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Paolo Casadio

(b Motta di Livenza, 1505; d San Vito al Tagliamento, March 9, 1588).

Italian painter and draughtsman. His father’s name was Leonardo, his mother was Natalia Amalteo, sister of the humanist poet Paolo Amalteo and the Latin scholar Francesco Amalteo. Probably in 1515 Pomponio entered Pordenone’s workshop and is thought to have collaborated in the numerous works executed by Pordenone in Friuli between 1524 and 1529. Amalteo’s first independent works were frescoes of Virtues inspired by Roman historical subjects for the Palazzo del Consiglio dei Nobili, Belluno (1529, destr. 1838; fragments Belluno, Mus. Civ.; Treviso, Mus. Civ. Bailo; Venice, Correr). Although the influence of Pordenone is strong, the fragments reveal an original artistic personality capable of producing compositions of classical dignity, less bold perhaps than his master but employing a more spirited and luminous range of colours.

In 1534, with his career as a panel painter well established, Amalteo married Pordenone’s daughter. His earliest surviving altarpieces and panels date from around this time. After Pordenone’s departure from Friuli in ...

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Kurt Löcher

(b c. 1505; d Augsburg, 1 Nov 1561–19 Oct 1562).

German painter and draughtsman. His family came from the Upper Palatinate. He served his apprenticeship in Augsburg, probably with Leonhard Beck, whose daughter Barbara he married. He became a master on 15 May 1530 but rarely signed his work. He was in northern Italy and Venice c. 1525–7. His full-length pendant portraits of a husband and wife (both 1525; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.) show Venetian influence, and the portrait of Anton Welser (1527; priv. col., see 1980 exh. cat., p. 98) is in the Italian style. According to Sandrart, during the Imperial Diet of 1530 in Augsburg Amberger painted a portrait of Emperor Charles V to the Emperor’s satisfaction, but the surviving work (Berlin, Gemäldegal.) dates from 1532, based on the age given. In the decades that followed, Amberger was the favourite portrait painter of ambitious merchant families, such as the Fugger family, who belonged to guilds but were connected with the nobility by family or marriage ties....

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Patrick M. de Winter

French family of patrons. The family, documented from 1100, originally came from Touraine, but in 1469 the line passed to a cadet branch, the Chaumont-d’Amboise. Pierre II Chaumont-d’Amboise (d 1473), Counsellor of Valois, House of family, §8 and Valois, House of family, §9 and governor of Touraine, had a large family, several members of which rose to prominence and were active as patrons: his eighth son, (1) Cardinal Georges I d’Amboise and his grandson (2) Charles II d’Amboise, Comte de Chaumont, both resident for a time in Milan, brought Italian artists to work on their projects in France, and they were instrumental in the spread of the Renaissance there.

The patronage of Pierre II’s eldest son, Charles I (d by 16 March 1503), was centred on the rebuilding of the family château of Chaumont, razed by King Louis XI in 1465. His fourth son, Louis I (...

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Hans J. Van Miegroet

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Ursula Härting

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Elisabeth Landolt

Swiss family of collectors of German origin. Johannes Amerbach (b ?Amorbach, c. 1450; d Basle, Dec 25, 1513) gained his MA at the Sorbonne, Paris, and trained as a printer in Nuremberg and Venice. In 1482 he settled in Basle, where in 1484 he founded his own print shop and publishing house. He was in close contact with Albrecht Dürer during the latter’s stay in Basle (1491–2). Apart from works of art for personal use, for example ornamental daggers, he probably owned graphic and print blocks for woodcut illustrations by Dürer. Johannes’s son, Bonifacius Amerbach (b Basle, 11 Oct 1495; d Basle, 24 April 1562), a lawyer, professor at the University of Basle and syndic of the Basle council, was the heir and executor of Erasmus and owned paintings by the Holbein family and important gold and silver pieces, for example the well-known ‘...

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Ilse O’Dell-Franke

[Jobst, Jos]

(b Zurich, bapt June 13, 1539; d Nuremberg, March 17, 1591).

Swiss draughtsman, woodcutter, engraver, etcher and painter. He was the youngest son of the noted scholar and Chorherr in Zurich, Johann Jakob Amman, a friend of Ulrich Zwingli and Gessner family §(2). Although a successful pupil at the renowned Collegium Carolinum where his father was a professor, Jost, like his brother Josua (1531–64), who became a goldsmith, did not take up a scholarly career. As early as 1556–7 his copies of prints by other artists, for example Dürer family, §1 (b. 94) and Solis family §(1) (b. 249), show an independent and original approach. For his apprenticeship Amman may have been in Basle or Zurich, but he probably spent some time in Paris or Lyon, since his early works show a close similarity to French book illustrations.

In 1561 Amman was in Nuremberg, where he may have worked with Solis, the chief illustrator for the Frankfurt am Main publisher ...

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[Bartolommeo]

(b Settignano, nr Florence, June 18, 1511; d Florence, April 13, 1592).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was a major figure in Italian art in the second and third quarters of the 16th century. His extensive travels in north and central Italy gave him an unequalled understanding of developments in architecture and sculpture in the era of Mannerism. His style was based inevitably on the example of Michelangelo but was modified by the suaver work of Jacopo Sansovino. In both sculpture and architecture Ammanati was a highly competent craftsman, and his masterpieces, the tombs of Marco Mantova Benavides and two members of the del Monte family, the Fountain of Juno and the Fountain of Neptune and the courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti, are among the finest works of the period.

Orphaned at the age of 12, Ammanati earnt his living in the ‘Academy’ of Baccio Bandinelli c. 1523–7, after which time he left Florence, which was in political turmoil, for Venice. Jacopo Sansovino had just arrived there after the Sack of Rome (...

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Patwant Singh

Sikh holy city in Punjab, northern India. Lying on a flat stretch of agricultural land between the rivers Beas and Ravi, close to the Pakistan border, Amritsar (Skt amrit sarowar, ‘pool of nectar’) is the location of the Harmandir, the holiest of Sikh shrines at the heart of the Darbar Sahib temple complex, also referred to as the Golden Temple (see also Indian subcontinent §II 8., (ii) and §III, 7(ii)(a), fig.). It was the third Sikh guru, Amar Das (1552–74), who was first drawn to the area by the peace and tranquillity of its forested terrain and the pool where the Harmandir was later built. His successor, Guru Ram Das (1574–81), bought the pool and the surrounding land. Some historians believe that the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605) offered the land as a gift, but that Ram Das declined in keeping with the Sikh tradition of self-reliance (...

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Elise L. Smith

[Aertszoon, Jan; Hollander, Jan de]

(b Amsterdam, c. 1500; d Antwerp, c. 1542).

South Netherlandish painter of Dutch birth. He was probably the brother of Pieter Aertsen and was married to the sister-in-law of Pieter Coecke van Aelst. He was made a freeman of the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp in 1528 and a citizen of that city in 1536. Lampsonius and van Mander praised him as a landscape artist. According to Lampsonius, he ‘enjoyed painting landscapes well, instead of painting portraits, human figures and the Deity badly’. Van Mander described his very large panels, which sold well in the markets of Brabant and Flanders, as well as his unusual technique of painting with a light wash so that the underlying ground colour showed through (apparently influential on Bruegel family §(1)).

There are no known documented works by Jan, but he is generally identified (e.g. by Hoogewerff, Genaille, Faggin, Schubert, Wescher and Wallen) as the Brunswick Monogrammist (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §III...

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Philippa Vaughan

(fl 1584–1611).

Indian miniature painter. Trained in the studio of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), he blossomed under Akbar’s successor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Anant is known through two sole compositions in the Tīmūrnāma (‘History of Timur’; 1584; Bankipur, Patna, Khuda Bakhsh Lib., fols 182r and 206v, and, as colourist, fol. 115v)) and as a colourist in the first Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’; c. 1590; London, V&A, I.S.2. 1896.117) but eventually specialized in allegorical illustrations. The ‛Iyar-i danish (‘Book of fables’; c. 1590–95; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib.) and Anvār-i Suhaylī (‘Lights of Canopus’; 1596–7; Varanasi, Banaras Hindu U., Bharat Kala Bhavan) were the prelude to his best work in the Anvār-i Suhaylī completed for Jahangir in 1610–11 (London, BL, Or. Add. 18579, fols 6r, 130v, 169r, 197r and 267r). Although he was capable of fine natural history studies, in this manuscript he concentrated on the symbolic function of animals to communicate the moral of the tale. The simple, open compositions reflect the studio style of the early 17th century....

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Marjorie Trusted

(b Azpeitia, Guipúzcoa, c. 1540; d Pamplona, Nov 30, 1588).

Spanish sculptor. His works in alabaster and wood in the north-east region of Spain decisively influenced late 16th-century sculpture in that area. Echoes of major Italian sculptors’ works strongly suggest that he trained in Italy, although there is no evidence of this. By 1565 Ancheta was in Valladolid, but shortly after this he is likely to have assisted Gaspar Becerra on the retable at S Clara, Briviesca. Becerra’s grandiose Roman Mannerist style, imbued with the Classicism of ancient Roman and Italian Mannerist sculpture, lies behind Ancheta’s art. He probably also worked with Becerra around 1558 on the retable in Astorga Cathedral. He continued to be active in and around Valladolid and at Burgos and was named in Juan de Juni’s will as the only sculptor capable of completing Juni’s retable at S Maria del Mediavilla in Medina de Ríoseco, although this was actually completed by Esteban Jordán. From about 1575 to 1578...

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Gordon Campbell

French 16th-century château and garden near Tonnerre, in Burgundy. Antoine de Clermont, brother-in-law of Duchesse de Valentinois Diane de Poitiers commissioned Sebastiano Serlio, who was employed at the court of Francis I, to design the château and garden; construction on a large level site began c. 1546. The house is built around a large rectangular courtyard of majestic proportions. The twelve principal rooms on the ground floor, notably the Chambre des Nudités and the Chambre de Diane, are adorned with tapestries and frescoes. On the first floor, the apartments and galleries were sumptuously decorated by Francesco Primaticcio.

A drawing by Jacques Du Cerceau shows that the original gardens echoed the rectangular shape of the house. A huge rectangular raised terrace was constructed around the house and garden, and this terrace was used as a promenade from which house and gardens could be viewed.

S. Frommel: Sebastiano Serlio, architecte de la Renaissance...

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Elena Parma

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Věra Naňková

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Marco Collareta

( fl c. 1475–?1519).

Italian engraver and painter. A painter named Zoan Andrea is recorded in a letter of September 1475 written to Ludovico II Gonzaga, 2nd Marchese of Mantua, by Simone Ardizoni da Reggio, a painter and engraver. Simone claimed that he and Zoan Andrea had been brutally assaulted on the orders of Andrea Mantegna. Mantegna was enraged to hear that the two had remade some of his prints. Their exact crime is not clear, but it has been suggested that they had re-engraved Mantegna’s original plates. Given this connection with Mantegna’s circle of engravers, it is likely that Zoan Andrea can be identified with the anonymous artist who signed himself za on 20 engravings, the earliest of which show a strong dependence on Mantegna, both in technique and composition. The three monogrammed engravings closest to Mantegna are of Hercules and Deianira (b. 2509.005), Judith and Holofernes (b. 2509.001) and an ...