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Ursula Härting

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Amer  

Walter Smith

[Amber]

City in north-west Rajasthan, India, founded by Mina tribesmen in the early 10th century ad and taken by the Kachchhwaha Rajputs c. 1150. Amer is dominated by the palace complex located halfway up a hill crowned by massive fortifications. Below, a maze of buildings constitutes the town. The palace complex was built along a north–south axis over a period of c. 100 years. Raja Man Singh (reg c. 1590–1614) built the original palace at the southernmost end, a central courtyard surrounded by a rectangle of even, uniform structures. Below the palace in a funerary monument are some of the earliest surviving Rajasthani wall paintings. They lack inscriptions but relate formally to late 16th-century miniatures from Mewar and Amer.

Further additions were made to the palace in the 17th and 18th centuries. Two sets of courtyards and structures, showing rich cross-fertilization between the Mughal and Rajput styles, were added along the northern axis by ...

Article

Mechthild Muller

(von)

(b Nuremberg, bapt March 25, 1650; d Munich, Jan 1, 1703).

German engraver and draughtsman. He mainly produced portraits, in the form of engravings, drawings and grisaille miniatures executed with a brush. From 1671 he was copper-engraver to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, who supported him when he undertook further training in Liège under Michel Natalis (1610–68) and in Paris under Nicolas de Poilly. From the latter Amling learnt how to use and arrange line to produce a very wide range of effects; he also picked up the stiff, two-dimensional look of de Poilly’s figures. He must surely have come into contact with Robert Nanteuil in Paris; he shared with him a delight in detail that appears photographic and a veristic style of reproduction.

Amling generally shows his sitters in three-quarter view, following a formulaic composition. Sometimes their features are exaggerated, as for example in the portraits on parchment of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his wife ...

Article

Ana Maria Rybko

(Mercurio)

(b Comunanza, nr Ascoli Piceno, 1660; d Oct 5, 1738).

Italian painter. He received public commissions and painted altarpieces for Roman churches, but he was primarily a genre painter, who specialized in paintings of youths and children. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Ghezzi, in whose workshop in Rome, alongside Pier Leone Ghezzi, he received a traditionally academic training between 1676 and 1687. The earliest work attributed to Amorosi is the signed portrait of a child, Filippo Ricci (c. 1690; New York, Weitzner priv. col., see Battista, 1954, pl. xxxi, fig.), and such portraits became a favourite theme. He collaborated with Pier Leone Ghezzi on the Virgin of Loreto for S Caterina at Comunanza, the confused composition of which, despite its poor conservation, reveals the artist’s immaturity. In 1699 he frescoed the Palazzo Comunale at Civitavecchia with Innocent XII Receiving the City Fathers and, opposite, the Virgin with St Ferma (both untraced), St Ferma being the patron saint of the city. In ...

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Anant  

Philippa Vaughan

(fl 1584–1611).

Indian miniature painter. Trained in the studio of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), he blossomed under Akbar’s successor Jahangir (reg 1605–27). Anant is known through two sole compositions in the Tīmūrnāma (‘History of Timur’; 1584; Bankipur, Patna, Khuda Bakhsh Lib., fols 182r and 206v, and, as colourist, fol. 115v)) and as a colourist in the first Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’; c. 1590; London, V&A, I.S.2. 1896.117) but eventually specialized in allegorical illustrations. The ‛Iyar-i danish (‘Book of fables’; c. 1590–95; Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib.) and Anvār-i Suhaylī (‘Lights of Canopus’; 1596–7; Varanasi, Banaras Hindu U., Bharat Kala Bhavan) were the prelude to his best work in the Anvār-i Suhaylī completed for Jahangir in 1610–11 (London, BL, Or. Add. 18579, fols 6r, 130v, 169r, 197r and 267r). Although he was capable of fine natural history studies, in this manuscript he concentrated on the symbolic function of animals to communicate the moral of the tale. The simple, open compositions reflect the studio style of the early 17th century....

Article

[Fr. Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes]

Name given to a debate that involved both the arts and the sciences, concerning the notion of progressive improvement since Classical antiquity. Reaching its apogee in 17th-century France, it marked a move away from belief in the supreme authority of antique tradition and example, towards a readiness to question and challenge the accepted norms and propose new approaches. The idea that the modern age might surpass the Antique originated with the 15th-century Florentine humanists and was fuelled by the growth of scientific knowledge in the 16th century; but the Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns as such erupted in literary circles in late 17th-century France. It essentially concerned the status of writers of the ancient Greek and Roman world: whether they had reached a state of perfection that could not be bettered, as the so-called ‘Ancients’ believed; or whether, as the ‘Moderns’ asserted, the absolute authority of the Antique was open to challenge from later authors....

Article

Torbjörn Fulton

(b Germany, fl 1620–56; d Mecklenburg).

German stuccoist and sculptor. His few surviving works provide fine examples from a period that is sparsely represented in the history of stucco decoration in parts of middle and northern Europe. Anckerman’s first known work is in Mecklenburg, where he decorated the ceilings in the castles of Dargun (destr.) and Güstrow. In the latter a vast expanse of his relief panels (1620) survives, although some of them are 20th-century free reconstructions. His other identified works are in Sweden, where he worked for several patrons, including Queen Christina. In the 1640s he decorated the funerary chapel of General Herman Wrangel (d 1645) in Skokloster (Uppland) parish church. In this tower-like chapel he provided three stucco wall reliefs: the Battle of Gorzno (1629) (depicting the battle in which the Swedes defeated the Poles), a family tree and a decorative landscape. The Gothic vault is decorated with leaves, entwined along the ribs, a central floral motif and four figures of angels, sculpted in such high relief as to seem almost in the round. In addition there are two life-size figures representing General Wrangel, one reposing on the tomb, the other an equestrian monument set against a wall. None of the stucco is painted or gilded, and the effect of so much decoration in a small room is somewhat overcrowded; however, it succeeds in communicating the patron’s martial pride. Although there is no documentation to support identification of Anckerman as the sculptor of these works, the stylistic similarity to the documented ones in Strängnäs Cathedral strongly suggests such an attribution....

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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

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Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Paris, 1662; d Paris, April 14, 1753).

French ecclesiastic and painter. He entered the Dominican Order at the age of 17. He may have begun his artistic training only in 1687, when he was given leave to travel to Rome; he seems to have spent several years there. According to tradition, it was Carlo Maratti’s painting that most influenced him; however, the classical stylistic elements in André’s paintings would seem to reflect the general influence of contemporary Roman and French art, rather than that of any particular artist. Apart from a few portraits, such as his Self-portrait with Rosary (after 1731; Paris, Louvre), André painted works with an exclusively religious content. Many of his surviving monumental paintings may be seen in churches in Lyon and Bordeaux, as well as in several in Paris, for instance the Supper at Emmaus (1741) in St Nicolas du Chardonnet, St Dominic Expounding the Rules of the Order (1738...

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Elena Parma

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Věra Naňková

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Jan Johnson

(b Mantua, 1558–9; d 1629).

Italian woodcutter and printer. He was the only printmaker to produce a significant number of chiaroscuro woodcuts in Italy in the second half of the 16th century; he also reprinted chiaroscuro woodblocks originally cut 60 or 70 years earlier. He made at least 35 prints in both black and white and colour (many multiple-sheet), using a sophisticated style of cutting characterized by thin, closed contours. Based in Florence in 1584–5 and from 1586 in Siena, by 1590 he was also finding work in his native Mantua, where he is documented as establishing a workshop. He reproduced the designs of artists in diverse media with great fidelity: for example he made several prints (1586–90) after Domenico Beccafumi’s intarsia pavement designs in Siena Cathedral, three prints (1584) from different angles of Giambologna’s marble sculpture of the Rape of the Sabines (Florence, Loggia dei Lanzi; see fig.), as well as of the bas-relief on the base of the same group and of Giambologna’s relief of ...

Article

Richard Harprath

(b Mantua, 1548; d Mantua, 4–5 June 1608).

Italian painter and draughtsman. A leading exponent of late Mannerism at the Gonzaga court in Mantua, he probably trained there with an associate of Giulio Romano. About 80 drawings of the Palazzo del Te and the Palazzo Ducale, Mantua (Düsseldorf, Kstmus.), were commissioned from Andreasi c. 1568 by Jacopo Strada. In 1574 Andreasi collaborated on the design of a series of tapestries of the Acts of Moses for Milan Cathedral. He is documented in 1579–80 collaborating on decorations in the Palazzo Ducale for Guglielmo Gonzaga, 3rd Duke of Mantua, where he painted the ceiling of the Duke’s studiolo, the vault of the Sala Nuova and, c. 1581, the ceiling frescoes in the Sala del Falconi (preparatory study; London, BM). Documents indicate that in 1586–7 Andreasi collaborated on the decoration of the castle of Goito (destr.). As early as August 1590 he was Prefetto delle Fabbriche (Head of Works) for the ...

Article

Lucia Battista

(b Florence, 1650; d Florence, 1729).

Italian abbot, writer and collector. The son of Girolamo Andreini and Maria Bussini, in 1670 he married Isabella Marsuppini, who bore him two daughters. Widowed at an early age, he devoted his time to his studies, becoming a connoisseur of antique objets d’art. He was frequently consulted by famous collectors and erudites, including Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici, who often approached him for valuations of coins and gemstones. From 1674 to 1687 he lived in Naples as the Consul to the Florentine Nation. Subsequently he moved to Venice and then to Rome, returning eventually to Florence. He was a friend to such important figures as Queen Christina of Sweden, Filippo Buonarroti, Antonio Francesco Gori and Antonimo Magliabechiano. He was also interested in matters of chivalry, which forms the subject-matter of many of his surviving writings. A dedicated collector, he gathered Etruscan and Roman archaeological finds, including ancient funerary inscriptions, bronzes, coins, gems and sculptures, enjoying to the full the contemporary fashion for the study of antiquity. Alongside such artefacts, he also acquired several paintings by ...

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Christopher Tadgell

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Article

Blanca García Vega

(fl 1588–1617).

Spanish engraver and etcher. Although he lived in Oropesa until 1598, completing woodcuts for Alonso Villegas’s Flos sanctorum … (Madrid, 1588), Angel had already established contacts in Toledo. There he joined the Cofradía del Santísimo Sacramento in 1590 and finally settled in the city in 1598. In Toledo he gained a reputation among the humanist circles; in addition to Villegas, such writers as Juan de Narbona and Jerónimo Ceballos commissioned engraved portraits to accompany their books. The accomplished strength and presence he achieved is evident in such works as the oval portrait of Cardinal Tavera, which appeared in Pedro Salazar de Mendoza’s Chronica del Cardenal Juan de Tavera (Toledo, 1603). Angel’s last known engraving is dated 1617.

A. M. de Barcia: Catálogo de los retratos de personajes españoles que se conservan en la Sección de Estampas de Bellas Artes de la Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid, 1901) J. Ainaud de Lasarte...

Article

(b Middelburg, bapt Sept 14, 1616; d after Oct 22, 1683).

Dutch painter. His life and works were only brought to light comparatively recently. Bol convincingly distinguished him from his famous namesake from Leiden who was probably his cousin (see Angel, Philips). Angel joined the Guild of St Luke in Haarlem in 1639 and was appointed its secretary in 1643. He later returned to Middelburg, where he worked from 1662 to 1683. At present some 30 paintings are attributed to him, some with dates between 1642 and 1664 or 1668 (Segal). His works are divided into three main groups: barn interiors with emphasis on the still-life element; still-lifes with food, dishes and kitchen-objects sometimes known as ontbijtjes (Dut.: breakfast-pieces); and still-lifes with dead fowl. The former two groups bear close resemblance to the works of François Rijkhals (1600–47), who may have been Angel’s teacher in Middelburg. As regards his modest breakfast-pieces, however, the influence of the still-lifes of Haarlem painters such as Floris van Dyck can also be detected in his tendency to build compositions from individually studied components and in the rendering of various details. Angel’s best works belong to the third category (e.g. ...

Article

Tatsushi Takahashi

(b Leiden, c. 1618; d ?Batavia [Jakarta] after July 11, 1664).

Dutch writer, painter and etcher. He is now known chiefly as the author of Lof der schilder-konst (Dut.: Praise of painting). Originally a lecture given to Leiden artists on 18 October 1641, St Luke’s Day, it was published the following year. At present virtually no works of art are attributed to this Philips Angel except the etching Head of an Old Man (1637), a rather coarse imitation of Rembrandt. Although nothing is known about his training, this etching and certain ideas within Lof der schilder-konst suggest that Angel had been in contact with Rembrandt shortly before becoming a master painter in Leiden in 1638. The first half of this small book enumerates the most famous painters from antiquity to Angel’s contemporaries and makes the traditional comparisons between painting, sculpture and poetry. The second half discusses the skills necessary for a good painter. The latter section is more original as the author occasionally refers to such new genres as seascapes, battle scenes and guardroom scenes. His interest in the exact depiction of appearances has a close relation to the extremely minute renderings for which Gerrit Dou and other Leiden painters became famous....

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Camillo Semenzato

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Donatella L. Sparti

(b Terni, after 1559; d Rome, ?Nov 29, 1652).

Italian writer, historian and collector. He produced about 38 novels and several comedies, although his literary works have been little studied. In Perugia he was a member of the Accademia degli Insensati, under the name Tenebroso. He is documented as having been in Rome in the late 16th century as secretary to Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini (later Pope Clement VIII) and chief Apostolic Notary. At his home on the Pincio hill he accumulated a substantial collection, containing scientific instruments, examples of flora and fauna, a picture gallery, a large collection of Kleinkunst, medals, and a vast assortment of drawings by contemporary artists especially Annibale Carracci. The collection was accompanied by a rich library. The organization and contents of the collection are described by Angeloni himself in a manuscript in Venice (Fletcher, 1974). From 1634 his nephew Giovanni Pietro Bellori lived in the house; Angeloni educated him in art, literature and antiquities, and introduced him into the circle of classicist artists with whom he had formed a relationship, more in the role of erudite mentor than that of patron....