studied at the Kunstakademie in Dresden from 1892 to 1896 while also completing his photographic training with the court photographer Höffert. During the following ten years he ran the Schröder studio, acquiring the Palais des Grafen Lüttichau in 1906, where he set up his studio and later an art gallery. Dresden, the home of the painters’ group Die Brücke and the workshops of Otto Dix and Oskar Kokoschka, attracted many artists and writers, who visited the studio to have their portraits taken. Erfurth was considered their equal and was acquainted with many of them, notably Kokoschka, Erich Heckel, Dix and Klee, whom he photographed in 1920 (see Tausk, 1980, p. 64).

In 1919 Erfurth was one of the founder-members of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Lichtbildner (GDL) and presided over its jury (1924–48). The GDL owed its reputation as an organization of leading German art photographers to his criticism and powers of judgement. In ...


Lee Fontanella

(fl 1888).

Spanish photographer. He is known mostly from his photographs of the Exposición Internacional in Barcelona (1888). Working in the Plaza del Teatro, in the heart of that city, he captured the hustle and bustle of all stages of the fair, from its construction to its diversions. He had a varied vision of a vast urban scene, so he was concerned with the fair as monument and as humanity, as well as scientifically. In his extensive series on the great feature of the fair, the aerostatic balloon El Cautivo, he focused not only on the balloon as scientific object but also on the fearless public who rode in it. These photographs, including some taken aerially from the balloon, reveal Esplugas’s concern to depict the human, scientific and monumental aspects of the fair. He also made studio cartes-de-visite and many views of Barcelona’s port....


Terence Pitts

(b New York, Sept 19, 1865; d Munich, Dec 16, 1936).

American photographer and teacher, active also in Germany. After attending the Bayerische Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (from 1886), he began exhibiting his photography in New York. Around 1899 he came to the attention of Alfred Stieglitz and was praised by the critic Sadakichi Hartmann for the intelligent combination of painterly and photographic effects in his work. He became a member of the influential transatlantic photographic society, the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the (1900), and was a founder-member of Stieglitz’s Photo-Secession.

Around 1901 he moved permanently to Germany, where he became a lecturer at the Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie und Reproduktionstechnik, Munich. When Stieglitz visited him in 1907, the two made some of the first artistic experiments in colour photography with the newly developed autochrome process (see Photography, §I). In 1913 Eugene was appointed to the chair in Pictorial photography at the Akademie für Graphische Künste, Leipzig. Two years later, he renounced his American citizenship and became a German citizen....


Mary Christian

(b London, June 26, 1853; d London, June 24, 1943).

English photographer and writer. He took up photography in the early 1880s out of his interest in the ‘study of the beautiful’ while a bookseller in London. In 1887 he received a medal from the Royal Photographic Society for his microscopic photographs of shells, which to his dismay were categorized as scientific photographs. In 1889 he met Aubrey Beardsley and was instrumental in getting Beardsley his first assignment illustrating Tennyson’s Morte d’Arthur. Evans’s portrait of Aubrey Beardsley (1894; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), showing the artist holding his head in his hands, is one of his finest.

Around 1890 Evans began to photograph English and French cathedrals; it was on his architectural photography that his reputation was established. One hundred and twenty of his platinum prints were exhibited at the Architectural Club, Boston, in 1897. The next year, aged 45, Evans retired from his bookshop to devote his time to photography. In ...


[Amateur Photographic Exchange Club.]

American photographic society founded in 1861 and open only to amateur photographers. The three founder-members, all from New York, were Henry T. Anthony (1814–84) as President, F. F. Thompson as Secretary and Correspondent, and Charles Wager Hull. Its membership was originally restricted to 20 and, though this rule was later dropped, the members never numbered many more than this. Nevertheless they were from all over the USA and soon included most of the prominent American amateurs of the day. Among them were August Wetmore and Lewis M. Rutherford of New York; Coleman Sellers, Professor Fairman Rogers and Constant Guillou of Philadelphia; Titian R. Peale of Washington; Robert Shirner of Cumberland, Maryland; John Towler of Geneva, New York, author of The Silver Sunbeam (New York, 1864), and Professor E. Emerson of Troy, New York. The physician and writer Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–94) was an honorary member on the strength of his achievements as a photographic pioneer. The Club’s existence reflected the enormous popularity of photography in the USA in the 1860s....


Patricia Strathern

(fl Paris, 1863–74).

French photographer. He left a collection of numbered prints (highest number 209), signed either with his surname or initials, which were deposited in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, in 1863 and 1874. His favoured subjects were aspects of rural life—peasants, farming scenes (e.g. The Horse, c. 1874; see Berger–Levrault, pl. 27)—and also scenes photographed in the forest of Fontainebleau. He is known to have had two studios in Paris....


Elizabeth Anne McCauley

(b Bury, Lancs, March 1819; d London, Aug 8, 1869).

English photographer. Born into a family of bankers and cotton merchants, he attended University College, London, in 1838 but left having been attracted to painting. After studying for a year with the historical genre painter Charles Lucy, he went to Paris in 1841 and entered the studio of Paul Delaroche. Delaroche, as early as 1839, had recognized the importance of the new daguerreotype for artists and followed the development of photography in the 1840s with interest.

After Delaroche closed his studio in 1843, Fenton returned to London and studied law. In 1847 he was married and qualified as a solicitor and four years later was called to the Bar. He did not, however, abandon his artistic aspirations and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1849 and 1851.

It has been suggested that Fenton’s interest in photography arose from an association with the Calotype Society, founded in 1847; but it is not until ...


Erika Billeter

(b Rio de Janeiro, 1843; d Rio de Janeiro, 1923).

Brazilian photographer. He trained as a photographer with Franz Keller (1835–90), from Mannheim, Germany, and worked as a photographer in Rio de Janeiro, before joining the photographic firm of Leuzinger. In 1865 he opened his own studio. He specialized in photographs of landscapes and shipping, as in View of Rio de Janeiro with Corcorada and Sugarloaf (c. 1875), but was also one of the first photographers of the Indian population of the Amazon region. In 1876 he exhibited his material—which was also of ethnological interest—at the Exhibition of the Century in Philadelphia, PA, winning the gold medal. In 1904, at the World’s Fair in St Louis, MO, he was the only photographer to win a gold medal. In 1907 he opened the first picture-house in Rio de Janeiro and concentrated his attention on the new technical possibilities.

E. Billeter: Fotografie Lateinamerika (Zurich and Berne, 1981)R. Fabian...


Shana Simone Lopes

[Hercule] (Romuald)

(b Nice, Feb 29, 1804; d Vila de São Carlos [now Campinas], Mar 27, 1879).

Brazilian draftsman, inventor, naturalist, and painter of French birth. Shortly after moving to Brazil at the age of 21, he worked as an artist on Baron von Langdorff’s survey expedition from 1825 to 1829, recording the indigenous population and environs of Brazil’s interior region. Following the survey’s completion, he settled in the southern village of São Carlos, where he attempted to publish a study on bird and animal sounds entitled Zoophonie. After encountering problems finding a print shop in the region, he devised his own stencil-inspired method of printing, a process he named poligraphie. Concurrently, he learned of the light-sensitive properties of silver nitrates through conversations with local pharmacist Joaquim Corrêa de Mello. Documented in his meticulous diary in January 1833, he noted his first experiments with the camera obscura and silver nitrates, which led to his invention of a photographic process. Through a four-hour exposure, he produced an image of a view from his window. His primary interest in the medium was reproduction, and to this end he developed a printing-out, negative–positive process capable of producing multiples of his drawings. Extant examples include a Masonic diploma and a sheet of pharmaceutical labels. In his diaries of ...


Ray McKenzie

(b Chesterfield, Derbys, 1822; d Cannes, Feb 25, 1898).

English photographer. He is noted for his studies of the Middle East and for establishing the largest photographic publishing firm in the 19th century. He was born into a Quaker family and spent five unrewarding years apprenticed to a cutler in Sheffield, suffering a nervous breakdown in 1843. After two years recuperative travel he became a successful businessman, first in wholesale groceries and later in printing. His involvement with photography began at this time. He was one of the founder-members of the Liverpool Photographic Society in 1853 and he exhibited portraits and landscapes to much critical acclaim.

The sale of Frith’s printing firm in 1854 financed the expeditions to Egypt and the Holy Land that were to establish his pre-eminence among early travel photographers. He made three trips between 1856 and 1860 (see fig.). On the first, he sailed up the Nile to the Second Cataract, recording the main historic monuments between Cairo and Abu Simbel. On the second, he struck eastwards to Palestine, visiting Jerusalem, Damascus and other sites associated with the life of Christ. The final expedition was the most ambitious, combining a second visit to the Holy Land with a deeper southward penetration of the Nile. His photographs of the temple at ...


Erika Billeter

(b Guanajuato, 1852; d Guanajuato, 1930).

Mexican photographer. In 1887 he opened a photographic studio, at a time when Guanajuato, a mining town, was experiencing an unprecedented economic boom that made it one of Mexico’s most important commercial centers. He became the town’s most popular society photographer, recording the aristocracy in their fashionable European clothes, as well as the priesthood, the agricultural laborers, and the miners.

Stylistically and technically traditional, García took all his photographs in the studio, always in front of the same props and in the same lighting conditions. He did not present detail, or suggest internal emotion. His subjects either stood or sat, and always appeared full-figure; they knew that they were appearing in a photograph, and looked appropriately static.

Canales, C. Romualdo García: Un fotografo, una ciudad, una época. Guanajuato, 1980.Billeter, E. Fotografie Lateinamerika. Zurich and Bern, 1981.Images of Mexico: The Contribution of Mexico to 20th Century Art. Edited by ...


Makeda Best

(b Paisley, Scotland, Oct 17, 1821; d Washington, DC, Dec 11, 1882).

American photographer of Scottish birth. Following his father’s death around 1828, Gardner’s family relocated to Glasgow, where he assisted his mother in operating the family grocery business before beginning a jewellery apprenticeship. He worked briefly in banking, managing the Cyldesdale Joint Stock Agricultural and Commercial Company. At the time, the industrial revolution was transforming Glasgow, and civic leaders struggled to mitigate economic and social tensions. Gardner became interested in radical politics, and he and other Scots designed a cooperative community to be located in north-east Iowa. In 1850 he purchased and revived the struggling Socialist-leaning paper, The Glasgow Sentinel. His opinion pieces promoted the paper’s causes such as education and social reforms. Gardner probably planned to immigrate with his family to the United States and join the Iowa cooperative. However, the community dissolved soon after the first settlers arrived, most likely impacted by the emergence of cholera in the region around ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Berlin, Jan 8, 1869; d New Milford, CT, Aug 9, 1942).

American photographer of German birth. He studied philology at the universities of Berlin and Jena from 1888 to 1894 and spent a year at the Sorbonne in Paris. In 1896 he emigrated to the USA and opened a portrait studio in San Francisco in 1897. He first achieved wide publicity with his photographs of the earthquake of 1906. He won further acclaim with the publication of Pictures of Old Chinatown, a series of photographs taken with the aid of a concealed camera. He also photographed in Japan.

In 1911 Genthe moved to New York, where he established a studio on Fifth Avenue and worked as a freelance photographer for numerous magazines and newspapers, specializing in dance and theatre portraits, such as Isadora Duncan: 24 Studies. His later reputation was founded on his portraits of famous personalities. Among his subjects were Greta Garbo and prominent statesmen such as Fridtjof Nansen and Theodore Roosevelt. In his best works faces emerge mysteriously from the darkness, emphasizing atmosphere at the expense of detail. His autobiography ...


Oldest and largest photography museum in the United States, located in Rochester, NY. Since it opened its doors to the public in November 1949, George Eastman House has played a pivotal role in shaping and expanding the field of American photography. George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company, never knew his home would become a museum; he bequeathed the mansion where he lived from 1905 until 1932 to the University of Rochester to serve as the residence of its president. In 1946 a board of trustees was formed to establish George Eastman House as an independent, non-profit museum, a memorial to Eastman and his advancements in photographic technology.

Working under director Oscar Solbert, a retired US Army general and former Kodak executive, was the museum’s first curator, Beaumont Newhall. Newhall transformed the museum from one primarily concerned with the technical applications of photography to one emphasizing its artistic development. The museum became an international centre of scholarship, and in ...