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Terence Pitts

(b New York, Sept 19, 1865; d Munich, Dec 16, 1936).

American photographer and teacher, active also in Germany. After attending the Bayerische Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Munich (from 1886), he began exhibiting his photography in New York. Around 1899 he came to the attention of Alfred Stieglitz and was praised by the critic Sadakichi Hartmann for the intelligent combination of painterly and photographic effects in his work. He became a member of the influential transatlantic photographic society, the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the (1900), and was a founder-member of Stieglitz’s Photo-Secession.

Around 1901 he moved permanently to Germany, where he became a lecturer at the Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie und Reproduktionstechnik, Munich. When Stieglitz visited him in 1907, the two made some of the first artistic experiments in colour photography with the newly developed autochrome process (see Photography, §I). In 1913 Eugene was appointed to the chair in Pictorial photography at the Akademie für Graphische Künste, Leipzig. Two years later, he renounced his American citizenship and became a German citizen....


Constance W. Glenn

(b Saint Louis, MO, Nov 3, 1903; d New Haven, CT, April 10, 1975).

American photographer and writer. He grew up in Kenilworth, a suburb of Chicago, but moved to New York with his mother after his parents separated. Primarily interested in literature, he sat in on lectures at the Sorbonne in Paris (1926–7), visited museums and bookshops, and thought of becoming a writer. In 1928 he acquired a camera and, out of frustration over his inability to find work and develop a literary means of expression, he decided to become a photographer (see fig.). Intermittent assignments instigated by friends such as Lincoln Kirstein made it possible for him to live a bohemian life in Greenwich Village, where he met the writers Hart Crane (1899–1932) and James Agee (1909–55) and the artist Ben Shahn, with whom he worked and shared a house for a short time. Within this circle he found his early influences (see fig....


Eric Gottesman

(b Detroit, MI, June 28, 1951).

American photographer and educator. She grew up in Detroit, received a BA from Antioch College in 1974 and studied photography with Minor White at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In eastern Kentucky from 1976 to 1980, she taught photography at the Appalshop media cooperative. In her book Portraits and Dreams (1985), her photographs mingled with those made by her subjects, rural Appalachian children. The book both borrowed from and challenged the documentary tradition (see Documentary photography) and in the process invented a new form of portraying people and communities. This publication later spawned a field known as ‘participatory’ or ‘pluralist’ photography, where the photographer and subject share in photographic production. Ewald went on to complete projects around the world—in Colombia, India, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Mexico, Tanzania, Labrador, Israel, and the United States—that questioned photographic authority and blurred the lines between photographer and subject, art and education....


[Amateur Photographic Exchange Club.]

American photographic society founded in 1861 and open only to amateur photographers. The three founder-members, all from New York, were Henry T. Anthony (1814–84) as President, F. F. Thompson as Secretary and Correspondent, and Charles Wager Hull. Its membership was originally restricted to 20 and, though this rule was later dropped, the members never numbered many more than this. Nevertheless they were from all over the USA and soon included most of the prominent American amateurs of the day. Among them were August Wetmore and Lewis M. Rutherford of New York; Coleman Sellers, Professor Fairman Rogers and Constant Guillou of Philadelphia; Titian R. Peale of Washington; Robert Shirner of Cumberland, Maryland; John Towler of Geneva, New York, author of The Silver Sunbeam (New York, 1864), and Professor E. Emerson of Troy, New York. The physician and writer Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809–94) was an honorary member on the strength of his achievements as a photographic pioneer. The Club’s existence reflected the enormous popularity of photography in the USA in the 1860s....


Reena Jana

(b Cologne, Germany, 1969).

American mixed-media artist of German birth and Asian descent. Ezawa studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1990–94) before moving to San Francisco in 1994. He received a BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute (1995) and an MFA from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (2003). Ezawa is not a photographer, but his work centers around photography; he has used a variety of media, from digital animations to paper collages and aquatint prints, to revisit some of the world’s most familiar, infamous and historically significant news photographs, television broadcasts and motion-picture stills (see The Simpson Verdict). All of Ezawa’s work utilizes the artist’s signature style of flat, simple renderings that are cartoonlike and also suggest the streamlined and colorful style of Pop artist Katz, Alex.

Ezawa’s project, The History of Photography Remix (2004–6), exemplifies his approach to exploring the power of photographs as a mirror of reality and yet also a force that can manipulate memories of events and people. The project consists of images appropriated from art history textbooks, such as American photographer Cindy Sherman’s ...


Eliza A. Butler

(b Philadelphia, PA, Aug 28, 1916; d New York, March 2, 2001).

American photographer. Faurer studied design at the School of Commercial Art and Lettering in Philadelphia in the late 1930s and subsequently worked as a civilian photographic technician for the United States Army Signal Corps during World War II. He was hired by Lillian Bassman for a photography position at Junior Bazaar magazine where he met and began a close friendship with American photographer Robert Frank. Faurer moved to New York permanently in 1947 and attended Alexey Brodovitch’s Design Laboratory sporadically between 1947 and 1951. Splitting his time between New York and Europe, he continued to work for Harper’s Bazaar through to the 1960s and early 1970s. His work was also featured in the magazines Flair, Glamour, Look, Seventeen, and Vogue.

Faurer’s editorial work was prolific and well received; however, it was his independent art photography for which he became best known. In the 1950s and 1960s he exhibited in a handful of New York galleries and received important exposure from the Museum of Modern Art. Influenced by ...


Mary Christian


(b New York, March 11, 1941).

American photographer. He studied photography privately with Lisette Model and with Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971). In 1974 he began to photograph the élite at benefit galas and fashionable nightclubs in New York, for example Benefit, the Museum of Modern Art, June 1977 (see Fink, 1984, p. 23). After he moved to rural Martin’s Creek, PA, in 1980, his photography of social celebrations focused on the unmannered directness of his neighbours at family parties, such as Pat Sabatine’s Twelfth Birthday Party, May 1981 (see Fink, 1984, pp. 76–7, 79), and county fairs. His use of a hand-held flash sharply lit the faces of his subjects, and, with the high contrast that he favoured in his developing, the fleeting animation of his subjects’ gestures and expressions was intensified.

Fink, Larry Social Graces (Millerton, 1984; 2/New York, 2001)...


Aleesa Pitchamarn Alexander

(b Santa Maria, CA, Sept 19, 1967).

Aleesa Pitchamarn Alexander

American social practice artist.

He was awarded a BFA in photography from the San Francisco Art Institute in 1990 and an MFA from California College of the Arts in 1994. Not confined to any particular media, his work is characterized by its collaborative, socially engaged, and interdisciplinary nature; the thematic focus of his art ranges from exploring personal narratives to engaging with larger global conflicts. In addition to his formal artistic training he also received a certification in Ecological Horticulture at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where he studied organic farming. His interest in agriculture is a reflection of his larger involvement with communities and food systems, and has manifested in his work as both an artist and a pedagogue through the establishment of an outdoor classroom at an organic farm with his students at Portland State University, where he established the second MFA programme in social practice in the USA. His work often challenges notions of the ‘passive viewer’ or ‘singular artist’, by creating projects that are generated primarily by viewer/artist interaction. Fletcher instead acts as a kind of facilitator; for example, for ...


Tom Williams

(b Wooster, OH, March 11, 1936; d Buffalo, NY, March 30, 1984).

American photographer, filmmaker, teacher and theoretician. He attended the Phillips Academy in Andover, MA (1951–4), and he went on to study at Western Reserve University (now Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland, OH, before moving to New York City in 1958. In his early years in New York, he worked as a photographer, but during the 1960s, he increasingly embraced filmmaking over photography, and he became widely known as a key exemplar of structuralist film for his experiments in non-narrative filmmaking. Beginning in the late 1960s, he taught film, photography and design at Hunter College (1969–73) and in the Center for Media Study at the State University of New York at Buffalo (1973–84). He also taught film history at Cooper Union (1970–73) and the School of Visual Arts (1970–71). He died in 1984 from lung cancer after a short illness....


Constance W. Glenn

(b Zurich, Nov 9, 1924).

American photographer and film maker of Swiss birth. He emigrated to New York City in 1947, having worked in the studios of various Swiss photographers and film makers, including that of Michael Wolgensinger (1913–90). The small, handmade book, 40 Fotos (artist’s col.) prompted Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971) of Harper’s Bazaar to hire the young, unknown photographer. The book included examples of a wide variety of his work and provided evidence of his early skill at juxtaposing images and creating photographic sequences.

Until 1951 Frank remained a regular contributor to Harper’s Bazaar, where he met the photographer Louis Faurer (b 1916), but he also did freelance work for magazines such as Look, Life and Fortune; for his own pleasure he recorded New York with a newcomer’s vision, creating images of uncanny insight and poetic spareness. These qualities would remain hallmarks of later work that critics found to be a harsh and unpalatable judgement of prosperous, post-war America. ...


Virginia Dodier

(b Brooklyn, NY, Oct 23, 1929).

American photographer and film maker. He was mainly self-taught in photography but studied briefly under Alexey Brodovitch (1898–1971). In 1958 he became a freelance photojournalist, working for such publications as the Sunday Times Magazine, the New York Times Magazine, Der Stern and Geo. Freed worked primarily in 35 mm black and white in the tradition of ‘concerned photography’, typical of the Magnum agency, which he joined in 1970. Through such images as Harlem, New York (1967; see 1985 exh. cat., p. 124) he showed his interest in social groups, for example Black and Jewish communities. His works have been published in a number of collections (see photographic publications). Freed’s films explore similar themes, for example Dansende vromen (‘Dance of the pious’; 1963) about Hasidic Jews, and The Negro in America (1966), both made for Netherlands Television.

Freed, Leonard Black and White America (New York, 1968)...


revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Aberdeen, WA, July 14, 1934).

American photographer. He first became interested in photography in 1948, and from 1953 to 1955 he studied under Edward Kaminski (1895–1964) at the Art Center of Los Angeles. In 1956 he settled in New York and supported himself by producing photographs of jazz musicians for record jackets, for example Count Basie (1957; see Malle, pl. 39). He also produced photographs influenced by (Jean-)Eugène(-Auguste) Atget, Walker Evans, and Robert Frank, and, like his subsequent works, these were all in black and white. In 1958 he discovered the work of the little-known photographer E(rnest) J(ames) Bellocq from whose gelatin dry-plate negatives of the brothels of New Orleans he took prints, which were included in the exhibition E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1970. In 1960, 1962, and 1977 Friedlander was awarded Guggenheim Memorial Foundation grants, and his works began to appear in such periodicals as ...


Michelle Yun

(b Manila, 1954).

Filipino filmmaker and photographer, active in the USA. Fuentes received a BA in Anthropology and Behavioral Science in 1974 from the De La Salle University in Manila. The following year he traveled to the United States to study at the Wharton School of Business, Philadelphia, PA, receiving an MBA in 1977. In 1981, he moved to Washington, DC to study Photography at the Corcoran School of Art under Mark Power. Fuentes subsequently received a Presidential Fellowship in 1991 from Temple University to pursue a MFA in Film and Video.

Fuentes began his artistic practice as a photographer and is best known in this medium for two series, Circle of Fear (1981–91) and Face Fusion (1986–9). These two bodies of work initially sprang from the artist’s feeling of disconnection towards both his Filipino roots and his adopted home in America. The Circle of Fear works incorporate a syncretic mix of Filipino folk culture with Western iconography to create fetishistic still lifes with a Post-modern gothic sensibility. ...


Monica McTighe

(b London, 1961).

British photographer, active also in America. Fuss worked with historical photographic processes to produce personal symbolic images with themes such as birth, death, and spirituality. He was born in 1961 in London and spent his childhood in Australia and England. His father died when Fuss was a child. As a student, he became interested in nature and science, themes that emerged in his images. He began as an apprentice at a commercial photography firm in Sydney. Settling later in New York City, he worked as an exhibition photographer and became interested in pinhole photography. He produced a series of pinhole images of Classical sculptures in museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the British Museum in London after dark. In the 1990s he made photograms, recording images of ripples on the surface of a pool. Using flashlights suspended over the photosensitive surface, he made abstract images that hint at natural rhythms. His photograms of infants partially submerged in water and snakes swimming through water suggested a connection with religious iconography. His best-known works in this series are titled ...


(b Montreal, May 1934; d Montreal, April 16, 2003).

Canadian painter and photographer. After studying briefly in Montreal, he moved to New York in 1956 and enrolled at the Parsons School of Design. He later studied painting at the New York School of Design (1957) and at New York University. He first exhibited in 1958 at the Galerie Artek in Montreal and the following year had his first one-man show there. He was in New York until 1960 and the paintings executed during this period clearly show the influence of Abstract Expressionism, for example Untitled (1956; see 1978 exh. cat., p. 128).

After returning to Montreal Gagnon made a series of collage works using newspaper and other printed matter, similar to those of Rauschenberg. These were followed in 1961 by a series of landscape paintings in which the paint was applied in a spontaneous, Expressionist manner, as in Landscape (1961; Ottawa, N.G.). During 1961–2 he worked on a number of shallow box constructions containing various objects and materials. In ...


Makeda Best

(b Paisley, Scotland, Oct 17, 1821; d Washington, DC, Dec 11, 1882).

American photographer of Scottish birth. Following his father’s death around 1828, Gardner’s family relocated to Glasgow, where he assisted his mother in operating the family grocery business before beginning a jewellery apprenticeship. He worked briefly in banking, managing the Cyldesdale Joint Stock Agricultural and Commercial Company. At the time, the industrial revolution was transforming Glasgow, and civic leaders struggled to mitigate economic and social tensions. Gardner became interested in radical politics, and he and other Scots designed a cooperative community to be located in north-east Iowa. In 1850 he purchased and revived the struggling Socialist-leaning paper, The Glasgow Sentinel. His opinion pieces promoted the paper’s causes such as education and social reforms. Gardner probably planned to immigrate with his family to the United States and join the Iowa cooperative. However, the community dissolved soon after the first settlers arrived, most likely impacted by the emergence of cholera in the region around ...


Canadian partnership of conceptual artists working as performance artists, video artists, photographers and sculptors. It was formed in 1968 by A. A. Bronson [pseud. of Michael Tims] (b Vancouver, 1946), Felix Partz [pseud. of Ron Gabe] (b Winnipeg, 1945) and Jorge Zontal [pseud. of Jorge Saia] (b Parma, Italy, 1944; d Feb 1994). Influenced by semiotics and working in various media, they sought to examine and subvert social structures, taking particular interest in the products of mass culture. Their existence as a group, each with an assumed name, itself undermined the traditional notion of the solitary artist of genius. In 1972 they began publishing a quarterly journal, File, to publicize their current interests and work. In the 1970s they concentrated on beauty parades, starting in 1970 with the 1970 Miss General Idea Pageant, a performance at the Festival of Underground Theatre in Toronto that mocked the clichés surrounding the beauty parade, resulting in the nomination of Miss General Idea ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Berlin, Jan 8, 1869; d New Milford, CT, Aug 9, 1942).

American photographer of German birth. He studied philology at the universities of Berlin and Jena from 1888 to 1894 and spent a year at the Sorbonne in Paris. In 1896 he emigrated to the USA and opened a portrait studio in San Francisco in 1897. He first achieved wide publicity with his photographs of the earthquake of 1906. He won further acclaim with the publication of Pictures of Old Chinatown, a series of photographs taken with the aid of a concealed camera. He also photographed in Japan.

In 1911 Genthe moved to New York, where he established a studio on Fifth Avenue and worked as a freelance photographer for numerous magazines and newspapers, specializing in dance and theatre portraits, such as Isadora Duncan: 24 Studies. His later reputation was founded on his portraits of famous personalities. Among his subjects were Greta Garbo and prominent statesmen such as Fridtjof Nansen and Theodore Roosevelt. In his best works faces emerge mysteriously from the darkness, emphasizing atmosphere at the expense of detail. His autobiography ...


Oldest and largest photography museum in the United States, located in Rochester, NY. Since it opened its doors to the public in November 1949, George Eastman House has played a pivotal role in shaping and expanding the field of American photography. George Eastman, founder of Eastman Kodak Company, never knew his home would become a museum; he bequeathed the mansion where he lived from 1905 until 1932 to the University of Rochester to serve as the residence of its president. In 1946 a board of trustees was formed to establish George Eastman House as an independent, non-profit museum, a memorial to Eastman and his advancements in photographic technology.

Working under director Oscar Solbert, a retired US Army general and former Kodak executive, was the museum’s first curator, Beaumont Newhall. Newhall transformed the museum from one primarily concerned with the technical applications of photography to one emphasizing its artistic development. The museum became an international centre of scholarship, and in ...


(b Los Angeles, CA, Jan 16, 1939).

American photographer. In 1956 he joined the navy and in 1957 entered the Naval Training Center in Pensacola, FL, where he studied photography. After his discharge in 1960 he moved to San Francisco where, in the following year, he studied photography at the San Francisco Art Institute. After working as an assistant to Dorothea Lange (1961–2), in 1963 he moved to Los Angeles, where he began work as a freelance photographer. He moved to New York in 1966, and from 1967 to 1969 he assisted Robert Frank on the film Me and My Brother. His photographs of this early period were in a documentary style influenced by Frank, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and William Klein. Starting with The Strip (Los Angeles, 1966), he began to publish his work in book form, though the reception of his first volumes was poor. In 1969 he established a studio in New York and in the same year founded the ...