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Helen Geddes

(di Ancona)

(fl Ancona, 1472–1510).

Italian painter. His only autograph work is the signed and dated altarpiece of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1472; Pittsburgh, PA, Carnegie Inst.) from S Francesco delle Scale, Ancona. Other paintings attributed to him on the basis of this work include the Massimo Altarpiece (main panel, Rome, Pal. Massimo alle Colonne), a lunette of SS Lucy, Anthony, and Bernardino (Montefortino, Pin. Com.), St Mary Magdalene, St Francis (both Oxford, Ashmolean), a Pietà (Jesi, Pin. Civ.), and an Annunciation with Saints (Urbino, Pal. Ducale). His works are indebted to Francesco Squarcione, Carlo Crivelli, Marco Zoppo, and Cosimo Tura. The influence of Piero della Francesca is also apparent in the light and landscape of the autograph altarpiece, which has figures of great inner tension and strange beauty.

G. Hedberg: ‘In Favour of Nicola di Maestro Antonio d’Ancona [sic]’, Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin, vol. 62 (1975–6), pp. 84–99 D. Pennacchioli...


Krista de Jonge

(b Antwerp, before 1373; d Antwerp, May 15, 1434).

South Netherlandish architect. He was the son of Jan Appelmans (d Antwerp, between 1 April and 28 Sept 1395), who worked on the St Joriskerk, Antwerp. Peter was one of the most important representatives of Brabantine Gothic. His known career was confined to Antwerp Cathedral (see Antwerp, §IV, 1): in 1406 he was among its leading masons, and he became Master of the Works before 1419, a post he held until his death. The west façade (1419), which, with its two towers (only the north of which was completed) and portals, follows the French model, must be attributed to him. Its design may be compared with the virtually contemporary west façade of Brussels Cathedral. He designed the nave, the foundations of which were begun in 1431, and also made some additions to the cathedral choir; the present St Jozefskapel on the north side and the sacristy, robing room and library on the south side of the choir entrance were begun in ...



Islamic dynasty that ruled in eastern Anatolia, Iran and Iraq from 1378 to 1508. The Aqqoyunlu (Turk.: ‘White Sheep’) were a group of Sunni Turkomans that rose to power by supporting Timur, eponym of the Timurid dynasty, against the Ottomans in western Anatolia. By allying with Timur, the first Aqqoyunlu ruler Qara Yülük (who had a Greek mother and married a Byzantine princess) was granted the region of Diyar Bakr in south-eastern Anatolia. In 1467 the Aqqoyunlu ruler Uzun Hasan (reg 1453–78) killed the Qaraqoyunlu leader Jahanshah in battle and moved the capital from Amid (now Diyarbakır in Turkey) to Tabriz in Iran. The Aqqoyunlu then took control of Azerbaijan and, briefly, much of Iraq and northern Iran. They became a power of international significance and opened diplomatic relations with Venice. The position of the Aqqoyunlu was not seriously threatened under Uzun Hasan’s son Ya‛qub (reg 1478–90), but conflicts among his successors allowed Isma‛il I, the founder of the ...


John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of aquamanilia is associated with Mosan art of the Meuse Valley in northern France, and with Lower Saxony in north-east Germany. The majority of surviving examples are made of a variety of bronze that resembles gold when polished, while nearly all those made of precious metals are known only from church inventories.

Church documents refer to aquamanilia as early as the 5th century, when canon regulations stipulated that on ordination the subdeacon should receive such a vessel. Various documents from the 5th century to the beginning of the 11th sometimes use the term to denote both the ewer and its basin. Sometime after the beginning of the 11th century the term became transferred to a type of vessel, usually in the shape of an animal (e.g. lion, stag, horse; ...


Joan Isobel Friedman and A. Bustamante García

Spanish dynasty of rulers, patrons and collectors, active in Italy. The county of Aragon was established as a kingdom in 1035 under Ramiro I (reg 1035–63), son of Sancho III the Great, King of Navarre (reg 1000–35). In the 13th century James I the Conqueror, King of Aragon (reg 1213–76), extended the kingdom by taking control of Valencia and the Balearic islands. His son, Peter III, King of Aragon (reg 1276–85), also became King of Sicily in 1282, following a revolt against the rule of the House of Anjou (see Anjou, House of family). Separate branches of the Aragonese dynasty, which included (1) Peter IV, King of Aragon (reg 1336–87), ruled the two kingdoms until 1409, when Martin, King of Aragon (reg 1395–1410), succeeded to the kingdom of Sicily. On his death in 1410 both kingdoms were given to his nephew, Ferdinand (...



Gordon Campbell

Italian cupboard, used in the 15th century to denote a Cassone with doors instead of a lid, and thereafter a large two-storeyed cupboard. An example from the 1730s in the oratory of S Giuseppe in Urbino is decorated with a thickly impastoed imaginary landscape by Alessio de Marchis (1684–1752...


Heribert Meurer

(fl 1460; d Zwolle, 1492).

Netherlandish sculptor. He is first mentioned in Kalkar (Germany) in 1460, moving to Zwolle (Netherlands) in 1484. In records he is always given the professional title ‘Beeldesnider’ (sculptor). His style was influenced by the paintings of Weyden, van der family, §1 and by the sculpture of Utrecht (stone sculpture in the cathedral and works by Adriaen van Wesel); some connections with painting in the Duchy of Guelders have also been established. His main extant works are sculptures in oak, many of which were commissioned by the Liebfrauenbruderschaft (Brotherhood of the Virgin) in Kalkar, St Nikolai.

Documented works are the Entombment, delivered to Kalkar from Zwolle in 1487, and the design and some parts of the high altar in Kalkar, which was commissioned in 1490 but remained unfinished at his death. The Ymago Salvatoris, delivered to Xanten in 1476, may also be Arnt’s work and may be identical with the Ascension...


Basilio Pavón Maldonado

Spanish term for a type of intricately joined wooden ceiling in which supplementary laths are interlaced into the rafters supporting the roof to form decorative geometric patterns (see fig.). Artesonado ceilings were popular in the Islamic architecture of North Africa and Spain from the 13th to the 15th century and were also used widely in Jewish and Christian architecture. They continued to be popular into the 16th century when they were effectively integrated with Renaissance motifs.

Artesonado ceilings developed from horizontal coffered ceilings, which were used in Spanish Islamic architecture as early as the 10th century ad (see Islamic art, §II, 5(iv)). The Umayyad caliph al-Hakam II (reg 961–76) ordered a carved and painted coffered ceiling for the Great Mosque of Córdoba (see Córdoba, §3, (i), (a)). It was suspended from the ceiling joists and tie-beams of the pitched roofs covering the aisles. The halls of ...



[Master of Gerlamoos]

(b Thörl, nr Villach, c. 1435–40; d Villach, 1523–9).

Austrian painter . Known formerly for his frescoes at St George, Gerlamoos (Carinthia), he was identified in 1939–40 by the name Thomas, which during restoration work was found inscribed by a Crucifixion painted by the same hand in St Andreas, Thörl; this name was in turn linked with a Thomas von Villach mentioned in a register of tenants of 1468 and described by the chancellor to the patriarch of Aquileia in 1486 as a ‘second Apelles’ who had painted altar retables in Villach (these are untraced). Further documents indicate he was a town magistrate of Villach in 1520.

Thomas appears to have trained in the workshop of Friedrich of Villach, and his earlier work displays a Carinthian version of the mannered figure poses and cascading drapery of the ‘Soft Style’, which had originated in Bohemia in the late 14th century. His painting, however, perhaps influenced by 14th-century North Italian work and by the ...


Ken Brown and Karen L. Brock

Shogunal dynasty that ruled Japan during the Muromachi period (1333–1568). According to the anonymous Taiheiki (‘Chronicle of great peace’; ?1370–71), Ashikaga, the name of a town in Shimotsuke Province (now Tochigi Prefect.), was taken as a family name by a branch of the military Minamoto family. The Ashikaga came to power when the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji (1305–58), overthrew the Hōjō regents in Kamakura and installed the ambitious Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) in Kyoto. When GoDaigo refused to name Takauji as shogun, the latter deposed him and replaced him by his own candidate. GoDaigo fled to Yoshino (Nara Prefect.), where he set up a rival court. The schism continued during the early Muromachi period, which is also known as the Nanbokuchō (‘Northern and Southern Courts’; 1336–92) period. Takauji and his son, the second shogun Ashikaga Yoshiakira (1330–67), paid respect to the old aristocracy in Kyoto, but the third shogun, ...



Phyllis Pray Bober

(b Bologna, 1474–5; d Bologna, Nov 19, 1552).

Italian painter, sculptor, illuminator, printmaker and draughtsman . He was born into a family of painters, and his youthful facility reportedly astonished his contemporaries. His work developed in the Emilian–Ferrarese tradition of Ercole de’ Roberti, Lorenzo Costa the elder and, above all, Francesco Francia. Until the re-evaluation by Longhi, critical assessment of Amico’s oeuvre was over-reliant on literary sources, especially Vasari’s unsympathetic account of an eccentric, half-insane master working so rapidly with both hands (the ‘chiaro’ in one, the ‘scuro’ in the other) that he was able to finish decorating an entire house façade in one day.

Longhi presented Amico as a creative master whose expressive intensity and sensitive use of colour rescued Bolognese painting of the early 16th century from sterile echoes of Raphael. Today Aspertini is viewed as an influential precursor of Mannerism, and his highly individual study of antiquity has been brought to the fore by the publication of his sketchbooks. Amico was not a mere imitator of ancient artists, but their imaginative rival, whether in his grotesques derived from the decorations of Nero’s Domus Aurea in Rome (e.g. the Parma sketchbook and the borders of his ...


(b Assisi, ?1460–70; d Assisi, before Oct 1524).

Italian painter . He possibly received his early training from L’Ingegno [Andrea Alovigi d’Assisi] (c. 1470–1516). It is very probable that Tiberio subsequently joined the shop of Pinturicchio and accompanied him to Rome to work in S Maria del Popolo (1485–9) and on the Borgia apartments in the Vatican Palace (1492–c. 1495). In 1492–3 Tiberio was paid by the Comune of Assisi for various works, and in 1495 he was employed in Perugia Cathedral.

At the beginning of the 16th century, Tiberio was active in Assisi and Perugia. In 1510 he painted the Augusti family chapel in S Francesco, Montefalco, and during the next few years he worked at the convent of S Martino, Trevi. Subsequent documents record his intensive activity in Umbria up to 1524, when he painted several coats of arms for the Comune of Assisi, a commission for which payment was made to his heirs in October of that year. Despite the apparently high regard in which he was held (a document of ...


Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....


Patrizia Ferretti

[Vante di Gabriello di Vante Attavanti]

(b Castelfiorentino, 1452; d Florence, 1520–25).

Italian illuminator. He has been praised by art historians since his own times, although many of his autograph works were incorrectly assigned to his workshop. New attributions, supported by archival material, have made it possible to reconstruct his oeuvre and life more accurately. He worked for celebrated patrons and collaborated with the most important illuminators and painters of Florence: Francesco di Antonio del Chierico, the Master of the Hamilton Xenophon, the brothers Gherardo and Monte di Giovanni di Miniato del Foro and Domenico Ghirlandaio, and documents indicate contacts also with Leonardo da Vinci. Attavanti probably trained with del Chierico in 1471–2, while working on the Antiphonary for Florence Cathedral (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. Edili 148). Among the work of late 15th-century illuminators, that of Attavanti is distinguished by his citations from the Antique, his ideas derived from Netherlandish and Florentine panel painting and his illustration of philosophical themes. Recurrent motifs include frontispieces with entablatures on columns, copies of sarcophagi as altar frontals, cameos, allegorical figures within medals and richly dressed figures isolated in framed medallions or symmetrically grouped....




Annemarie Jordan, Sylvie Deswarte-Rosa, Lucília Verdelho da Costa, Paulo Pereira and Ana Maria Alves

Portuguese dynasty of rulers and patrons (see fig.). After the death of Ferdinand I, King of Portugal (reg 1367–83), the succession was contested by John I, King of Castile (reg 1379–90). The Castilian forces were defeated at the Battle of Aljubarrota (1385) by Ferdinand’s illegitimate half-brother, the Grand Master of the religious military Order of Aviz, who succeeded as (1) John I. He was followed by his son (2) Edward and grandson (3) Alfonso V, under whom Edward’s brother Henry the Navigator (1394–1460) sponsored Portuguese maritime expeditions that were to lead to a golden age of exploration and wealth through trade. Alfonso’s son (4) John II continued the attempts to control the spice trade through the discovery of the sea route to the East. In 1471 John married his first cousin, (5) Eleanor of Viseu. After the death of their son Alfonso (...



E. Charles Adams

Site in North America, in north-eastern Arizona. A Hopi village was established there by c. ad 1250 and destroyed in 1700. During excavations (1935–9) by the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, almost 150 wall paintings were discovered in 11 kivas (subterranean ceremonial structures; see Kiva). The wall paintings were first executed c. 1375 using the fresco secco technique and continued up to Spanish contact in the early 17th century. Except for black, inorganic pigments were used, including red, yellow, blue, green, pink, orange, brown, grey and white. Plant, animal and anthropomorphic forms are portrayed, as well as clouds, lightning, water symbols and geometric designs. The subject matter is religious, depicting parts of ceremonies, events and creatures of Hopi oral history, and altars used to perform ceremonies. Later compositions convey a feeling of movement, many showing symbolic combat between two figures. The sudden appearance of elaborate kiva wall paintings seems to coincide with the development of ...