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Paolo Costantini

(b Lucera, Foggia, Nov 29, 1904; d Senigallia, Oct 25, 1961).

Italian photographer and writer. He graduated in law from the University of Rome in 1926 and practised as a lawyer in Rome (1926–35). He was self-taught as a photographer. From 1935 to his death he worked as a freelance photographer in Senigallia. He was a founding member of three photographic groups of great importance in the theoretical debate on photography in Italy, the Gruppo degli Otto (1941), La Bussola (Senigallia, 1947) and the Gruppo MISA (1953). He was the recipient of numerous international awards and was one of the most important figures in Italian photography between 1940 and 1955.

Cavalli was dedicated to the exaltation of a formal aesthetic in photography, and he discussed his conviction that photography was an art form in numerous articles in the main Italian photographic magazines between 1947 and 1961 (especially Ferrania, Rivista fotografica and Progresso fotografico). His photographs, first published in ...


Ismeth Raheem

(b 1854; d England, 1913).

English photographer, publisher and writer. He first travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) as private secretary to the Bishop of Colombo. In 1870 he set up a small bookshop in Colombo, which by 1884 had diversified into a flourishing publishing house, H. W. Cave & Company, and a printing firm equipped to produce books with excellent quality photographic reproductions. He took a serious interest in photography, and this enabled him to illustrate the pictorial travelogues written by him and published by his own firm. His close supervision of the details of book production and photographic reproduction gave him a competitive edge over other commercial photographers. He returned to England in 1886 after the death of his wife and settled down in Oxford. He made occasional visits to Ceylon, but continued to manage his firm’s business from England.

In his photography Cave specialized in rural and landscape scenes and was especially interested in creating views with luxuriant tropical vegetation, using dramatic atmospheric lighting effects. Some of the best examples of this type of work are reproduced in his lavishly printed travelogues ...


Robert Smith


(b Wellington, New Zealand, March 30, 1878; d Sydney, June 19, 1953).

Australian photographer of New Zealand birth (see fig.). His father, Pierce Mott Cazneau (1849–1928), was an English-born New Zealand photographer, who became manager of a photographic portraiture studio in Adelaide c. 1889 and took his family to South Australia. While still at school Harold Cazneaux assisted his father and in 1897 joined the same studio as an artist-retoucher. He was mainly interested in becoming an artist and attended evening classes conducted by Harry P. Gill. Acquaintance with the influence of the English Pictorial photography movement in the 1890s made him aware of the medium’s artistic potential. Dissatisfied with his routine occupation in Adelaide, c. 1904 he joined a studio in Sydney where the work was similar, but a higher salary enabled him to buy his own camera and begin creative photography on his own account, including a lasting preoccupation with pictorial celebration of the diversity of everyday life in the city....


Jerald R. Green

(b El Grao, Valencia, May 21, 1909; d Barcelona, Dec 1, 1985).

Spanish photographer. He was apprenticed for a year to a prominent studio photographer in Barcelona and worked as a press photographer on the staff of the Día grafíco. In 1934 he left the newspaper to work as a freelance photojournalist, and until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 his photographs appeared in every major Catalan newspaper. On 19 July 1936 Centelles was the only native photographer to document the uprising in Barcelona; he continued to photograph the city and the Aragon front until he was mobilized. In February 1939 Centelles was ordered to leave Spain, and he took with him the army photographic archives and his own negatives.

After a brief period in a French concentration camp Centelles was recruited by the French Resistance and worked in a clandestine photographic laboratory until his return to Spain in 1944. Entrusting his negatives to a French couple, he secretly re-entered Spain. He was prohibited by the Franco government from returning to photojournalism and instead took up commercial photography. In ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Croydon, May 18, 1953, d London, March 15, 1996).

English sculptor, photographer and installation artist. She studied at Brighton Polytechnic (1973–6) and the Chelsea School of Art, London (1976–7). She lived and worked in London, and lectured at the Royal College of Art, Chelsea School of Art and the London Institute. Chadwick’s innovative and provocative use of a rich variety of materials, such as flesh, flowers, chocolate and fur, was hugely influential on a younger generation of British artists. Her strongly associative and visceral images were intended to question gender representation and the nature of desire. In the early performance There’s Absolutely Nothing to Worry About, which she presented with Philip Stanley at the Spectro Gallery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1979, she staged an interaction between a lone male and female on a London Underground train. Here Chadwick dealt, from a strongly feminist perspective, with gender power relations taking place in a depersonalized public space. This theme was continued in ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

[Hargesheimer, Carl-Heinz]

(b Cologne, May 19, 1924; d Cologne, Dec 31, 1971).

German photographer, sculptor, stage designer and theatre director. He studied graphic design and photography at the Cologne Werkschulen. In 1948 he made his first sculptures in metal, but he made his name shortly afterwards with experimental photographs and other experimental works. A member of the young German avant-garde, from 1951 he taught experimental photography at the photographic school BIKLA (Bild und Klang) in Cologne. In 1957 his first book, Cologne intime, appeared, and a year later he published Im Ruhrgebiet and Unter Krahnenbäumen (both with texts by Heinrich Böll), whose new photographic structures provoked violent reactions and public debate. His photography during this period was based on the collection of images, and he always attempted to penetrate the façades of buildings and of people.

After a series of publications about Berlin, the Rhineland and stocktaking, Chargesheimer turned to the theatre, working as a stage designer, director and photographer for theatres in Cologne, Vienna, Brunswick, Hamburg, Bonn and Kassel. He summed up this achievement in ...


Patricia Strathern

(b Fleurieux, Rhône, May 2, 1828; d Paris, Oct 24, 1915).

French photographer, archaeologist, and writer. An intrepid traveller, he used photography as a method of recording and documenting the sites he explored and wrote about. He left for the USA in 1857, spending two years in Mexico from 1857 to 1859. Using the wet collodion process and large plates, his photography (e.g. Mexico—Chichen Itza, c. 1858; see Berger and Levrault, cat. no. 40) was something of a technical feat in the circumstances. He returned to Europe in 1861, and his first book, Antiquités mexicaines, was published the same year. In 1863 he photographed in Madagascar and from 1864 to 1880 worked in South America, Java, Australia, and Canada. In 1880 he returned to Mexico, where he made some important archaeological discoveries in Pre-Columbian sites.

See also: Pre-Columbian sources in American architecture; Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §X, 1.



Mary Christian

[Seymour, David; Szymin, David]

(b Warsaw, Nov 20, 1911; d Suez, Nov 10, 1956).

American photographer of Polish birth. Chim studied printing at the Akademie für Graphische Kunst, Leipzig (1929–31), and then at the Sorbonne, Paris (1931–3), with the intention of working for his father, a prominent publisher of Hebrew and Yiddish books. By 1933 he had converted the bathroom of his flat into a dark-room, which he shared with his friends Robert Capa and Henri Cartier-Bresson. At this time he took the name Chim, adapted from his surname. In 1939 Chim immigrated to the USA and changed his surname to Seymour.

In 1934 Chim began to contribute photographs to Regards, a large-format illustrated magazine devoted to the ideals of the Popular Front, for which he eventually became the staff photographer. In July 1936 Chim was sent by Regards to be a correspondent for the Spanish Civil War, recording such images as Loyalist Rally, Spain, 1936 (see Friedberg, pp. 36–7). Some of these and later photographs were published in ...


Daniela Mrázková

(b Prague, Jan 30, 1923).

Czech photographer. He trained as a photographer in the studio of Otto Erban in Prague in 1945, but he had already worked as a sports reporter and theatre photographer before this. His acquaintance with the artists, literary figures and art theorists associated with Group 42, formed in Prague during World War II, was decisive for him. Chochola was drawn to their poetic cityscapes and use of the Surrealist chance encounter. His photographs combine the objectivity of reportage with an aesthetic appeal, often with provocative, cryptic meanings. They transform the commonplace into the suggestive and mysterious. He was mainly interested in portraits, cultural and intellectual events and the atmosphere of the city. His lifelong friendships with painters, poets, sculptors, actors and other cultural figures enabled him to build up a rich and topical range of subjects.

J. Kolář: Václav Chochola (Prague, 1961)D. Mrázková and V. Remeš: Cesty Československé fotografie [Trends in Czechoslovak photography] (Prague, 1989)...


Catherine M. Grant

(b London, Nov 8, 1965).

English conceptual artist, photographer and film maker. He studied History of Art at Manchester University (1985–8) and Fine Art at Goldsmiths’ College, London (MFA, 1992–4). In 1990 he began a series of works by placing advertisements in the London magazine Loot and various newspapers, inviting people who thought they looked like God to send in their picture; this evolved into The God Look-Alike Contest (1992–3; London, Saatchi Gal.), exhibited in the Sensation exhibition (London, RA, 1997) and consisting of the original advertisement and the responses he received. For Involva (1995; see 1999 exh. cat., pp. 19–21), he advertised in a sex contacts magazine, illustrating a drawing of a woodland clearing with the caption ‘Please will you join me here?’. He then photographed the letters he had in reply in a clearing similar to the one shown in his announcement. The process of asking a question that at first appears naive or absurd is a key strategy in Chodzko’s work, the final form of which is the product of other people’s imaginations. In the late 1990s he began to target specific groups for his projects, as in ...


Erika Billeter

(b Berlin, Dec 15, 1896; d Wassenaar, March 13, 1983).

Dutch photographer, Photomontagist and painter, active also in Germany. He belonged to the Dada group in Berlin and was a friend of George Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield and Erwin Blumenfeld. From 1922 to 1925 he was associated with the Bauhaus in Weimar, producing during this period the photocollage Metropolis (1923; Leiden, Rijksuniv.), the single work for which he remains best known, and which has become a classic image of the 20th-century city. His period at the Bauhaus clearly helped shape his photographic style, his photomontages in particular betraying the influence of both Dada and Constructivism. In 1927 he moved to the Netherlands, founding and then teaching at the Nieuwe Kunstschool in Amsterdam (1933–7). From 1935 to 1940, and again from 1945 to 1960, he was professor of drawing and painting at the Academie voor Beeldenden Kunsten in The Hague. He continued to work as both a painter and photographer without ever recapturing the fame that he had enjoyed with his work of the 1920s....


J. P. Ward

revised by Geoffrey Batchen

(François Jean)

(b Lyon, Aug 12, 1797; d London, Dec 27, 1867).

French-born photographer, active in England. He began his working life in banking but soon became director of a firm of glassmakers in Paris. In 1826 he moved to London to open a glass warehouse and by 1830 was in partnership with George Houghton in Holborn, selling glass shades and other products. On hearing of the announcement of the first practicable photographic processes in 1839, Claudet visited Paris, where he later claimed he received instruction in the daguerreotype process from Daguerre himself, and from whom he purchased a licence to operate in England. By March 1840 Claudet and Houghton’s firm was selling daguerreotype views of Paris and Rome, obtained from Lerebours in Paris, as well as copies of that publisher’s volume of engravings after daguerreotypes, Excursions Daguerriennes, représentant les vues et les monuments les plus remarquables du globe. In April 1841 the firm was also offering to sell complete daguerreotype apparatuses, including prepared plates....


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Gross-Ziethen, nr Berlin, March 6, 1907; d Hamburg, 1990).

German photographer. Encouraged by Käthe Kollwitz, she first intended to become a painter and studied art in Vienna. But in 1925 she began to work in a Berlin photographic studio, developing a strong interest in theatre, and she moved in 1928 to the studio of the Jewish theatre photographer Elli Marcus, working with her until Marcus’s emigration in 1933. With the help of Marcus, Clausen soon became well known in theatrical circles, and she had the opportunity to photograph the leading actors of the time. In 1938 she published her first collection of photographs, Mensch ohne Maske. She spent the Nazi period in Berlin, at the Schauspielhaus on the Gendarmenmarkt. Her portraits of Gustaf Gründgens in the role of Mephisto were held for a long time to be the epitome and personification of the role. She also photographed the mime Marcel Marceau and many other actors. Following her husband’s death in ...


Francis Summers

American photographers and conceptual artists of Irish and Israeli birth. Collaborating under a corporate-sounding name, Michael Clegg (b Dublin, 1957) and Martin Guttman (b Jerusalem, 1957) began making photographs together in 1980. Using corporate group portraits as their resource material, they made constructed photographs in the manner of 17th-century Dutch paintings. A Group Portrait of the Executives of a World Wide Company (1980; see 1989 exh. cat., p. 33) shows five suited men seated in a brooding darkness, their heads and hands illuminated in a chiaroscuro effect. The reference to historical paintings is made particularly explicit in The Art Consultants (1986; see 1989 exh. cat., p. 37): the figures are posed directly in front of a canvas so as to mirror the painted figures, illustrating Clegg & Guttman’s proposition that within the hierarchies of power, the essential nature of pose, emblems and dress have remained relatively unchanged for centuries. Pushing these images to the point of indetermination, Clegg & Guttman also occasionally carried out actual commissions (although not always successfully), as well as creating collaged and altered portraits such as ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Arles, Aug 14, 1934; d Nîmes, Nov 15, 2014).

French photographer. He based his first series of photographs, Death of Julius Caesar (1954), on a production of Shakespeare’s Julius Caeser directed by Jean Renoir in Arles. In 1959 he was the guest photographer on the set of Jean Cocteau’s film Le Testament d’Orphée; in the same year he began his career as a freelance photographer. During this period he was also associated with Picasso, whom he claimed as his principal mentor; in 1968 he made the documentary Picasso: Guerre, amour et paix. In 1970, whilst acting as the artistic director of the Festival of Arles, Clergue founded the Rencontres Internationales de la Photographie, located in his native town. In 1980 he was made Chevalier de l’Ordre National du Merite by President Giscard d’Estaing.

An early series of photographs from 1955 showed children posed as saltimbanques amongst the ruins of post-war Arles. The concern with mythology and symbolic imagery, rather than reportage, was central to Clergue’s subsequent work. Although covering a range of subjects over the next three decades, notably bullfighting and other traditional Provençal subjects, he became best known for his photographs of female nudes, begun in ...


Lee Fontanella

(b ?London, Jan 7, 1821; d Madrid, Jan 1, 1863).

English photographer active in Spain. Many believe that he was the greatest 19th-century photographer in Spain, although he was far from the most prolific. His total known production consists of only several hundred negatives, but he was one of the few early photographers there with a consistently artistic vision and masterful technique to match. From 1850 he worked in Spain, sometimes with his wife Jane, employing all the photographic processes available to him in his short lifetime. For a few years he used the daguerreotype and calotype processes in particular, and from 1857 he made albumen prints from wet-collodion glass-plate negatives.

Although a British subject, Clifford is associated with the Spanish throne, as he was Isabella II’s court photographer for official events during most of his 12 years in Spain. (Official portraits of the Spanish royal family were customarily made by other photographers.) He called himself the ‘fotografito inglés’ and was correspondent in the late 1850s for ...


Margaret Harker

(b Boston, MA, June 11, 1882; d Colwyn Bay, Oct 23, 1966).

American photographer, active also in Britain. Coburn was greatly influenced by his mother, a keen amateur photographer, and began taking photographs at the age of eight. He travelled to England in 1899 with his mother and his cousin, F(red) Holland Day. Coburn developed substantial contacts in the photography world in New York and London, and in 1900 he took part in the New School of American Pictorial Photography exhibition (London, Royal Phot. Soc.), which Day organized. In 1902 he was elected a member of the Photo-Secession, founded by Alfred Stieglitz to raise the standards of Pictorial photography (see Pictorial photography). A year later he was elected a member of the Brotherhood of the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the in Britain.

Some of Coburn’s most impressive photographs are portraits. He worked for a year in the studio of the leading New York portrait photographer Gertrude Käsebier and became friendly with George Bernard Shaw, who introduced him to a number of the most celebrated literary, artistic, and political figures in Britain, many of whom, including Shaw, he photographed (for example see Gernsheim and Gernsheim, p. 13). Shaw also wrote the preface to the catalogue for the exhibition of Coburn’s work at the Royal Photographic Society, London, in ...


(b London, 1956).

English photographer, active also in Spain. She studied at the Slade School of Art (1974–8) and became known for her large-scale, black-and-white photographs of evocative interiors and landscapes. These works often had a sense of moody abandonment to them. Collins questioned photography’s role of representing reality in a manageable scale. The huge scale of her photographs demanded a physical experience as well as a conceptual one. The location of the viewer’s body to the work also evoked issues regarding a relationship to geographic place. Collins’s subject-matter was often vistas—the desert, the city of Barcelona, where she lived, or alternatively interiors that she constructed herself by lining rooms with such materials as cardboard or mattresses. These interiors were sometimes empty and sometimes included people and objects. Most of Collins’s photographs have a sense of being open to metaphorical or symbolic interpretation because of the simplicity of the presentation. She became known as an artist who expanded the realm of photographic practice....


John-Paul Stonard

(b Nottingham, 1966).

English photographer, sculptor and film maker. He studied at Trent Polytechnic (1985–6), and then at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1986–9), at which time he was included in the exhibition Freeze (London, Surrey Docks, 1988). For his first solo exhibition in 1990 (London, Riverside Studios), he created One Photo, Four Broads and a Stretcher (photograph on wood with broad light, 5.49×2.74 m, 1990; artist’s priv. col., see 1997 exh. cat., p. 44), comprising a colour photographic reproduction of Watteau’s L’Enseigne de Gersaint (1721; Berlin, Schloss Charlottenburg), greatly enlarged and cursorily attached to a wooden frame. By displaying a reproduction in this way, Collishaw highlights issues of representation, raised in the original painting through the juxtaposition of the false idyll of the fête galante, and the actualities of the art market. Much of Collishaw’s subsequent work makes historical and art-historical references that hinge around the broad theme of the interaction between nature and culture. ...


Anne Blecksmith

Term used to describe pictorial representations of objects and data using a computer. The term also implies the creation of and subsequent manipulation and analysis of computer-generated imagery and graphics. Computer-generated imagery was developed shortly after the introduction of the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) in 1946. In 1950, a mathematician and artist from Iowa named Ben Laposky produced computer-generated graphic images using an electronic oscilloscope and photographed the results using high-speed film. The first interactive man-machine graphics program was Sketchpad, invented by Ivan Sutherland, a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Developed for the TX-2 computer, Sketchpad allowed one to draw on the computer screen using a light pen and processed image manipulation functions through a series of toggle switches.

In 1965, scientists from the USA and Germany organized concurrent computer art exhibitions entitled Computer-Generated Pictures at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York and the Galerie Niedlich in Stuttgart. The American scientists, Bela Julesz and A. Michael Noll worked at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ, a center of computer graphic development and in ...