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Article

Gordon Campbell

English ceramics factory in Denby, Derbys; the successor of Bourne, Joseph, & Son & Son. In the 19th century the company was a manufacturer of stoneware bottles, but in the late 19th century the competition from cheaper glass bottles forced the company to diversify. It chose in the first instance to concentrate on decorative and kitchen wares with richly coloured glazes. Its decorative and giftware products (vases, bowls, tobacco jars) were stamped ‘Danesby Ware’. In the 1930s the company introduced the bright ‘Electric Blue’ and the matt blue–brown ‘Orient ware’ giftware lines, and in the same period introduced kitchenware in ‘Cottage Blue’, ‘Manor Green’ and ‘Homestead Brown’, all of which continued in production till the early 1980s.

In the 1950s giftware production was reduced and Denby introduced new lines of tableware, especially dinner services. ‘Echo’ and ‘Ode’ were introduced in the early 1950s, followed by ‘Greenwheat’ (1956), ‘Studio’ (...

Article

Derby  

K. Somervell

English centre of ceramic production. A factory producing soft-paste porcelain was in operation in Derby, Derbys, by c. 1750, possibly started by Thomas Briand of the Chelsea porcelain factory. Early output included white cream jugs and some figures that have biscuit visible at the base and are therefore known as dry-edge figures. The main Derby factory was established c. 1756 by William Duesbury, who joined with John Heath, a banker who also had an interest in the Cockpit Hill Pottery (1751–79), Derby, and the Frenchman André Planché. Early wares included tea and coffee services. About 1764 Richard Holdship of the Worcester factory had an agreement with Duesbury to improve the paste and to introduce transfer printing to the factory. Blue-and-white wares were also produced until 1770 but thereafter only for special commissions. Figures produced during the early years show the influences of the Chelsea and Meissen porcelain factories, and specifically the modelling of Johann Joachim Kändler. This was later intensified by the modeller ...

Article

Valérie M. C. Bajou

[Narcisso]

(b Bordeaux, Aug 21, 1807; d Menton, Nov 18, 1876).

French painter. After the death of his Spanish parents he was taken in by a pastor living in Bellevue (nr Paris). In 1825 he started work as an apprentice colourist in Arsène Gillet’s porcelain factory, where he became friendly with Gillet’s nephew Jules Dupré and made the acquaintance of Auguste Raffet, Louis Cabat and Constant Troyon. At this time he executed his first oil paintings of flowers, still-lifes and landscapes. Around 1827 Diaz is thought to have taken lessons from the Lille artist François Souchon (1787–1857); perhaps more importantly, he copied works by Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and Correggio in the Louvre, Paris, and used their figures and subjects in such later paintings as Venus and Adonis and the Sleeping Nymph (both Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). He soon became the friend of Honoré Daumier, Théodore Rousseau and Paul Huet. Diaz’s pictures exhibited at the Salon from 1831 to 1844 derive from numerous sources, including mythology, as in ...

Article

Elizabeth Collard

Canadian family of potters. The St Charles River valley, Quebec, where the family had settled as early as 1671, had been the scene of some of the first pottery-making in New France; the tradition handed down was French provincial. It was in this style that the Dions began working in Ancienne Lorette, Quebec, producing simple, utilitarian wares of local, red-burning clay. Although Jean-Baptiste Dion (1827–1901) began the pottery c. 1854, it was his brother Antoine Dion (1825–1902) who expanded operations on the family land in the 1860s, winning recognition for Dion wares in crockery shops in Quebec City and at provincial exhibitions. Antoine Dion never used imported clay; he used plaster moulds for some wares (possibly taken from imported English earthenware) but for others devised the patterns himself. His sons joined him in the business, and in 1881 the pottery had an estimated capital of £2000–5000, which ranked it with other successful Canadian potteries of the day. Large tobacco jars with moulded figures probably belong to this period. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1851; d 1938).

French potter. From 1877 to 1905 he was employed as a designer by Sèvres Porcelain Factory, for which he created sophisticated floral and figural designs in the Art Nouveau style that he introduced to the factory. From 1892 he also had his own studio in Paris. Doat’s display pieces were often decorated with fine enamels; his individualistic medallions were made with the pâte-sur-pâte technique. His vases often took the form of gourds. From ...

Article

Clare Le Corbeiller

Italian porcelain manufactory. In 1737 a factory producing hard-paste porcelain works was founded at Doccia by the Marchese Carlo Ginori (1702–57), assisted by the painter Karl Wendelin Anreiter von Zirnfeld (1702–57) and the technician Giorgio delle Torri (fl 1737–43), both from Vienna. The early paste was rather grey, with a dull glaze. Between c. 1770 and 1790, however, a tin glaze was used to whiten the body, and after 1803 clays from Limoges were used for this purpose. Several formulae were in use throughout the 19th century. Until 1757 factory production was highly experimental (see fig.); some early pieces are similar to wares from the factory of Claudius Innocentius Du Paquier (d 1751) in Vienna, where Anreiter is thought to have worked. Underglaze-blue, stencilled decoration was common between c. 1737 and 1745 (e.g. teapot, c. 1742–5; London, V&A). Useful wares were modelled with an emphasis on sculptural, relief and pierced decoration. Painted decoration included armorials, genre scenes and East Asian flowers in intense tones of puce, iron-red, acid yellow and green. Large-scale figures and groups were copied from bronze casts, moulds and wax models in the Marchese’s ...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Nin’ami Dōhachi; Takahashi Mitsuoki]

(b Kyoto, 1783; d ?Fushimi, Kyoto Prefect., 1855).

Japanese ceramicist. He was the second-generation head of the Dōhachi family. His father, Dōhachi, son of a retainer of the Kameyama fief in the province of Ise, established a kiln at Awataguchi in Kyoto in the Hōreki era (1751–64), thereby forming his own school, and later assumed the name Takahashi Dōhachi. Along with Aoki Mokubei, and Eiraku Hozen, the younger Takahashi Dōhachi was one of the most famous makers kyōyaki (‘Kyoto ceramics’), especially polychrome (overglaze) enamels, in the later Edo period (1600–1868). As a youth he followed his father into the ceramics trade, and then became a disciple of Okuda Eisen. From 1806 he was permitted to conduct official business with the prince–abbot (monzeki) of the temple Shōren’in, which secured his reputation as the leading potter of Awataguchi. In 1814 he moved to the Gojōzaka district, where he built a kiln and perfected the craft of making blue-and-white ceramics. He produced some superbly elegant pieces of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English pottery established in 1801 in Swinton, on the bank of the Don canal in Yorkshire. The proprietor was John Green, who had previously been a partner in both the Leeds Pottery and Rockingham Ceramic Factory. The factory made earthernware and (c. 1810) also experimented with porcelain. John Green became bankrupt in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1749; d 1819).

German arcanist, active also in Sweden and Switzerland. He worked at porcelain factories in Berlin and Marseille before moving to Marieberg Factory, where in the course of a year (Sept 1777–Aug 1778) he established hard-paste porcelain in Sweden (see under Sweden, Kingdom of §VII 2.). In 1781 he entered into a partnership with Ferdinand Müller to found a porcelain factory in Nyon (Switzerland); he was the driving force behind the artistic and technical development of the factory, and was its director from 1809 to 1813. Hard-paste porcelain in a Neo-classical style was produced in Nyon under Dortu's directorship (but not thereafter), including coffee-sets and cups painted with butterflies and sprays of flowers. The factory closed in 1820.

In 1827 Dortu's son Frédéric Dortu (1787–after 1846) established a porcelain factory in Turin. Two years later it was restyled Dortu Richard et Cie, and after several changes of partnership it closed in ...

Article

Louise Irvine

[Doulton & Watts; Royal Doulton.]

English ceramic manufactory. The firm was established in 1815, when John Doulton (1793–1873) became a partner in the small Vauxhall Walk pottery in Lambeth, London, which produced such utilitarian stonewares as ink bottles and spirit flasks. In 1820 the company became Doulton & Watts. Doulton’s son Henry Doulton (1820–97) joined the firm in 1835, and the business was expanded to include architectural terracotta and chemical stonewares. Influenced by the sanitary improvements of the 1840s, Henry Doulton opened a factory specializing in stoneware drainpipes and sanitary fittings, and the success of this venture assured the company’s future prosperity.

The artistic side of the business developed in the 1860s, and from 1866 the pottery was closely associated with the Lambeth School of Art, the students decorating the stoneware before its salt-glaze firing. The favourable reception of their first decorative stonewares encouraged Henry Doulton to establish an art studio. ...

Article

Rosamond Allwood

(b Glasgow, July 4, 1834; d Mulhouse, Alsace, Nov 24, 1904).

Scottish designer, Botanist and writer. He trained at the Government School of Design, Somerset House, London, between 1847 and 1854, during which time he was strongly influenced by the design reform efforts of Henry Cole, Richard Redgrave and Owen Jones. In 1854 he began to lecture at the school on botany and in 1856 supplied a plate illustrating the ‘geometrical arrangement of flowers’ for Jones’s Grammar of Ornament. In 1857 he presented a series of lectures at the Royal Institution entitled ‘On the Relationship of Science to Ornamental Art’, which he followed up in a series of 11 articles in the Art Journal (1857–8) on the similar subject of ‘Botany as Adapted to the Arts and Art-Manufacture’. His first three books were on botanical subjects, and in 1860 he was awarded a doctorate by the University of Jena for his research in this area.

Following the International Exhibition of ...

Article

Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Nantes, April 5, 1811; d L’Isle-Adam, Val-d’Oise, Oct 6, 1889).

French painter. He began his career in Creil, Ile de France, as a decorator of porcelain in the factory of his father, François Dupré (b 1781), and later worked at the factory founded by his father in Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche, Limousin. It was in this region of central France that Dupré became enchanted by the beauty of nature. He went to Paris to study under the landscape painter Jean-Michel Diébolt (b 1779), who had been a pupil of Jean-Louis Demarne. Dupré began to see nature with a new awareness of its moods, preferring to paint alone and en plein air. He was fascinated by bad weather, changes of light and sunsets. Many of his paintings depict quiet woodland glades, often with a pond or stream (e.g. Plateau of Bellecroix, 1830; Cincinnati, OH, A. Mus.). In 1830–31 he associated with other young landscape painters, including Louis Cabat, Constant Troyon and Théodore Rousseau, and with them sought inspiration for his study of nature in the provinces, exhibiting the finished paintings at the annual Salons. In ...

Article

Durlach  

Gordon Campbell

German centre of faience production. In 1723 a pottery was founded in Durlach (Baden) by J(ohann) H(einrich) Wackenfeld; after his death in 1726 it was run by his widow till 1749. The subsequent owners (1749–1812) were Georg Adam Herzog and Johann Adam Benckieser. Under the Benckieser management, the pottery specialized in pear-shaped jugs and coffee pots. Until 1818 there was no factory mark, but artists signed their own work; the most prominent were Georg Balthasar Fichtmeier (1751–1803), who signed his works with a black F, and Johann Jacob Kaiser (1773–1835), who signed his works with a black K. After 1818 the factory's cream-coloured earthenware was marked ‘Durlach’.

E. Petrasch: Durlacher Fayencen, 1723×847 (exh. cat., Karlsruhe, Bad. Landesmus., 1975)Durlacher Fayencen (exh. cat., Mannheim, Städt. Reiss-Mus., 1978)R. Simmermacher and others: Gebrauchskeramik in Südbaden: Porzellan Baden-Baden, Fayence Durlach, Steingut Durlach, Emmendingen, Hornberg, Villingen, Zell a.H., Hafnerware Kandern...

Article

Hiroko Nishida

[Yōtoku; Yingchuan]

(b Kyoto, 1753; d Kyoto, 1811).

Japanese potter. He is thought to have been the grandson of Chinese immigrants who came to Japan to escape the turbulence at the end of the Ming period (1368–1644). He was adopted into the Okuda family of wealthy pawnbrokers, who patronized the Buddhist temple Kenninji, where, according to one account, Eisen lodged for a time. The temple was famous as a centre of Chinese learning, and it was probably this contact that stimulated Eisen’s first attempts at making Chinese-style ceramics. By the 1780s he was producing copies of late Ming-period enamelled porcelain called gosu akae (gosu: a type of mineral; aka: ‘red’; akae ‘red design’, a type of ware introduced to Japan in the 17th century). Ceramicists in Kyoto had experimented with porcelain earlier in the 18th century, but Eisen was the first to make sustained use of the material, although it is unclear how he acquired the basic clay for porcelain. He is now known to have studied ceramic techniques at ...

Article

Term used to describe an antiquarian style popular in England from the 1830s to the 1860s, inspired by the Elizabethan style of the 16th century. Designs for Elizabethan-style furniture first appeared in Rudolf Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in 1817, although the style was not widely popular until the 1830s. The English architect most closely identified with the style was Anthony Salvin, who designed Harlaxton Manor, Lincs (1831–8). The entire vocabulary of gables, octagonal turrets, tall chimney-stacks, pinnacles, leaded-paned windows and heraldic ornament was used at Harlaxton, which was based on the Elizabethan E-plan. Salvin’s other notable works in this style include Mamhead (1828–33), Devon, and Scotney Castle (1835–43), Kent. Mentmore Towers (1851–4), Bucks, was designed by Joseph Paxton and George Henry Stokes for Baron Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (1818–74) and is possibly the most elaborate manifestation of the Elizabethan Revival style....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1846; d 1920).

English art potter. In 1883 Elton succeeded to a baronetcy and inherited Clevedon Court, a manor house (now National Trust) in the North Somerset town of Clevedon. In 1881 he had established Sunflower Pottery (in the manor house), where he made pottery influenced both by his allegiance to the Aesthetic Movement and by a wide range of national and historical styles. He experimented with glazes as well as forms, and ...

Article

Hans Ottomeyer

The name derives from the first French Empire under Napoleon I (see Bonaparte family, §1). The dates defining the period of the Empire historically (1804–14) and the duration of the style itself are at variance: the early phase, referred to by contemporaries as ‘le goût antique’, was a late form of Neo-classicism and became more developed as the chaos resulting from the French Revolution subsided c. 1797. The Directoire style and the Consulate style—terms similarly derived from political periods in France—were both part of the development of the Empire style.

The term was originally applied to architecture, but because Napoleon rejected the building of new castles and palaces as wasteful, the style was especially used in interior design and decoration, later being extended to other decorative arts and fashion. There was strong conscious allusion to the civilization of imperial Rome through the building forms and motifs used by the first Roman emperors, who pursued goals of internal peace and a new order together with an expansionist military policy, as did Napoleon. Personal taste and comfort became of secondary importance to the demonstration of wealth and power. The Empire style spread throughout Europe and acquired fresh impetus with the Napoleonic conquests....

Article

Portuguese ceramics and glass factory. It was founded in Ílhavo, near Aveiro, in 1824 by José Ferreira Pinto Basto (1774–1839), and the licence obtained on 1 July 1824 permitted the manufacture of earthenware, porcelain and glass (see Portugal, Republic of, §VIII). Pinto Basto’s son Augusto Valério Ferreira Pinto Basto (1807–1902) was the first managing director and spent some time at the Sèvres porcelain factory, where he learnt the various processes and techniques involved in porcelain production from the director Alexandre Brongniart (1770–1847). In 1826 Pinto Basto was granted a 20-year monopoly for his enterprise. However, as only very small deposits of kaolin were available in the early stages, the factory produced creamware, stoneware and a few pieces of poor-quality porcelain. Two Neo-classical enamelled and gilded cups and saucers (1827; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Ant.) have inscriptions indicating that they were fired in the first kiln of ware from this factory and were painted by ...

Article

[Fábrica de Darque.]

Portuguese ceramics factory. It was founded in Darque near Viana do Castelo in 1774 by João Araújo Lima and Carlos de Araújo Lemos, in partnership with João Gaspar do Rego and António Alves Pereira de Lemos. Although there is a lack of dated pieces three stylistic periods of production have been recognized. During the early years (before 1790) the factory produced tureens, octagonal plates, tankards and large jars that were influenced by wares from the Real Fábrica do Rato in Lisbon and imported wares. Decoration was executed in blue or manganese-purple. During the second period (1790–1820) a wide range of wares was manufactured, characterized by well-shaped forms, perfect milky white ground and polychrome decoration dominated by blues, greens, canary-yellow, orange and violet. Delicately executed floral motifs predominate, with very few figurative compositions. Variously sized pear-shaped vases were inspired by East Asian wares and were decorated with finely drawn weeping willows and pagodas. Other characteristic wares included English-style ‘Toby’ jugs, toothpick holders, figures, tankards shaped as heads, mugs, washbowls, pitchers and a variety of tableware, some of which was enamelled in light blue and green in the manner of faience produced at the Fábrica de Miragaia (...

Article

Bernadette Nelson

Portuguese ceramics factory. It was founded in the borough of Porto de Mós, near Leiria, in 1770 by the painter and architect José Rodrigues da Silva e Sousa (d 1824). In 1784 the factory received the designation ‘Royal’ and the protection of Sebastião de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquês of Pombal. The factory had two very distinct periods of production. During the first 30 years it produced blue-and-white tableware that was influenced in style and decoration by the Real Fábrica do Rato. Many pieces are distinctive for their recurring semi-abstract, leaf-like motifs, shaded in blue or manganese-purple, surrounded by chains of beads. During the second period, under the direction of José Luís Fernandes da Fonseca, wares were decorated with more sober decoration in manganese-purple. Important painters who worked at the factory at this time included João Coelho Pó and Manuel Coelho. Fonseca’s son Bernardino José da Fonseca directed the factory from ...