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Veronika Braunfels

(b Leipzig, Feb 27, 1786; d Berlin, June 5, 1870).

German woodcutter, draughtsman, writer and publisher. He was taught the technique of woodcutting by his father, Johann Christoph Gubitz (1754–1826), and first exhibited prints in 1800 at an exhibition of the Akademie der Künste in Berlin. He became a member of the Akademie in 1805 and succeeded Johann Friedrich Gottlieb Unger (1753–1804) as a teacher of woodcutting and block-cutting, becoming Professor in 1812. He published several periodicals, including Der Gesellschafter (1817–1848), Das Jahrbuch der deutschen Bühnenspiele (1822–65) and the Deutscher Volkskalender (1835–69). He produced many commissioned pieces for these journals and did numerous woodcuts. Until 1829 he principally used the grain from the length of the block to produce designs in the manner of Thomas Bewick’s wood-engravings. Many of his early woodcuts look like copper engravings. From 1829 he preferred the grain from the end of the block. He also printed coloured woodcuts: one of his best-known is the portrait of ...

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Sarah Medlam

(fl 1839; d Paris, c. 1889).

French publisher and furniture designer. He was an important disseminator of historical and contemporary designs in 19th-century France. After 1839 he published a constant stream of lithograph designs for furniture, both his own designs and illustrations of the products of commercial firms, which provide an important source for the study of furniture of the period. His chief work was the journal Le Garde-meuble ancien et moderne, which he edited from 1844 to 1882. After 1846 he also published a supplement, L’Ameublement et l’utilité, which soon merged with the parent publication: lithographic designs of seat furniture, case furniture and hangings were reproduced, aimed at both tradesmen and clients. The plates also include general views of interiors and plans of furniture layouts, which give a comprehensive view of the development of styles. Guilmard produced albums recording the furniture shown at the Expositions Universelles of 1844, 1849 and 1855 in Paris and a long series of albums showing designs for particular types of furniture, woodwork fittings or upholstery. He was an important figure in the developing study of historical ornament and design: as early as ...

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Maxime Préaud

(b Paris, c. 1650; d Paris, c. 1715).

French engraver, draughtsman and print publisher. The first prints he executed were vignettes for L’Esope du temps by M. L. S. Desmay, published in 1677. His last piece was a portrait of Thomas (Old) Parr, engraved in 1715. Habert was an engraver of average talent who produced almost exclusively portraits, mostly after painters, such as Philippe de Champaigne, Charles Le Brun, Nicolas de Largillierre, Pierre Mignard and Hyacinthe Rigaud; he did, however, occasionally execute portraits from his own drawings from life, such as Elisabeth-Charlotte d’Orléans, Duchesse de Guise (1678; see Weigert, no. 109). In all, he engraved nearly 200 pieces. His wife, Madeleine Masson (c. 1646–1713), was herself an engraver; she was the sister or some other relation of Antoine Masson, whom Habert greatly admired, and who published some of his portraits. Habert also engaged in publishing, but he seems to have published mainly his own works....

Article

Ebba Krull

German family of artists and print publishers. Johann Jakob Haid (b Kleineislingen, ?23 Jan or 10 Feb 1704; d Augsburg, bur 9 Dec 1767) worked initially with the animal painter Johann Elias Ridinger. He then founded a publishing house in Augsburg and became known primarily for the series of large mezzotint portraits after his own and other artists’ drawings. Johann Elias Haid (b Augsburg, 1737; d Augsburg, bur 5 Feb 1809) was the son and pupil of Johann Jakob Haid; he was artistically more important than his father, whose publishing house he continued. Among the important works published by the firm were the 132 coloured engravings in Britische Tiergeschichten (Augsburg, 1782), the German translation of Thomas Pennant’s British Zoology (London, 1768–70), as well as numerous engravings after famous European painters. He was also Protestant Director of the Reichsstädtische Kunstakademie in Augsburg from 1788 to 1809...

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J. M. Richards

(b London, July 18, 1902; d Bedham, Surrey, Oct 20, 1986).

English architectural editor, publisher and writer. He studied architecture at the Bartlett School, University of London, and art at the Slade School, London, and in 1926 he joined the Architectural Press, of which his father was proprietor. In 1927–32 and 1935–7 he was editor of the Architectural Review, transforming it from a staid, academic magazine to one notable for its adventurous policies and original use of photographs and typography, which strongly influenced English magazine production. He was also editor of the Architects’ Journal (1932–7) and a founder-member of the English modern architecture MARS Group (1933). In 1937 he left London for Sussex, where he farmed, but he remained chairman of the Architectural Press until his retirement in 1973 and retained a dominating influence over the conduct and policies of the company’s publications. His special interests were planning and land use, about which he promoted influential features in the ...

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Christiaan Schuckman

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Maxime Préaud

(b Nancy, c. 1590; bur Paris, April 25, 1661).

French painter, etcher, draughtsman and print-publisher. He was the son of Claude Henriet II (c. 1540–1603/4), court painter to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine. Henriet, like his compatriot and friend Jacques Callot, travelled to Italy, where he studied engraving (1618–21) in Rome, in the studio of Antonio Tempesta. However, he did very little printmaking and only some 20 etchings inspired by Callot are, with reservations, attributed to him; he nevertheless distinguished himself through the quality of his pen-and-ink drawings, and Louis XIII himself is said to have asked him to teach him drawing. However, once Henriet had settled in Paris (1622), his chief activity became the publication of prints.

The success of Henriet’s business ‘in the Rue de l’Arbre Sec, near the Croix du Trahoir, at the abode of Monsieur le Mercier, the Queen’s goldsmith’, was principally due to Jacques Callot, whose sole publisher he was. Henriet also commissioned work from ...

Article

Elisabeth Gurock

(b Strasbourg, 1573; d Brussels, 1645).

Flemish engraver, print publisher, sculptor and painter. His father, Jan van der Heyden (fl 1590; d before 1645), was a painter from Mechelen who left to settle in Strasbourg because of religious turmoil. Jacob trained in Brussels with Raphael Coxie (1540–1616), who was also from Mechelen; it seems probable, however, that Jacob continued to make his home in Strasbourg until 1635, subsequently moving to Brussels, where he worked until his death.

Van der Heyden’s extensive artistic activity extended over several genres. Among his documented paintings and sculptures were a painting of the Adoration of the Magi, listed in a Strasbourg catalogue of 1668, a Portrait of a Man with the Neck-chain of an Order (ex-Hollandt Col., Brunswick), and a gilt-bronze sculpture of Venus (all untraced). His principal work, however, lay in the domain of engraving and publishing. At the time when he founded his own publishing house, Strasbourg was a flourishing centre of graphic production. He published prints by numerous artists, including ...

Article

(b Gräfentonna, Thuringia, July 13, 1841; d Tegernsee, Bavaria, March 28, 1916).

German writer, publisher and editor. In 1875 he co-founded the publishing company Knorr & Hirth based in Munich. Werke unserer Väter, an exhibition of German Renaissance arts and crafts held in Munich in 1876, stimulated his interest in art, and in that year he began to edit and publish a series of handsomely produced art books and prints in affordable editions. In 1881 he took over the printing of the Münchner neuesten Nachrichten, developing it into one of Germany’s leading daily newspapers. He himself wrote on a wide range of issues. In Ideen über Zeichenunterricht und künstlerische Berufsbildung (1887), for example, he advocated a democratizing reform of the teaching of art; in Das plastische Sehen als Rindenzwang (1892) he took issue with the optical theories of Hermann von Helmholtz by propagating the idea that the optical function was physiologically inborn. Although he initially favoured German Gothic and early Renaissance art, by the 1890s he had become interested in contemporary art. In ...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

[de Hondt]

Dutch family of printmakers and publishers of Flemish descent. There has been much confusion between this family, which was active in Amsterdam, and the Hondius family family, who were printmakers and publishers in The Hague. The principal member of the Hondius (i) family was (1) Jodocus Hondius I, whose sister Jacomina (1558–1628) was a minor engraver. Jodocus I established a family print publishing business, which after his death was carried on by his two sons, Jodocus Hondius II (b Amsterdam, bapt 9 Nov 1593; d Amsterdam, bur 15 Aug 1629) and (2) Hendrik Hondius ‘II’, who is traditionally given an epithet of generation to distinguish him from the engraver and publisher Hendrik I Hondius (ii) of The Hague. The epithet ‘II’ is both confusing and incorrect, since no direct relationship between the families, although likely, has yet been established. The matter is further complicated by the fact that Hendrik I Hondius (ii) had a son, likewise called Hendrik, who was also a print publisher, though apparently less active than either his father or (2) Hendrik ‘II’ of Amsterdam....

Article

Valerie Holman

(b Budapest, April 18, 1898; d New York, March 8, 1955).

Austrian publisher, active in England; he acquired British nationality in 1946. He founded Phaidon Verlag with Ludwig Goldscheider in Vienna in 1923 and initially published bibliophile editions of literature with great attention to good design. This was followed by literary masterpieces and contemporary criticism, and in 1930 the firm began publishing classics of writing on history in large, well-illustrated and inexpensive editions. Historical biographies followed, and among them the first three of the many that Phaidon devoted to great artists: Leben Michaelangelos and Velázquez und sein Jahrhundert (both London, 1933) and Raphael (London, 1941, 2/?1948). In 1933 Phaidon published their first large-format monographs in several different language editions, on Van Gogh (Vienna and London, 1936), the Impressionists (Vienna, 1937) and Botticelli (Vienna, 1937), which established the firm’s reputation for high quality reproduction and an international outlook. On the annexation of Austria in 1938 Sir ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Bloomington, IL, June 19, 1856; d SS Lusitania, off Co. Cork, May 7, 1915).

American designer. He was initially a successful salesman for the Illinois-based Weller’s Practical Soaps. He settled in East Aurora, near Buffalo, NY, and abandoned selling soap in 1893. During a trip to England the following year, he met William Morris and admired the works of his Kelmscott Press. On returning to East Aurora, Hubbard employed his great showmanship to popularize a simplified version of English Arts and Crafts design for a wide audience. With the help of a local press, he began publishing monthly biographies, Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great (1895–1909), the first two of which treat the lives of George Eliot and John Ruskin. Soon after, he founded the Roycroft Press with the publication of The Philistine (1895–1915), a monthly journal combining popular philosophy, aphorisms and brief preachments with crude Art Nouveau lettering and ornament. The Song of Songs (1895), printed on handmade paper with rough and arty bindings, was the first of many Roycroft books. The press became the centre of the ...

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Linda Whiteley

(fl Paris, 1824; d 1834). French dealer and print-publisher. It has been suggested that she might be identified with a certain Madame Hulin who in January 1816 wrote to the British ambassador in Paris requesting permission for her husband to live in London (Pointon, p. 51). Her interest in the French school of young Romantic artists that developed partly under the influence of English art and literature, as well as the fact that she was co-publisher, with S. J. Fuller of London and several French colleagues, of La Petite Normandie, a set of ten lithographs by the English artist Richard Parkes Bonington, make it plausible that she had at least some connection with England. From 1824 to 1834 she managed a shop at 21 Rue de la Paix, Paris, and her stock catered to those buyers with a taste for the Antique and the Picturesque, exemplified by Baron Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s multi-volumed topographical architectural survey ...

Article

Madeleine Barbin

(b Orléans, May 7, 1695; d Paris, June 11, 1772).

French collector, engraver, print-publisher and print-seller. He was probably led to study engraving by his taste for collecting prints and drawings. He made no innovations in the engraving process, but used etching lightly reworked with the burin, a method suited to reproducing the sort of drawings that he usually chose as models, most of them coming from his own collection.

Huquier’s engravings are mostly of work by contemporaries, sometimes in the form of single engravings, but mostly in books of six, twelve, or sometimes more plates. They are rarely dated. He began by reproducing the works of Claude Gillot, including La Vie de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ (Bruand, Hébert and Sjöberg, nos 695–754) and Scènes comiques du Théatre italien (c. 1729–32; bhs 755–66). Among other works by Antoine Watteau, he engraved 12 arabesques (bhs 1711–44) for the Recueil Jullienne. He also engraved Edme Bouchardon’s Livre de vases...

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Scholarly organization in New York dedicated to the promotion and study of medieval art. In 1956 the International Center of Romanesque Art (ICRA) was founded in New York as the US committee of the Centre international d’Etudes romanes (CIER). Renamed in 1966 as the International Center of Medieval Art (ICMA), it has been headquartered at The Cloisters in New York City since 1969. From its early focus on French Romanesque art, ICMA has evolved into an important scholarly association advocating and promoting the study of European art, including the Mediterranean and Slavic regions, from c. ad 300 to c. 1500.

ICMA publishes Gesta, a biannual and the only journal in English dedicated to medieval art; a newsletter (three times a year), a series of censuses of medieval sculpture in American public collections and other monographs on medieval titles. Since 1998 ICMA has maintained an active website offering digital resources (e.g. International Census of Doctoral Dissertations in Medieval Art, ...

Article

Aída Sierra Torres

(b Mexico City, ?1820; d Mexico City, 1897).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. He probably began his career in 1847 in the workshop of the Murguía publishing house. In 1854, in collaboration with Andrés Campillo, he created an outstanding series of illustrations for the book Los mexicanos pintados por sí mismos, in which he portrayed character types (e.g. Great Poet, lithograph) in the manner of Honoré Daumier. In 1855 he founded the firm Litografía de Iriarte y Compañía. The following year he published portraits of famous personalities in the weekly review El Panorama. He was a co-founder in 1861 of the political fortnightly La Orquesta, on which he worked for more than ten years as an illustrator and eventually as a caricaturist and as editor. Iriarte continued to contribute to a number of periodicals, including El Renacimiento, and his firm also published the weekly San Baltazar (1869–70). He collaborated with Santiago Hernández on numerous illustrations for, among others, ...

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Laura Suffield

(b Sommevoire, Marne, c. 1420; d Venice, after Sept 7, 1480).

French printer and publisher. Having served his apprenticeship at the Royal Mint in Paris, he was promoted to the position of Master of the Mint at Tours. He may have been sent to Mainz in 1458 by Charles VII, King of France, to learn printing. By 1470 he was an established publisher in Venice, producing four editions in that year including Cicero’s Epistolae ad atticum and Rhetorica novus et vetus. In 1471 he printed eighteen editions and in 1472 ten. In 1473 he formed an association with Jacques Le Rouge of Chablis, who started to print using Jenson’s type in late 1473. In 1474 he fought off strong German competition by entering into partnership with two German entrepreneurs, Johannes Rauchfas and Peter Ugelheimer, both of Frankfurt am Main. They formed the company ‘Nicolaus Jenson et socii’, which probably lasted until 1480. Of the 98 books attributed to Jenson, 29 are religious, 24 are Classical texts and at least 10 are on medical subjects. He achieved a pre-eminent position in Venetian publishing. In ...

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Christiaan Schuckman

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Isabelle Monod-Fontaine

(b Mannheim, June 25, 1884; d Paris, Jan 11, 1979).

German art dealer, publisher, and writer, active in France. In 1902 he left the Jewish community of Mannheim for Paris, where he assiduously visited museums, galleries, and salons, while training for a career as a banker or stockbroker. In spring 1907 he obtained sufficient funds from his family to launch the tiny Galerie Kahnweiler at 28, Rue Vignon. That year he purchased works at the Salon des Indépendants and at the Salon d’Automne (by Kees van Dongen, Matisse, Derain, and Braque), and in the same year he met Picasso and visited his studio in the Bateau-Lavoir. There he saw the recently completed Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907; New York, MOMA). The visit was decisive. Kahnweiler immediately supported Picasso and also Braque, whose exhibition of November 1908, one of Kahnweiler’s rare one-man shows before World War I, prompted the coining of the term Cubism. Kahnweiler proved instrumental in promoting the style, numbering among his few faithful clients ...