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Article

Gordon Campbell

Pressed glass made in the USA (mostly by Bakewell & Co. and Boston & Sandwich Glass Co.) from c. 1825 to c. 1845; it is a thick glass decorated with relief patterns on the surface.

L. W. Neal and D. B. Neal: Pressed Glass Salt Dishes of the Lacy Period, 1825–1850...

Article

Catherine Brisac

(Jules)

(b Ay, Marne, April 6, 1860; d Paris, 1945).

French jeweller, glassmaker and designer. He began his studies at the Lycée Turgot near Vincennes and after his father’s death (1876) he was apprenticed to the Parisian jeweller Louis Aucoq, where he learnt to mount precious stones. Unable to further his training in France, he went to London to study at Sydenham College, which specialized in the graphic arts. On his return to Paris in 1880, he found employment as a jewellery designer creating models for such firms as Cartier and Boucheron. His compositions began to acquire a reputation and in 1885 he took over the workshop of Jules d’Estape in the Rue du 4 Septembre, Paris. He rejected the current trend for diamonds in grand settings and instead used such gemstones as bloodstones, tourmalines, cornelians and chrysoberyls together with plique à jour enamelling and inexpensive metals for his creations. His jewellery, which was in the Art Nouveau style, included hair-combs, collars, brooches, necklaces and buckles (e.g. water-nymph buckle, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Glass figurines and ornamental groups made from glass heated in the flame of a lamp and blown and shaped by hand. Nineteenth-century examples range from simple figures sold at fairs to complex and delicate models of ships. In the 20th century Bimini Glass, the company founded in 1923 by the Austrian glassmaker Fritz Lampl, produced graceful figurines made from lamp-blown glass; the popularity of these products has made ‘bimini’ a generic term for lamp-blown European glass of the interwar period. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Laveno  

Gordon Campbell

Italian centre of ceramics production. In 1856 a glassworks was founded in Laveno, on the shore of Lake Maggiore, in northern Italy. It was quickly converted into a ceramics factory by three potters from the Richard Pottery in Milan. Soon there were four production sites, of which three (Lago, Ponte and Verbano) became the Società Ceramica Italiana (1893), which later became Richard Ginori and finally Pozzi Ginori; the fourth site, Reville, became an independent factory. The Lego and Reville factories have now closed, and Verbano has become a workers’ cooperative, but in the 1990s the Ponte factory was revived by concentrating its production on bone china. The local pottery museum (est. 1893) has a comprehensive collection of Laveno pottery, ranging from its early Art Nouveau wares to its more recent bathroom porcelain.

G. Musumeci: Laveno e le sue ceramiche: Oltre un secolo di storia (Laveno Mombello, 1994)...

Article

Carola Hicks

English firm of stained-glass manufacturers. Nathaniel Wood Lavers (1828–1911), a craftsman and glassmaker, and Francis Phillip Barraud (1824–1900), a designer and painter of stained-glass windows, were employed by James Powell & Sons. In 1855 Lavers left to found his own firm, employing freelance designers, including Alfred Bell (1832–95), Henry Stacy Marks and Barraud, whom he took into partnership in 1858, when the firm became known as Lavers & Barraud. Barraud worked in a conventional Gothic Revival manner, but a more distinctive style was established by Nathaniel Westlake (1833–1921), a protégé of the architect William Burges. Westlake began to design for the firm in 1858 and became a partner in 1868 after which the firm was called Lavers, Barraud & Westlake; he retained this name after he became sole partner in 1880. It was Westlake’s knowledge of medieval art, Pre-Raphaelite style and simplification of previously over-elaborate drawing that brought the firm fame and success in the 1860s. A good example of this period is the glass (...

Article

[Christiaan]

(b Amsterdam, May 26, 1878; d Dachau, April 2, 1945).

Dutch painter, designer and applied artist. He trained in design and decorative painting at the Quellinus school and the Rijksschool voor Kunstnijverheid (National School of the Applied Arts) in Amsterdam from 1892 to 1899. He was assigned to assist with the decoration of the Dutch pavilion at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. A number of his designs for the pavilion were executed in batik, a Javanese technique that had been recently introduced in the Netherlands. In subsequent years Lebeau developed a very personal approach to batiking and within a short time became the leading Dutch artist in this field. His batiked screens in particular were widely acclaimed (examples in Assen, Prov. Mus. Drenthe) and are considered masterpieces of Dutch Jugendstil.

Lebeau is one of the most important representatives of the severe, geometrical trend in Dutch applied arts of the early 20th century. From 1903 he designed damask tablecloths and household linen for the ...

Article

Peter W. Guenther

(b Münster, Oct 2, 1865; d Raron, Switzerland, Oct 8, 1937).

German designer and painter. After an apprenticeship in a stained-glass workshop, he studied painting at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin (1894). An exhibition of his work at Fritz Gurlitt’s gallery in Berlin established his reputation. His friendship with the German poet Stefan George led him to design books as works of art in their own right, for example an edition of Maurice Maeterlinck’s Der Schatz der Armen (Leipzig, 1898) and George’s Teppich des Lebens (Berlin, 1900). He was influenced in his book designs by the work of William Morris. In 1900 he won the Grand Prix at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, for his design of the Pallenberg Saal (Cologne, Kstgewmus.; mostly destr.), a reception room designed for the industrialist Jakob Pallenberg, in which ornaments and inscriptions filled walls and ceiling; the centrepiece was a painting Consecration at the Mystic Well (see Wissmann, p. 36). In ...

Article

Paul Bonaventura

(b Utrecht, Nov 26, 1876; d Blaricum, Nov 13, 1958).

Dutch painter and designer. He served his apprenticeship in several stained-glass studios in Utrecht (1891–9), after which he received a scholarship to study at the Nationaal school voor Kunstnijverheid, Amsterdam (1900–04). At the same time he attended evening classes at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten, Amsterdam, under August Allebé. His earliest work reflected several stylistic sources. His paintings were influenced first by the Symbolists Anton Derkinderen and Jan Toorop and then by the Amsterdam Impressionists George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls, while his designs for a collector’s edition of the Song of Solomon, which he produced in 1905 in collaboration with his close friend, the architect and furniture maker Piet Klaarhamer, showed an Egyptian influence. Following a brief and uninfluential visit to Paris in 1907, van der Leck spent the next nine years moving between Amsterdam, Utrecht, Amersfoort, The Hague and the province of Overijssel.

In keeping with other progressive artists of the time in the Netherlands, van der Leck developed an abiding interest in the way of life of the Dutch proletariat in his search for an authentic 20th-century social realism. He turned to the prosaic world of the washerwoman, the fishwife, the stallholder and the labourer as the starting-point for a simple, universally valid and comprehensible style that embraced the principle of ‘unity in diversity’, a theory augmented by his belief in the manipulation of humanity by forces beyond its control. The theme of textile workers in Overijssel returning home from the factory provided van der Leck with the first indications of a solution to his stylistic goal. The similarities in the appearance and behaviour of the employees prompted him to reduce the incidental details of form and subject-matter and led to his first significant painting, ...

Article

Yves Lacasse

(b Quebec City, March 10, 1795; d Quebec City, June 21, 1855).

Canadian painter, collector and politician. After studying briefly at the Quebec Seminary, in 1812 he was apprenticed to the painter and glassmaker Moses Perce (fl 1806–48). The sale in Quebec City in 1817 of part of the collection of Louis-Joseph Desjardins (1766–1848), which comprised altogether about 200 European Old Master paintings, had a decisive effect on Légaré’s career. He bought a number, which he cleaned and restored himself, and, as an almost entirely self-taught artist, found them a valuable source of inspiration, technical example and income: many of his early commissions were for large copies of religious pictures from the collection. He painted about 100 religious works but in 1828 won an honorary medal for an original secular composition, the Massacre of the Hurons by the Iroquois (Quebec, Mus. Qué.)

Légaré’s oeuvre (over 250 oils on canvas and on paper) was considerably more diverse and ambitious in subject-matter than that of such contemporaries as Jean-Baptiste Roy-Audy, Antoine Plamondon and Théophile Hamel, who favoured portraiture and religious painting. He was the first Canadian-born painter to specialize in landscapes, for example ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded by William L. Libbey (1827–83), who had owned the New England Glass Co. in Cambridge, MA, since 1872. In 1888 his son Edward Drummond Libbey (1854–1925) decided to close the factory during a long strike and to take advantage of the natural gas available in the Midwest. When the firm again made glass in 1888, it was as the W. L. Libbey & Son Co. of Toledo, OH; in 1892 it became the Libbey Glass Co. The success of the Libbey Glass Co. enabled Edward Drummond Libbey to help found the Toledo Museum of Art, OH, in 1901 and to bequeath to it his collection of European paintings, supplemented by a trust provided by his estate.

Many fashionable cut-glass patterns were produced at Libbey during the so-called ‘Brilliant period’ between 1880 and 1915, and Libbey produced some magnificent exhibition pieces, including a cut-glass table 813 mm high and a cut-glass floor lamp nearly 1.5 m high. The firm’s major product was a more popular line of goods made from blanks; these had previously been pressed in a metal mould in the pattern to be cut, thus avoiding the expense of mould-blowing blanks and marking them for cutting. As one of the most important American cut-glass factories at the time, the firm erected a large crystal palace for the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of ornamentation produced by impressing upon porcelain-glass in a soft state figures which are made visible by transmitted light. When back-lit, a three-dimensional picture appears, Lithophanes were made at the Berlin Porcelain Factory (from 1827) and at Meissen Porcelain Factory (from 1828), and later in Gotha and Plaue; in England they were made at Minton Ceramic Factory, Copeland and Worcester. They were immensely popular in 19th-century Europe, where they were used as candle shields and fire screens, and as ornaments to be hung in windows. The Blair Museum of Lithophanes, in the Botanical Garden in Toledo, OH, holds more than 2300 lithophanes....

Article

Peter Rath

Austrian glass company. Founded in Vienna in 1823 by Josef Lobmeyr (b Grieskirchen, 1792; d Vienna, 1855). Glass for the firm was made mainly in the Lobmeyr’s Neffe factories, at the Harrachhütte glassworks in Neuwelt, and the Vetterhütte glassworks in Parchen. In 1835 the first large table service was delivered to Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand (Vienna, Hofburg-Schauräume; Vienna, J. & L. Lobmeyr). In 1848 the firm was commissioned by Emperor Francis Joseph for the banqueting service for his coronation, which was designed by Josef Lobmeyr’s son, Ludwig Lobmeyr (b Vienna, 1829; d Vienna, 1917). In the same year Ludwig’s elder brother Josef Lobmeyr jr (b Vienna, 1828;d Vienna, 1864) was commissioned with the lighting of the palace of the Khedive Abbas I Hilmi (reg 1848–54) in Cairo, using glass vases with Arabic enamel painting. In 1851 the firm established a studio in Polevsko for cutting, painting, and engraving blanks. In ...

Article

Peter Rath

Bohemian glass factory. In 1836 a glass factory was founded by Johann Eisner von Eisenstein in Klostermühle in the Bohemian forest. In 1840 production was taken over by Eisenstein’s son-in-law Friedrich Hafenbrädl, who began making window and table glass. In 1851 Dr Franz Gerstner (1816–55) and his wife Susanne Lötz-Gerstner (b 1809), who had previously been married to Johann Lötz (1778–1848), bought the factory. From 1858 the company was named and in 1863 registered as Lötz Witwe (‘Lötz widow’). In 1878 the factory exhibited a range of coloured glass at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. The following year Lötz-Gerstner’s grandson Max Ritter von Spaun (1856–1909) took over the company and employed Eduard Prochaska (d 1922) as managing director. Over the next two decades the factory was substantially enlarged, and by 1891 the company employed 200 glassworkers, 36 cutters, and 30 glass painters. The company had representatives in various European cities, including ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Saint-Louis-les-Bitche, in the Münzthal (now D’Argental), Lorraine, Feb 21, 1835; d Somerville, MA, March 31, 1906),

French glassmaker, active in the USA. He was apprenticed in the Cristallerie de Saint-Louis, Lorraine (see Saint-Louis Glasshouse). In 1860 he moved to America and initially worked for Dorflinger, Christian in Brooklyn, following the company to Pennsylvania in 1865. He worked from 1867–9 for the New England Glass Company and thereafter for the Boston & Sandwich Glass Co. until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Valognes, Manche, May 15, 1824; d Paris, Jan 25, 1887).

French furniture-maker and interior decorator, active in New York. In 1835 his sister Marie-Felicité married Auguste-Emile Ringuet-Leprince (1801–86), scion of a French dynasty of ébénistes who were exporting furniture to America; in 1840 the two men formed a partnership called Maison Ringuet-Leprince. In 1848 Marcotte and Ringuet-LePrince moved to New York, where they established Maison Ringuet-Leprince on Lower Broadway; the firm was later known as Ringuet-Leprince and L. Marcotte (1849–60) and, after Ringuet-Leprince’s retirement, L. Marcotte & Co. (1860–1918). Their furniture consisted largely of adaptations of the Louis XV and Louis XVI styles. Marcotte’s interiors included three rooms in the house of Samuel Clemens (now the Mark Twain House and Museum) in Hartford, CT.

P. M. Johnston: ‘Dialogues between Designer and Client: Furnishings Proposed by Leon Marcotte to Samuel Colt in the 1850s’, Winterthur Portfolio, 19 (Winter 1984), pp. 257–75 N. Gray: ‘Leon Marcotte: Cabinetmaker and Interior Decorator’, ...

Article

Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Ropczyce, nr Rzeszów, March 19, 1869; d Wadowice, nr Kraków, July 8, 1946).

Polish painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From 1887 he studied at the School of Fine Arts in Kraków under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański, as the two most talented pupils of the School, were engaged to assist Matejko in his decorative wall paintings for the Gothic Church of St Mary in Kraków. This work aroused Mehoffer’s interest in both fresco and stained glass. In 1889–90 he studied at the Kunstakademie, Vienna, and in 1891 he travelled through Salzburg, Innsbruck and Basle (where the work of Arnold Böcklin caught his imagination), eventually going to Paris. There he studied at the Académie Colarossi, at the Ecole Nationale des Arts Décoratifs and, from 1892, in the atelier of Léon Bonnat at the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. During his stay in Paris (1891–6) he devoted much time to studying works by the Old Masters in the Louvre; he also studied architecture, making a tour of medieval cathedrals in France in ...

Article

Marsha L. Morton

(b Hamburg, Feb 16, 1803; d Lübeck, Nov 19, 1875).

German painter, draughtsman, stained-glass designer, illustrator and restorer. In Hamburg he studied drawing with Gerdt Hardorff the elder (1769–1864) and painting with Christopher Suhr (1771–1842) and Siegfried Bendixen (1786–1864). His admiration for early German art was inspired during a sketching trip through Schleswig-Holstein in June 1823 with Erwin Speckter. Drawings from this period include a copy of Hans Memling’s altarpiece in Lübeck Cathedral. Following a sojourn in Dresden in 1824, Milde and Speckter travelled to Munich in the summer of 1825 where they studied history painting at the Akademie. In 1826 they lived briefly in Rome; and Milde again worked in Rome from 1830 to 1832 where he was in contact with the Lukasbrüder. Their preference for an outline style reinforced Milde’s own primitivizing linear manner derived from his study of Northern Renaissance art. Milde’s few extant paintings are mostly portraits from the 1830s, although history paintings, genre scenes, marine views and landscapes have also been attributed to him. Milde completed both bust-length oil portraits and family groups set in domestic interiors, which provide a detailed record of middle-class life in Hamburg at this time. In watercolours such as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Olga Drahotová

(b 1765; d 1808).

Austrian glasscutter. He worked at the Guttenbrunn Glassworks in Austria, where he used the Zwischengoldgläser technique (placing engraved gold leaf between two layers of glass) to develop the Medaillonbecher, in which an engraved foil medallion was inserted into a double-walled beaker (e.g. beaker, 1792; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.). The outside of the medallion was typically a portrait or a religious scene, and the inside was an inscription. ‘Mildner glass’ is now a generic term for this type of glass....

Article

Aude Pessey-Lux

(b Paris, March 14, 1856; d Corneilla-de-Conflent, Pyrénées-Orientales, Nov 26, 1929).

French painter, wood-engraver and stained-glass designer. He enrolled in Paris at the Académie Julian in 1874 and the Académie Colarossi in 1882, attending the latter until World War I in order to work from live models. In 1880 he unsuccessfully submitted a landscape to the Salon in Paris; consequently he did no serious painting for several years. Having built his own boat, he went sailing in the western Mediterranean (1882–5). During the voyage he wrote seafaring tales that appeared in Le Yacht (1883–5) accompanied by his own illustrations. After returning to Paris, in 1887 he met Gauguin, with whom he became close friends. That year he painted his first finished canvases, views of Catalonia and the Languedoc, inspired by Neo-Impressionism (e.g. Church at Angoustrine, 1887; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). At this time he also painted portraits of his first wife and of his friends. In 1894 he completed some interior designs with his friend ...