People who inhabited coastal Syria, Lebanon and Palestine between c. 3000
Rupert L. Chapman
People who inhabited coastal Syria, Lebanon and Palestine between c. 3000
Pre-Columbian culture and ceramic assemblage found in Mexico. It is named after the
Capacha ceramics from Colima and part of Jalisco and the site of El Opeño in Michoacán, which flourished during the Early Pre-Classic period (c. 2000–c. 1000
The Capacha ceramic assemblage, radiocarbon dated to c. 1350
J. D. Hawkins
[Lat. Europus; now Jerabis, Jerablus]
Site in Turkey on the west bank of the River Euphrates, now on the Turkish-Syrian border. This ancient city is extensively attested in cuneiform records from the mid-3rd to mid-1st millennia
Carchemish has produced evidence of occupation stretching back to the Chalcolithic period (c. 5300
Ancient country in south-west Asia Minor (now Turkey), south of the Maeander (Menderes) River and west of modern Fethiye (excepting the coastal cities of Ionia). The Carians claimed to be an indigenous people of mainland Asia Minor, though in Greek tradition they were originally islanders. Until the 4th century
Minoan, Mycenaean and Greek colonization of the region touched only the coasts, leaving the interior Carian until the arrival of the Romans. At Muskebi, near Halikarnassos (Bodrum), there is evidence of Mycenaean settlement, possibly refugees from the upheavals of the Greek mainland at the end of the Bronze Age; Minoan imports found at ...
P. R. Giot
Region of north-west France, centre of the principal concentration of prehistoric megalithic monuments (see Megalithic architecture, §2) in Brittany. Situated south-west of Vannes, the area includes the parishes of Carnac and Locmariaquer, extending to Quiberon. The monuments include more than a hundred passage graves (dolmens) and many standing stones (menhirs) arranged singly or in groups including large alignments (see also Dolmen and Menhir). Curiously, these numerous and often huge stones did not attract the attention of scholars before the 18th century.
The typical large alignments, three of which are at Carnac and another at Erdeven, have one or two oval structures of contiguous stones at each end. Between these, ten to twelve apparently parallel lines of more or less equally spaced stones extend over a distance that can exceed a kilometre (see fig.). In reality, these lines are irregular and undulating, and the structures are very ruined; some stones are missing, while others have been restored. The stones decrease in size from the ends of the alignments towards their centres. Neolithic-period material, including flints, stone axes and pottery, has been found in the packing around their bases. The blocks are of local granite; a few are quite large and heavy. Wild speculations concerning their alignments’ ritual or symbolic significance have flourished, particularly in the 19th century, when the first theories about astral worship and astronomical use originated. The alignments differ in orientation, however, and there is no scientifically conclusive evidence to support even the most recent hypotheses, although some large isolated menhirs could have served as foresights for solar or lunar observation....
A. F. Harding
Site of an Early Bronze Age settlement and cemetery in south-east Sicily, near the modern village of the same name some 25 km inland from Noto, and the typesite of the Castelluccio culture. The remains of a prehistoric settlement with rich rubbish pits was found on a high spur of land running north–south. Cut into the nearby hillsides are numerous rock-cut tombs, often less than 1 m in diameter, some of which have a small antechamber. In some cases the façades have pillars carved out of the rock flanking the doors. The doorways were closed with dry-stone walling or stone slabs, some of the latter being decorated with relief designs, mainly spirals. These represent the only stone-carving known from Bronze Age Sicily and are reminiscent of the rather earlier relief slabs found in Maltese temples. Cemeteries with tombs of this type are found over much of south-eastern Sicily, and in some cases there are settlement sites near by. Less elaborate rock-cut tombs of the same age are found also in central-southern Sicily....
Paul G. Bahn
Cave site in northern Spain, near the village of Puente Viesgo, Santander. It is the most important of several caves in the hill of Monte Castillo that contain cave art of the Upper Palaeolithic period (c. 40,000–c.10,000
Although only c. 164 m in length, the cave contains c. 1 km of galleries. These can be divided into two main parts: the first comprises a large initial chamber (the ‘Gran Sala’), measuring 30×25 m, and its side passages, and the second a series of corridors and galleries. These two parts are separated by an enormous mass of large blocks, which in prehistoric times left only two narrow connecting passages. Since the deposits at the cave entrance span the entire Palaeolithic period, with the earliest occupation levels dating back at least 100,000 years, some scholars believe that the art is quite heterogeneous, belonging to a number of different phases and thus defining El Castillo as a ‘multiple sanctuary’. Proponents of this theory have distributed the attribution of the 155 animal figures in the cave across all the cultures from the Aurignacian to the Upper Magdalenian. The French scholar ...
Donald F. Easton
Neolithic site (7th–6th millennia
Site of prehistoric cemetery of the late 6th–early 5th millennium
Pre-Columbian site near Casma, Ancash Department, on the northern coast of Peru. The site, known especially for its clay and stone reliefs, dates from the late Pre-Ceramic period (c. 2500–c. 1800
First excavated by Julio C. Tello in 1937, Cerro Sechín was re-excavated and partially reconstructed by Arthur Jiménez Borja, Lorenzo Samaniego, and Alberto Bueno between 1969–74. Further investigations were carried out from 1979–85 by the Catholic University of Peru. Most of the carvings remain in situ, although some were removed to the Museo Nacional de Antropología y Arqueología, Lima, and a few others were stolen. The ...
Site in north-east Syria occupied intermittently from the 6th millennium
A sounding over 15 m deep showed that early occupation was mainly in the Halaf period, from the later 6th millennium
David C. Grove
site in the Central Highlands of Mexico, c. 100 km south of modern Mexico City. A major centre, it was occupied during the Early and Middle Pre-Classic periods, between c. 1400
Chalcatzingo was established in the centre of the Amatzinac Valley between two large hills that dominate the valley floor, the Cerro Chalcatzingo and the Cerro Delgado. The slopes, first occupied c. 1400
Gregory L. Possehl
Ancient site of the Indus or Harappan civilization (c. 2550–2000
Pre-Columbian artistic and cultural tradition of the Central Andean area of South America. It is named after the site of Chavín de Huántar, and it flourished during the later part of the Initial Period (c. 1800–900
The stone sculpture and architecture at Chavín de Huántar first attracted scientific attention in the late 19th century. In 1939 the Peruvian archaeologist Julio C. Tello presented his evidence that the Chavín culture formed the basis of Pre-Columbian civilization in Peru, a view that was soon generally accepted. Although many achievements have been attributed to Chavín, its diagnostic features remain the style and iconography of the stone-carvings found at the ruins at Chavín de Huántar. However, it is no longer thought that this site itself was the source of all related phenomena.
Archaeological finds with Chavín features occur over a range of ...
J. Edward Kidder jr
Japanese site in Shinbohon-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture. It flourished during the Jōmon period (c. 10,000–c. 300
The Chikamori site lies on a plain near the Tedori River, 7 m above sea-level and 4.5 km south-west of the Kanazawa railway station. Other Middle (c. 3500–c. 2500
Prehistoric site now in Iraq, on the eastern edge of the alluvial plain north-east of Baghdad, beneath the Zagros foothills. It was excavated by David and Joan Oates (1967–8); finds are in the Iraq Museum, Baghdad, with study collections in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Choga Mami is noted for the earliest evidence of irrigation agriculture, the discovery of a new ceramic style, termed Transitional, between Samarran (second half of the 6th millennium
Helene J. Kantor
[Pers. Chughā Mīsh]
Site near modern Dezful in south-west Iran, in the ancient province of Susiana. Chogha Mish, which developed from a small village into a large settlement of some 16 ha in the 5th millennium BC (see Iran, ancient, especially §I, 2(i)(c)), was occupied from c. 6000
The excavations at Chogha Mish have added an Archaic Susiana stage to the known prehistoric sequence for the province; it can be divided into three phases by distinctive styles of painted ...
[Pers. Chughā Zanbīl; anc. Dur-Untash]
City built by the Elamites in the second half of the 14th century
The city, built by Untash-Napirisha, King of Anzan and of Susa (i.e. King of Elam), consisted of three concentric enclosures. The main temple stood at the centre, in the ‘sacred enclosure’ (sian-kuk; 210×175 m). This temple was built in two stages and was initially a square building with a central courtyard, the design of which was not specifically religious; it more closely resembled a large storehouse, with windowless rooms on either side of the door in the middle of each wall. Two groups of rooms were sanctuaries dedicated to Inshushinak, the supreme god of Susa; one sanctuary opened on to the inner courtyard and one towards the outside. Later, three blocks fitting one into the other were erected in the courtyard; they formed the upper storeys of a tower or ziggurat, with the original building forming the lower storey (...
Site of a city that flourished in the first half of the 3rd millennium
Tell Chuera is one of the largest ruin mounds in the Jezira. It is almost circular, with a diameter of about 1 km, and it consists of a central citadel mound up to 18 m high and a lower town surrounded by a wall. To the south-east, outside the walls, are a cult building known as the ...
A. F. Harding
Site of a large Bronze Age cremation cemetery beside a lake in the Danube flood plain in southern Oltenia, south-west Romania. The site and its art have been difficult to date precisely. A date between 1500 and 1300
More than 500 vases were found in the cemetery. The main forms are: urns with a conical body and a cylindrical or flaring neck; storeyed vases, in which the body is composed of two sections or steps; biconical vases with two high handles; conical bowls, usually carinated, often with ‘peaks’ or points on the rim; and a variety of small one-handled cups and jugs, spouted vessels, double vessels etc. Nine figurines, ranging in height from 150 to 230 mm, were found in the urns or on their ‘shoulders’. They are highly stylized, the upper part of the body consisting of a more or less flat circular clay disc with a knob-like projection for the neck, joined to a hollow bell-like base apparently representing a flounced skirt. A few examples have a slot in the neck for the addition of a head-piece, though no such heads were found. On some pieces, the arms are represented folded on the chest, and though there is no clear indication of sex, the overall impression conveyed is female. The decoration includes depictions of objects probably worn by women at the time—belts, necklaces, discs, lunate pendants and so on. Some of the designs may represent woven textile motifs....