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Rory Spence

(b Newcastle, NSW, Aug 8, 1945).

Australian architect. He graduated from the University of Melbourne (1970) and worked for Daryl Jackson Evan Walker Architects before starting his own practice in 1972. Burgess’s architecture, inspired by esoteric literature, particularly Asian writings, and by the ideas of Rudolf Steiner, was concerned with human responses to form and space, the expansion of human consciousness and encouraging a sense of spiritual wholeness. He was also influenced by the Melbourne tradition of improvisatory ‘bush’ architecture and perhaps by the geometrical plans of such architects as Roy Grounds in the 1950s. Burgess’s buildings generally have strong, complex geometries, often combined with more intuitive organic forms, conveying a sense of spiritual struggle in a contradictory modern world. He designed many houses, often largely in timber, for example the Hackford House (1981), Traralgon, Victoria, with a central stair tower that symbolically links earth and sky. His many public commissions included several school buildings; the church of St Michael and St John (...


William Main


(b England, 1834; d Dunedin, 1914).

New Zealand photographer. At the age of 34 he travelled to join his younger brother, Walter Burton, who had established a photographic business in Dunedin, New Zealand. Under the name of Burton Bros. they practised photography together until their partnership was dissolved by mutual consent in 1876. Alfred continued to trade under the firm’s name until 1898, at which point he sold his remaining interests to two former associates, Muir and Moodie. A great deal of anecdotal information about his life can be found in the self-promoting articles that he supplied to various Dunedin newspapers and publications. He is remembered above all for his trip up the Wanganui River in April and May in 1885. This North Island river gave access to the hinterland known as the King Country, a place where Maori tribes had retreated after the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s. Photographing as he went, Burton documented the villages and people of the area in 250 plates. These images are among the most important social documents on Maori life to have survived from this period. Burton marketed his views in albums, which he called ...


John Maidment

(b Pensford, Somerset, Mar 24, 1864; d Toorak, Victoria, May 31, 1949).

Australian architect of English birth. Articled in Barnstaple to Alexander Lauder (1880–84), Butler moved to J. D. Sedding’s office in London in 1885, also travelling and sketching widely in Britain and Europe. In 1888 Butler emigrated to Melbourne, initially in partnership with Beverley Ussher (1868–1908) from 1889–95 and successively George Inskip (fl 1879–1913) from 1896–1905, Ernest R. Bradshaw from 1907–16, his nephew Richard Butler from 1916–36, Marcus Martin from 1926–31 and Hugh Pettit from 1926–39. He was the most important direct link with the English Arts and Crafts movement at the time of his arrival and he soon secured many domestic commissions for wealthy clients, which comprise the major portion of his work. Notable elements of his work include prominent Dutch gables and half-timbered gables, sweeping parapets, the widespread adoption of bay windows, the use of rough cast and brick and also sweeping rooflines in Marseilles tiles; some of the plans were unconventional, with diagonally-placed wings. Later, Butler occasionally moved to a refined classicism and had a long interest in the art of landscape design and urban planning. His ‘Melbourne Mansions’ (...


Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...


Robert Smith


(b Guernsey, Channel Islands, Feb 28, 1837; d Melbourne, Feb 13, 1918).

Australian photographer of Guernsey birth. After his arrival in South Australia c. 1858, he pursued his interest in photography while working as a hairdresser, becoming a professional photographer in Adelaide in 1867. Economic recession led him to move in 1870 to the neighbouring colony of Victoria, where he worked as hairdresser and photographer in the goldfields settlement of Talbot. By 1871 he was able to open a studio in the larger town of Bendigo, achieving commercial success with carte-de-visite portraits and local views. He had an interest in art, having tried his hand at painting, and became a precursor of Pictorial photography, converting the formally posed group portrait into the conversation piece and producing landscape scenes with human interest genre subjects and picturesque effects to meet a growing nationalistic demand.

To take advantage of his increasing success Caire moved to Melbourne in 1876 to exploit its rapid urban growth as subject-matter, and to use it as a base for forays into the countryside, seeking novel or spectacular subjects. Expansion of the railway system and his adoption of the dry plate process gave him greater mobility, and he was able to photograph increasingly remote localities, culminating in an expedition to Mt Buffalo, in ...


Peter Richardson

(b Glasgow, July 4, 1857; d Wellington, New Zealand, August 4, 1942).

New Zealand architect of Scottish birth. He served his articles in Glasgow under John Gordon (1835–1912) and arrived in New Zealand in 1882. Although he worked briefly as a draughtsman for the firm of Mason and Wales, almost his entire career was spent working for the Public Works Department, to which he was first appointed in 1883. He was promoted to draughtsman in charge of the design of government buildings in New Zealand in 1888 and held the newly created title of Government Architect in 1909, retiring in 1922. His early buildings were generally designed in the Queen Anne style, often incorporating Baroque elements; examples include his additions to the Government Printing Office (1894–6; destr.), Wellington, and his Police Station (1895–9) in Dunedin, modelled on New Scotland Yard, London. He later designed the Dunedin Law Courts (1899–1902) in Gothic Revival style with a Scottish Baronial inflection. In the early part of the 20th century Campbell established Edwardian ...


David O’Halloran

(b Northern Ireland,1961).

Australian painter. Campbell fostered his interest in art at Footscray Technical College in 1979, before attending RMIT, where he completed a BA in Fine Art in 1982. He subsequently completed a Graduate Diploma in Painting at the Victorian College of the Arts in 1985. When Campbell commenced art school in 1980, new wave and punk were loud energetic subcultures in rock music. Punk music provided a sense that anyone could play, as a lack of technical skill did not preclude participation. Iconography from popular music appears throughout Campbell’s painting career, as does the ethos of a DIY suburban expression derived from rock and roll.

The history of pop is one that spans generations and Jon Campbell has a place among the particular history of Australian pop that includes John Brack, Colin Lancley Robert Rooney and Reg Mombassa. American painters such as Willard Midgette and Alex Katz, as well as British pop painter Peter Blake, were important influences on Campbell. At the time Campbell completed his studies in ...


Michael Spens

Capital of Australia. Founded as a result of the federation of the Australian colonies (1901), the city (population c. 270,000) is noted for its urban plan, a remarkable combination of garden city and Beaux-Arts ideals. The inland site for Canberra was established in the Australian Capital Territory c. 250 km south-west of Sydney and c. 480 km north-east of Melbourne. An international competition for the design of the urban plan was won in 1912 by the American architect Walter Burley Griffin. His scheme (for illustration see Griffin family) combines formality, befitting the ceremony of state, and informality, reflecting the democratic structure of Australian society. The plan is closely related to the undulating topography of the site, with prominent hills employed as radial hubs for a system of formal axes that are in turn aligned to distant topographical features. The focus of the entire plan is Capital Hill, site of the parliament, which forms the apex of the Parliamentary (or Federal) Triangle where the principal government buildings are located. A central, tree-lined land axis links Capital Hill with Mt Ainslie to the north (site of the Australian War Memorial, ...


(b Auckland, 1924).

New Zealand potter. He started making pottery in 1947. Initially self-taught, he was the first potter to be awarded a fellowship from the Association of New Zealand Art Societies, travelling to St Ives to work with Bernard Leach in 1956–7. He was a founder-member of the New Zealand Society of Potters in 1963. In 1966–7 he studied in Japan and visited potters in Korea and China. He was a regular exhibitor in the annual New Zealand Studio Potters Exhibitions, which started in 1967. His domestic wares, mainly in stoneware (e.g. a simple, glazed bowl, 1974; Auckland, Inst. & Mus.), explore the properties of clay bodies, both glazed and unglazed, in a sculptural manner. A more experimental style can be seen in an unglazed vase of 1975 (Auckland, priv. col., see Blumhardt, 1976, p. 69).

H. Morse: Ten Years of Pottery in New Zealand (Auckland, 1967) D. Blumhardt: New Zealand Potters: Their Work and Words...


David Dolan

Australian architectural partnership formed by the brothers Michael Francis Cavanagh (1860–1941) and James Charles Cavanagh (1871–1957) in 1895. Their father, John Cavangh, was an Irish-born contractor, who became Supervisor of Public Buildings for the South Australian Government. Michael Cavanagh was born at Yackandandah, Victoria and educated at nearby Beechworth. He continued his educationn in London and then Adelaide, where he worked with E. J. Woods (1837–1913). James was born in Adelaide and became articled to Michael while studying there, continuing his studies informally in Europe. Michael, who was the senior partner with higher public profile, remained permanently in Perth after 1895, while James worked in Brisbane between 1933–42, before retiring to Adelaide.

They designed ornate turreted hotels and many Federation style houses, but specialized in Roman Catholic churches and schools. Their large institutional buildings, such as Clontarf Orphanage (1900), Subiaco, all have façades with deep verandahs above rusticated flat or rounded arches. Except for some unusual, late Art Deco designs in partnership with others, their work is consistently eclectic, derivative and conventional....


Robert Smith


(b Wellington, New Zealand, March 30, 1878; d Sydney, June 19, 1953).

Australian photographer of New Zealand birth (see fig.). His father, Pierce Mott Cazneau (1849–1928), was an English-born New Zealand photographer, who became manager of a photographic portraiture studio in Adelaide c. 1889 and took his family to South Australia. While still at school Harold Cazneaux assisted his father and in 1897 joined the same studio as an artist-retoucher. He was mainly interested in becoming an artist and attended evening classes conducted by Harry P. Gill. Acquaintance with the influence of the English Pictorial photography movement in the 1890s made him aware of the medium’s artistic potential. Dissatisfied with his routine occupation in Adelaide, c. 1904 he joined a studio in Sydney where the work was similar, but a higher salary enabled him to buy his own camera and begin creative photography on his own account, including a lasting preoccupation with pictorial celebration of the diversity of everyday life in the city....


Philip Goad

Australian architectural partnership formed in 1953 by William David Chancellor (b Melbourne, 7 Sept 1926) and William Rex Patrick (b Melbourne, 28 Oct 1927). Chancellor and Patrick established their reputation in Melbourne in the 1950s and 1960s with residential designs that were uniquely suited to Australian conditions. These houses blended the warm textures and planning principles of Frank Lloyd Wright with the structural clarity of Richard Neutra’s Californian houses. Notable designs include the Macadie house (1953), Mt Eliza; Kiddle house (1955), Mt Eliza; Freiberg house (1959), Kew; and Wilson house (1962), Mt Martha. In the 1960s the partnership extended its Wrightian interests to the design of several halls of residence at Monash University (1964–72) and Latrobe University (1970–74), both in Melbourne. Other major buildings include the E. S. and A. Bank (1960...


Paula Furby

(b Mount Barker, March 24, 1911; d Adelaide, May 15, 1995).

Australian painter, printmaker, potter, teacher and art critic. Chapman studied at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts (1928–32) and became a fellow of the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA) while still a student. Ivor Hele (1912–93) was a notable influence on her and when he became a war artist, Chapman taught his life-drawing and painting class at the school from 1940–41. From 1942–5 Chapman served in the Australian Women’s Army in army education in Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. In 1945 in Sydney she married the artist James Cant (1911–82). With Cant she was a co-founder of the Studio of Realist Art (SORA). While supporting realist artists as secretary–organizer of SORA, Cant experimented with abstraction and surrealist automatism. She exhibited abstracts works with the Contemporary Art Society in 1947–8.

From 1949–55 Chapman and Cant lived in England, but she did little painting, being then and later the main breadwinner in her marriage. They returned to Australia and settled in Adelaide in ...


Foss Leach

Group of now largely uninhabited volcanic Polynesian islands in the Pacific Ocean lying c. 700 km south-east of Wellington, New Zealand. Their total area is c. 965 sq. km. Politically, the islands are part of New Zealand. Until 1835 the islands were occupied by a community known as Moriori, whose surviving art is discussed here. Although their precise origin is unknown, they were a Polynesian people and spoke an East Polynesian language resembling that of the Maori. In 1835 a group of c. 900 Maori invaded and killed many of the inhabitants (c. 2000), enslaving the remainder: the last Moriori died in 1933 (King, pp. 13–16). Our knowledge of Moriori arts is fragmentary, being based on scant historical records and the few remnants of material culture, including surviving archaeological specimens.

The Moriori carved petroglyphs on the interior surfaces of a number of soft limestone caves along the shores of Te Whanga Lagoon and ...


Alan Powers

(b Akaroa, New Zealand, Dec 19, 1893; d Nottingham, Nov 17, 1960).

New Zealand architect and teacher, active in England. He studied architecture at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, and had one year’s training in the architectural office of Cecil Walter Wood in Christchurch before joining the New Zealand Expeditionary Forces for three years’ service in World War I. He then enrolled in the School of Architecture at the University of Liverpool (1919), and in 1922 he won the RIBA’s Henry Jarvis Studentship, the runner-up prize to the Rome Scholarship in Architecture, which granted him a year’s residence in Rome. There he was exposed to the continental Modern Movement more forcibly than students in England and he, like other New Zealanders, was among the first modernists in Britain. On his return to England, Checkley became a lecturer in the School of Architecture, University of Cambridge (1925). As an architect, he is important principally for two houses he built in Conduit Head Road, Cambridge, which were among the earliest flat-roofed, white-walled ...


Marie-Antoinette Grunewald

(b Lyon, Dec 9, 1807; d Paris, April 12, 1895).

French painter. From 1825 he studied under Louis Hersent, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugène Delacroix at the Ecoles des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and Paris. At an early age he held Republican and perhaps masonic beliefs. He was a learned scholar of history, philosophy, Orientalism and mythological symbolism, but his erudition impeded clarity of thought. He was rich enough not to have to support himself by painting, and in 1827 he went to Italy, where he was particularly impressed by the art of the Florentine Renaissance. From 1828 he was associated with the German Nazarenes, who reinforced his belief in the pedagogical value of art and encouraged him to adopt a cooler, more linear style. Peter Joseph Cornelius introduced him to Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who soon afterwards tried to interest Chenavard in his own ideas about the philosophy of history. He acquired the idea of ‘palingenesis’, or rebirth, from the philosopher Pierre-Simon Ballanche; this doctrine, taken from Charles Bonnet and Giambattista Vico and fashionable between ...


Bridget Whitelaw

(b St Petersburg, May 9, 1828; d London, March 15, 1902).

Swiss painter and illustrator of Russian birth, active in Australia. He spent his childhood in Russia and in 1845 returned to his father’s home town, Lausanne, where he studied painting at the Musée Arlaud under J. G. Guignard (1811–97). In 1851 he moved to London where he studied lithography under Ludwig Gruner, and in 1853–4 he studied watercolour painting in Rome. He arrived in Australia on 25 December 1854 and, after visiting the goldfields, started working as an illustrator for local newspapers. His work was politically perceptive rather than skilled in its draughtsmanship. Between 1858 and 1864 he accompanied scientific expeditions into the wilderness. Some of the studies made on these trips served as preparatory sketches for his grandiose landscape The Buffalo Ranges (exh. 1864; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria), the first Australian painting purchased for the National Gallery of Victoria.

In November 1865 Chevalier visited New Zealand and explored the South Island for eight months, completing several hundred sketches and watercolours that reveal his brilliance in this field. Chevalier was a founder-member of the Victorian Society for the Fine Arts in Melbourne, where his house provided a centre for the city’s artistic and literary élite. However, he left for London in ...


Ian J. Lochhead

Largest city in South Island, New Zealand, near the coast on the eastern plain. It was founded in 1850 by idealistic Anglicans, led by John Robert Godley (1814–61), as the principal settlement of the Canterbury colony and as an ideal English diocesan and university town. A commercial and cultural centre, the city has a grid plan varied by extensive parks and the meandering Avon River. At its geographical and symbolic centre stands Sir George Gilbert Scott (ii)’s Anglican Cathedral (1863–1904). The first timber buildings were replaced during the 1860s and 1870s by brick, stone and occasionally concrete. The dominant architectural personality throughout the 19th century was Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort, whose Canterbury Provincial Government Buildings (1858–65) were the outstanding architectural achievement of the colonial period. Mountfort’s public and ecclesiastical buildings established the Gothic Revival character of Victorian Christchurch. The rebuilding of the city’s commercial centre during the 1870s and 1880s in Italian Renaissance and Venetian Gothic style was largely the achievement of ...


J. N. Mané-Wheoki

(b Norfolk Plains, Tasmania, Nov 17, 1823; d Dunedin, Aug 23, 1877).

Australian architect, also active in New Zealand. Arriving in England in 1840, he trained in architecture and engineering before returning to Tasmania in 1848. He worked in the Government Survey Office (1851–5) and then set up in private practice in Launceston. A member of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects, Melbourne, Clayton is credited with having erected some 300 structures in Tasmania, including five churches, three banks, a Mechanics’ Institute, a theatre, three mills, breweries, mansions, villas and five bridges. St Andrew’s, Launceston (1849), St Mark’s, Deloraine (1856–60), and Chalmers Church, Launceston (1859–60), are notable examples of his religious architecture; the Public Offices, Launceston (1859–60)—built of brick with richly modelled freestone dressings and Italianate classical in style—are the most ambitious and lavish of his secular works.

In 1863 Clayton moved to Dunedin, New Zealand, where he entered into partnership with ...


John W. F. Cattell

(b Walsden, Lancs, Jan 7, 1856; d Wellington, New Zealand, Aug 13, 1952).

New Zealand architect of English birth. The son of a Church of England clergyman, he worked for the church architects Edmund Evan Scott (fl 1851; d 1895) in Brighton and Robert Jewell Withers (1823–94) in London before emigrating to New Zealand, settling in Wanganui in 1877. He moved to Wellington in 1883 and was appointed architect to the Wellington Diocese of the Anglican Church. According to his obituary he designed more than 100 churches mostly in the southern half of the North Island.

Clere continued the tradition of wooden Gothic Revival churches clad with vertical boarding established by Frederick Thatcher and Benjamin Woolfield Mountfort; his buildings are successful more for their simplicity of design and fine proportioning than for their ecclesiological correctness. Working in a seismically unstable country, he was mindful of the necessity for structural strength in his buildings and experimented with the use of reinforced concrete for larger churches, such as St Matthew’s Anglican Church, Hastings (begun ...