81-100 of 262 results  for:

  • Twentieth-Century Art x
  • American Art x
  • Photography x
Clear all

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Aberdeen, WA, July 14, 1934).

American photographer. He first became interested in photography in 1948, and from 1953 to 1955 he studied under Edward Kaminski (1895–1964) at the Art Center of Los Angeles. In 1956 he settled in New York and supported himself by producing photographs of jazz musicians for record jackets, for example Count Basie (1957; see Malle, pl. 39). He also produced photographs influenced by (Jean-)Eugène(-Auguste) Atget, Walker Evans, and Robert Frank, and, like his subsequent works, these were all in black and white. In 1958 he discovered the work of the little-known photographer E(rnest) J(ames) Bellocq from whose gelatin dry-plate negatives of the brothels of New Orleans he took prints, which were included in the exhibition E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1970. In 1960, 1962, and 1977 Friedlander was awarded Guggenheim Memorial Foundation grants, and his works began to appear in such periodicals as ...

Article

Michelle Yun

(b Manila, 1954).

Filipino filmmaker and photographer, active in the USA. Fuentes received a BA in Anthropology and Behavioral Science in 1974 from the De La Salle University in Manila. The following year he traveled to the United States to study at the Wharton School of Business, Philadelphia, PA, receiving an MBA in 1977. In 1981, he moved to Washington, DC to study Photography at the Corcoran School of Art under Mark Power. Fuentes subsequently received a Presidential Fellowship in 1991 from Temple University to pursue a MFA in Film and Video.

Fuentes began his artistic practice as a photographer and is best known in this medium for two series, Circle of Fear (1981–91) and Face Fusion (1986–9). These two bodies of work initially sprang from the artist’s feeling of disconnection towards both his Filipino roots and his adopted home in America. The Circle of Fear works incorporate a syncretic mix of Filipino folk culture with Western iconography to create fetishistic still lifes with a Post-modern gothic sensibility. ...

Article

Monica McTighe

(b London, 1961).

British photographer, active also in America. Fuss worked with historical photographic processes to produce personal symbolic images with themes such as birth, death, and spirituality. He was born in 1961 in London and spent his childhood in Australia and England. His father died when Fuss was a child. As a student, he became interested in nature and science, themes that emerged in his images. He began as an apprentice at a commercial photography firm in Sydney. Settling later in New York City, he worked as an exhibition photographer and became interested in pinhole photography. He produced a series of pinhole images of Classical sculptures in museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the British Museum in London after dark. In the 1990s he made photograms, recording images of ripples on the surface of a pool. Using flashlights suspended over the photosensitive surface, he made abstract images that hint at natural rhythms. His photograms of infants partially submerged in water and snakes swimming through water suggested a connection with religious iconography. His best-known works in this series are titled ...

Article

(b Montreal, May 1934; d Montreal, April 16, 2003).

Canadian painter and photographer. After studying briefly in Montreal, he moved to New York in 1956 and enrolled at the Parsons School of Design. He later studied painting at the New York School of Design (1957) and at New York University. He first exhibited in 1958 at the Galerie Artek in Montreal and the following year had his first one-man show there. He was in New York until 1960 and the paintings executed during this period clearly show the influence of Abstract Expressionism, for example Untitled (1956; see 1978 exh. cat., p. 128).

After returning to Montreal Gagnon made a series of collage works using newspaper and other printed matter, similar to those of Rauschenberg. These were followed in 1961 by a series of landscape paintings in which the paint was applied in a spontaneous, Expressionist manner, as in Landscape (1961; Ottawa, N.G.). During 1961–2 he worked on a number of shallow box constructions containing various objects and materials. In ...

Article

Canadian partnership of conceptual artists working as performance artists, video artists, photographers and sculptors. It was formed in 1968 by A. A. Bronson [pseud. of Michael Tims] (b Vancouver, 1946), Felix Partz [pseud. of Ron Gabe] (b Winnipeg, 1945) and Jorge Zontal [pseud. of Jorge Saia] (b Parma, Italy, 1944; d Feb 1994). Influenced by semiotics and working in various media, they sought to examine and subvert social structures, taking particular interest in the products of mass culture. Their existence as a group, each with an assumed name, itself undermined the traditional notion of the solitary artist of genius. In 1972 they began publishing a quarterly journal, File, to publicize their current interests and work. In the 1970s they concentrated on beauty parades, starting in 1970 with the 1970 Miss General Idea Pageant, a performance at the Festival of Underground Theatre in Toronto that mocked the clichés surrounding the beauty parade, resulting in the nomination of Miss General Idea ...

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Berlin, Jan 8, 1869; d New Milford, CT, Aug 9, 1942).

American photographer of German birth. He studied philology at the universities of Berlin and Jena from 1888 to 1894 and spent a year at the Sorbonne in Paris. In 1896 he emigrated to the USA and opened a portrait studio in San Francisco in 1897. He first achieved wide publicity with his photographs of the earthquake of 1906. He won further acclaim with the publication of Pictures of Old Chinatown, a series of photographs taken with the aid of a concealed camera. He also photographed in Japan.

In 1911 Genthe moved to New York, where he established a studio on Fifth Avenue and worked as a freelance photographer for numerous magazines and newspapers, specializing in dance and theatre portraits, such as Isadora Duncan: 24 Studies. His later reputation was founded on his portraits of famous personalities. Among his subjects were Greta Garbo and prominent statesmen such as Fridtjof Nansen and Theodore Roosevelt. In his best works faces emerge mysteriously from the darkness, emphasizing atmosphere at the expense of detail. His autobiography ...

Article

Oldest and largest photography museum in the United States, located in Rochester, NY. Since it opened its doors to the public in November 1949, George Eastman House has played a pivotal role in shaping and expanding the field of American photography. George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company, never knew his home would become a museum; he bequeathed the mansion where he lived from 1905 until 1932 to the University of Rochester to serve as the residence of its president. In 1946 a board of trustees was formed to establish George Eastman House as an independent, non-profit museum, a memorial to Eastman and his advancements in photographic technology.

Working under director Oscar Solbert, a retired US Army general and former Kodak executive, was the museum’s first curator, Beaumont Newhall. Newhall transformed the museum from one primarily concerned with the technical applications of photography to one emphasizing its artistic development. The museum became an international centre of scholarship, and in ...

Article

(b Los Angeles, CA, Jan 16, 1939).

American photographer. In 1956 he joined the navy and in 1957 entered the Naval Training Center in Pensacola, FL, where he studied photography. After his discharge in 1960 he moved to San Francisco where, in the following year, he studied photography at the San Francisco Art Institute. After working as an assistant to Dorothea Lange (1961–2), in 1963 he moved to Los Angeles, where he began work as a freelance photographer. He moved to New York in 1966, and from 1967 to 1969 he assisted Robert Frank on the film Me and My Brother. His photographs of this early period were in a documentary style influenced by Frank, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and William Klein. Starting with The Strip (Los Angeles, 1966), he began to publish his work in book form, though the reception of his first volumes was poor. In 1969 he established a studio in New York and in the same year founded the ...

Article

Martha A. Sandweiss

(b Colorado Springs, CO, April 20, 1891; d Santa Fe, NM, Nov 30, 1979).

American photographer. Although she accepted commercial assignments, such as portraiture and architectural work, she was committed to chronicling the people and land of the Southwest. After studying photography in New York between 1916 and 1918 under Clarence H. White, she returned to Colorado. Through most of the 1920s she followed the romantic soft-focus tradition of her teacher and the pictorialists. In 1931 she was introduced to the Navajo community at Red Rock, AZ, by her lifelong friend Elizabeth Forster. She began to make a lasting document of the land and people that she found around her. Her style changed, her photographs becoming increasingly hard-edged, recording the culture of the Navajo and their relationship to the land in a straightforward, empathetic manner. Two decades of this work culminated in the publication of The Enduring Navaho.

Gilpin distinguished herself from many of her contemporaries by continuing to use platinum printing paper, which gave her prints a rich tonal quality, and by her devotion to landscape photography, a genre pursued by few other women. Her other publications include ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Washington, DC, Sept 12, 1953).

American photographer. Goldin began taking photographs as a teenager in Boston, MA. Her earliest works, black-and-white images of drag queens, were celebrations of the subcultural lifestyle of the community to which she belonged. She has often said of her work that it documents an extended family, a statement testified by the informality and intimacy of her pictures. During a period of study at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, she began displaying her work in the format of a slide-show, a constantly evolving project that acquired the title (appropriated from The Threepenny Opera by Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht) The Ballad of Sexual Dependency in 1981. This collection of images had a loose thematic structure and was usually shown with an accompanying sound-track, first in the clubs where many of the images were taken and then within gallery spaces. She carried on with work on The Ballad...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

[González-Torres, Félix]

(b Guaimaro, Cuba, Nov 26, 1957; d New York, Jan 9, 1996).

American sculptor and photographer of Cuban birth. He moved in 1979 to New York, where he completed a BFA in photography at the Pratt Institute (1983) and an MFA at the International Center of Photography, New York University (1987), as well as enrolling in the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program. In 1987 he joined Group Material, a New York-based group of artists whose intention was to work collaboratively, adhering to principles of cultural activism and community education. His own engagement as a gay man with socio-political issues, as well as his exploration of the way in which politics can infiltrate personal life, forms the background to his work, centred around the interaction of public and private spheres. In 1989 he presented his first stacked-paper work, Untitled (Memorial Day Weekend) and Untitled (Veterans Day Sale), exhibited together as Untitled (Monuments) (L. and R. Plehn priv. col., see ...

Article

Mary Christian

(b Danville, WV, Dec 22, 1941).

American photographer. He was a student of fine arts at Richmond Professional Institute, VA, from 1961 to 1965 and at the Rhode Island School of Design, where he studied with Harry Callahan from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he was also influenced by Frederick Sommer. Gowin’s deeply religious upbringing played an important role in his work. Most of his photographs from the mid-1960s until the early 1980s focus upon his wife and her family in Danville, VA, transforming them into universal symbols of ritual and family relationships. Many of these are deeply personal and almost religious in the powerful symbols they evoke; in Edith, Danville, Virginia, 1971 (see Gowin, 1976, p. 51) his wife is seen, as if clandestinely, in the privacy of a dark bedroom. His occasional use of a lens that vignettes the image into a circle also evoked ideas of a microcosm of the earth or of tourist photographs taken with an early Kodak camera....

Article

Catherine M. Grant and Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Cleveland, OH, 1959).

American printmaker, film maker, installation and conceptual artist and writer.

Green, of African descent, has worked primarily with film-based media, and has published criticism and designed installations that reveal her commitment to ongoing feminist and black empowerment movements. She earned her BA from Wesleyan University in 1981 and also spent some time at the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1980, returning in the late 1980s to study in the Whitney Independent Study Program, graduating in 1990. At the age of 24 she began exhibiting her comparative compositions containing found objects, images, and texts that question recorded history.

Green’s work deals with issues of anthropology and travel. By undertaking projects via the methodology of the 19th-century explorer, she exposed the arbitrary and prejudiced nature of classification, as in Bequest (1991; see 1993 exh. cat.), an installation she made at the invitation of the Worcester Museum of Art to commemorate their 50th anniversary. Using the museum as a ready-made stage set, she installed works of art alongside 19th-century texts explaining stereotypes of whiteness and blackness. Green characteristically intervened in the history of her chosen site to produce a fiction that included her own responses as an African American woman to her findings. In ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Plainfield, NJ, April 24, 1943; d Montpon-Ménestérol, France, Jan 1, 2012).

American photographer and painter. She trained as a painter at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY, graduating with a BFA in 1965. She then studied for an MA in Art Education at Ohio State University, graduating in 1970. In the early 1970s she began to take photographs, publishing a book in 1973 that included triptychs taken from a fixed point, showing vehicles travelling across the landscape, for example Emerging Rock/Measure (1973; see 1973 publication, fig.). In the same year she moved to New York, where she continued to make photographic diptychs and triptychs of urban environments, emphasizing the formal composition. In 1976–7 she made a series of over 100 triptychs of the suburban landscape of New Jersey, where she had grown up. It was in the late 1970s that Groover achieved commercial success with her still-life compositions of kitchen objects. These images focused on the elegance of the objects, abstracting their functional quality and highlighting the interplay of shapes and light, in a similar way to Robert Mapplethorpe’s studies of flowers, as in ...

Article

Richard Lorenz

American group of photographers, active 1932–5. It was a loose association of San Francisco Bay Area photographers who articulated and promoted a modern movement in photographic aesthetics. The group was formed in August 1932 by photographers who shared an interest in pure and unmanipulated photography as a means of creative expression. It derived its name from the smallest possible aperture setting on a camera, the use of which resulted in the greatest and sharpest depth of field, producing an image with foreground and background clearly focused. The original membership consisted of Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, John Paul Edwards (1883–1958), Sonya Noskowiak (1900–75), Henry Swift (1891–1960), Willard Van Dyke (1906–86), and Edward Weston. The emphasis on clarity was partly a reaction against the lingering Pictorial photography in West Coast photography, exemplified by the work of William Mortensen (1897–1965) and Anne Brigman (...

Article

Richard Lorenz

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], May 28, 1905; d San Francisco, CA, June 12, 1998).

American photographer and painter. He studied painting at the Staatliche Akademie für Kunst und Kunstgewerbe in Breslau during the mid-1920s with Otto Mueller and from 1927 to 1930 carried out graduate and post-graduate work in Berlin at Humboldt Universität and the Akademie der Künste. Between 1929 and 1932 he taught art at various schools in Berlin and Brandenburg. He began photographing in 1933 and was hired as a photojournalist by Presse-Foto in Berlin. That same year he travelled to San Francisco, which became his permanent home in 1937.

Gutmann viewed America with a fresh and sophisticated photojournalistic style that synthesized social and aesthetic concerns in daringly cropped compositions and juxtaposed forms. His painterly sensibilities drew him to visually stimulating subjects such as graffiti, quirkily painted signs, costumed Mardi Gras revellers and car-bonnet ornaments. He devoted much of his life to teaching at San Francisco State University, where he developed the graduate photography department in ...

Article

Jason E. Hill

(b Vienna, March 2, 1921; d New York, Sept 12, 1986).

American photographer and photojournalist of Austrian birth. A pioneer in photojournalism and colour photography and a key contributor to Life, he became a member of the Magnum photo agency in 1949 and became its president in 1959. In 1962 he quit the agency to focus on fine-art photography. Best known for his highly inventive colour studies of the urban environment and the natural landscape, Haas’s photographs have ranged in subject from the ruins of post-war Europe to iconic commercial imagery for Marlboro cigarette advertisements and such Hollywood films as John Huston’s The Misfits (1960).

After Haas was prevented from completing his medical studies in his home city of Vienna on account of his Jewish ancestry in 1940, he began his study of photography at the Graphische Lehr Versuchsansalt in 1943. By 1945 he was offering photography classes with the American Red Cross, beginning a lifelong commitment to teaching. Between ...

Article

Klaus Ottmann

(b Lima, OH, June 22, 1956).

American installation artist, photographer, and video artist. Hamilton is known for creating complexly structured, highly sensual, site-specific environments that investigate visual and aural relationships with the human body. Hamilton studied textile design at the University of Kansas in Lawrence and sculpture at Yale University School of Art in New Haven. Using a wide range of metaphorical and associative materials, her installations function in the chasm between immediate experience and memory and frequently address the antinomy of creation and destruction in art.

In Privations & Excesses (1989; San Francisco, CA, Capp Street Project), Hamilton sat in a room whose floor was covered with 750,000 pennies, while obsessively wringing her hands in a hat filled with honey and, in an barred space behind her, several sheep grazed. In topos (1993; New York, Dia Center for the Arts), a figure seated in the midst of an expansive sea of interwoven horsehair, fastidiously erased printed letters from a book with a heating coil. In ...

Article

Robert Saltonstall Mattison

(b New York, March 10, 1917; d Dec 21, 1992).

American sculptor, painter, and photographer. Throughout his career he was devoted to Surrealist ideas. He had no formal training, but at schools in New York, Colorado, and California he graduated in biology and chemistry, which may have influenced his interest in primal origins and the biomorphic shapes in his sculptures and paintings. He worked briefly as a commercial photographer in New York around 1940, experimenting in 1941 with a thermographic technique invented by the Surrealists in which the negative was melted to distort the image. From 1941 to 1944 he was one of the Americans most closely associated with the European Surrealist emigrés, and he edited the Surrealist magazine VVV with assistance from Duchamp, Breton, and Ernst. He became committed to the Surrealists’ exploration of psychic automatism and to their use of mythological subjects.

Hare’s first sculptures were plaster works produced in the mid-1940s and exhibited at Peggy Guggenheim’s Art of This Century Gallery in New York in ...

Article

James Smalls

(b Bronx, New York, 1965).

African American photographer. Harris is best known for his dramatically staged self-portraits (in which he performs roles of the opposite gender or race) and photographs of his family members and friends. His works are conceptually and theoretically informed by elements of history and an awareness of the concerns of feminist, gay and lesbian, and postcolonial discourses.

Harris graduated with an MFA from the California Institute of the Arts in Valencia in 1990. He studied at the Tisch School of the Arts in New York in 1991 and in the Independent Study Program at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 1992. His work has been exhibited internationally, including at both the Guggenheim Museum and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN, the Kunsthalle, Basel, and the Centre d’Art Contemporain in Geneva.

In most of his photographs, Harris uses his own body as a conduit through which he poses questions and brings up issues around race, gender, and sexuality. In them, Harris assumes a variety of poses and roles—as boxer, ballerina, Billie Holiday, diva or gangster. As such, his photographs constitute investigations into the incoherencies of accepted and acceptable identities....