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M. Rautmann, Katherine M. D. Dunbabin and Mine Kadiroğlu

[now Antakya]

Greek and Roman city on the River Orontes in south-east Turkey (ancient Syria), which flourished from c. 300 bc to the 7th century ad.

Its advantageous site on the edge of the Amuk Plain at the foot of Mt Silpius, commanding important trade routes linking Anatolia with Palestine and the Mediterranean with inland Syria, attracted the attention of Seleukos I (reg 305–281 bc), who founded the city (c. 300 bc) as the capital of his Syrian empire. With its port at Seleucia and residential suburb at Daphne, Antioch prospered as capital of the Roman province of Syria from 64 bc. The city enjoyed the attentions of Roman benefactors from Julius Caesar onwards and attained the height of its prosperity during the 2nd to the 7th century ad, becoming the diocesan capital of Oriens. Its influence was particularly strong in early Christian affairs: Paul and Barnabas were active at Antioch, while Peter was regarded as its first bishop. ...


Anne Hagopian van Buren




Krista de Jonge

(b Antwerp, before 1373; d Antwerp, May 15, 1434).

South Netherlandish architect. He was the son of Jan Appelmans (d Antwerp, between 1 April and 28 Sept 1395), who worked on the St Joriskerk, Antwerp. Peter was one of the most important representatives of Brabantine Gothic. His known career was confined to Antwerp Cathedral (see Antwerp, §IV, 1): in 1406 he was among its leading masons, and he became Master of the Works before 1419, a post he held until his death. The west façade (1419), which, with its two towers (only the north of which was completed) and portals, follows the French model, must be attributed to him. Its design may be compared with the virtually contemporary west façade of Brussels Cathedral. He designed the nave, the foundations of which were begun in 1431, and also made some additions to the cathedral choir; the present St Jozefskapel on the north side and the sacristy, robing room and library on the south side of the choir entrance were begun in ...


John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of aquamanilia is associated with Mosan art of the Meuse Valley in northern France, and with Lower Saxony in north-east Germany. The majority of surviving examples are made of a variety of bronze that resembles gold when polished, while nearly all those made of precious metals are known only from church inventories.

Church documents refer to aquamanilia as early as the 5th century, when canon regulations stipulated that on ordination the subdeacon should receive such a vessel. Various documents from the 5th century to the beginning of the 11th sometimes use the term to denote both the ewer and its basin. Sometime after the beginning of the 11th century the term became transferred to a type of vessel, usually in the shape of an animal (e.g. lion, stag, horse; ...


Franz Rickert

Roman and Early Christian city at the east end of the plain of the Veneto, c. 90 km north-east of Venice and 5 km from the Adriatic coast. Founded as a Roman colony in 181 bc, it received full town status in 89 bc and became the regional capital of Venetia et Histria. It was strategically sited on the River Natissa, which was navigable to the sea, and at the intersection of routes leading north-west over the Alps and north-east to the Balkans. Written sources indicate that several emperors, including Constantine the Great, had a residence in Aquileia; from ad 294 to the 5th century it also had its own mint. In 313 it became a bishopric and in 381 it was the venue of a council before which followers of Arianism were tried. Civil wars and the invasions of the Huns (452) and the Lombards (568) led to the migration of most of the population and the transference of the see to Grado....


Joan Isobel Friedman and A. Bustamante García

Spanish dynasty of rulers, patrons and collectors, active in Italy. The county of Aragon was established as a kingdom in 1035 under Ramiro I (reg 1035–63), son of Sancho III the Great, King of Navarre (reg 1000–35). In the 13th century James I the Conqueror, King of Aragon (reg 1213–76), extended the kingdom by taking control of Valencia and the Balearic islands. His son, Peter III, King of Aragon (reg 1276–85), also became King of Sicily in 1282, following a revolt against the rule of the House of Anjou (see Anjou, House of family). Separate branches of the Aragonese dynasty, which included (1) Peter IV, King of Aragon (reg 1336–87), ruled the two kingdoms until 1409, when Martin, King of Aragon (reg 1395–1410), succeeded to the kingdom of Sicily. On his death in 1410 both kingdoms were given to his nephew, Ferdinand (...


Michael Ryan

A treasure hoard (now in Dublin, N. Mus.) discovered in 1868 within the rath (circular earthwork) called Reerasta Rath, near Ardagh in Co. Limerick, Ireland. The objects were buried slightly less than 1 m deep and partly protected by an upright stone. The hoard consists of a splendid two-handled chalice, a smaller bronze chalice and four gilt silver brooches. The probable dates of manufacture range from the 8th century ad to perhaps the early 10th.

The silver chalice (h. 178 mm; max diam. 195 mm) has a broad, almost hemispherical bowl, a copper-alloy stem cast in three parts, and a large, sub-conical foot with a broad, flat foot-ring. A band of filigree ornaments and gem-set enamel studs girdles the bowl below the ring. Below this are two applied medallions with filigree and enamels. The strap handles spring from applied escutcheons decorated with enamel, filigree and granulation. The stem carries superb cast gilt ...


(fl 1324–38).

Italian goldsmith. A native of Antella (near Florence), he had moved to Florence by 16 August 1324, when he was registered in the goldsmiths’ guild. His sole extant autograph work, incorrectly attributed by Vasari to Cione Aretino, is the reliquary bust of St Zenobius (Florence, S Maria del Fiore), which is inscribed: andreas arditi de florentia me fecit. An inventory of the sacristy of S Reparata, compiled in 1418, describes the bust and dates it to 1331. It was restored in 1704 and 1812 and has lost much of its original enamel. The figure’s mitre (detachable) and collar are decorated with quatrefoil plaques of basse-taille (translucent) enamel on silver relief depicting Angels, winged Virtues and Saints. The plaques are among the earliest examples of the use of this technique, of which Andrea appears to have been a leading exponent, by a Florentine goldsmith.

Five other works by Andrea are recorded. The inventory of ...



Axel Bolvig


Danish city and port in the east coast of Jutland. Recent excavations have dated its foundation to the period preceding the 9th century. Six runic stones in the neighbourhood indicate its importance about ad 1000. A bishop from Århus, which was probably without a real diocese at this time, participated in a meeting in Reginsburg in 948. A re-organization of the entire church in Denmark was undertaken c. 1060 and this finally established the diocese of Århus. It was then that a cathedral was erected outside the ramparts. The crypt of this church was excavated in the 1950s and has been shown to be the oldest in Scandinavia. The so-called Åby crucifix (c. 1050; Copenhagen, Nmus.) and the Golden Altar in Lisbjerg church (c. 1140; Copenhagen, Nmus.) show the importance of the diocese at that time.

During 12th and 13th centuries many churches were built of granite ashlar not only in the diocese but throughout Jutland. It was at this time that a new cathedral complex dedicated to St Clemens was started inside the ramparts occupying a large part of the commercial town. The old cathedral was subsequently handed over to the Dominicans. Like the seaport of Ribe on the west coast of Jutland, Århus has very few churches, while the inland cathedral towns of Viborg, ...


Mary Agnes Edsall

[‘Weapons of Christ’; Instruments of the Passion]

Arma Christi refers to images that depict the various instruments that wounded or otherwise offended Christ during the Passion and Crucifixion (see Passion of Christ). The term arma, meaning weapons, conveys the paradox that the weapons used against Christ were also the weapons he used to conquer sin, death, and the Devil. In its basic and early forms, the Arma Christi might consist solely of the cross, lance, and rod with sponge. The nails used in the Crucifixion were also often included. Later, more elaborate images might include any or all of the following: the pieces of silver paid to Judas, the lanterns used during the arrest, the sword with which Peter cut off Malchus’ ear, and Malchus’ ear; the pillar, the cords that bound Christ to it, and the scourges; the purple robe, the reed, the cloth that bound Christ’s eyes, tufts of Christ’s hair plucked out during the Mocking, and the crown of thorns; the cross, ladder, hammer, nails, dice, lance, rod with sponge and the bucket of vinegar, pincers (for removing the nails), torturers’ clubs, Christ’s loincloth, and the cock that crowed thrice. Commonly, the instruments would not be arranged in any clear narrative sequence, but could be scattered over the space of the frame—often around the image of the Man of Sorrows (...


G. Kreytenberg

(fl 1351–64).

Italian sculptor. He was one of the most important sculptors in Florence of his day. According to the contemporary poet Sacchetti, Arnoldi was in Milan for a long period, but there is no other evidence for this. He is first mentioned in 1351 in the cathedral works in Florence, where he was working as a mason on marble inlay for the campanile. In 1355 and 1358 he was listed as one of the advisers for the construction of the cathedral. There were two other principal master builders in the cathedral works, and Arnoldi was briefly promoted to be a third, with responsibility for executing the decorative work. On the basis of his documented work, however, he cannot be described as an architect.

Between 1359 and 1364 Arnoldi made the near-life-size statues of the Virgin and Child and two angels above the altar in the oratory of the Bigallo, Florence, and in ...


Elisabetta Scirocco

[Alberto Arnoldi]

(fl 1351–64).

Italian sculptor. Alberto was one of the chief artists in Trecento Florence. His name is first recorded in 1351, when he was paid to work on the marble windows of the campanile of the Cathedral. He is generally ascribed (Becherucci) the rhomboid tiles with bas-reliefs depicting the Seven Sacraments on the second order of the campanile’s north side (originals in Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo). These may have been based on a design by di Maso Banco, who according to some scholars (Kreytenberg, 1979) also sculpted them. In 1355 and 1357–9 Arnoldi was given important jobs, such as the direction of works of the Cathedral with Talenti family §(1). His only documented works are those he executed for the oratory of the Bigallo in Florence: the life-size statues of the Virgin and Child and the two Angels holding the candelabra on the altar (1359–64), and the sculpted relief depicting the half-length ...



János M. Bak

Modern term for the dynasty that ruled Hungary until 1301. Their name is derived from the chief of the Magyar tribal alliance, Prince Árpád (reg 896–907). During the four centuries of their reign (which included 5 princes and 21 kings, half of whom were buried in the now destroyed basilica at Székesfehérvár), the country became a Christian kingdom with a social and political order similar to its western neighbours. The art and architecture of the age was influenced mainly by Italian and French models with some Byzantine elements. The castle (after 1241, archiepiscopal palace) in Esztergom has significant remains from the 10th to 12th centuries. It was excavated and partly restored in the early 21st century. The west door, the porta speciosa of Esztergom Cathedral is decorated with marble intarsia in a French-influenced, Byzantine style (c. 1190) and is one of the few surviving figural monuments (now in the Esztergom Castle Museum). After the Mongol invasion of ...



Barbara Papadopoulou

[anc. Ambrakia]

Capital of the Arta district in south Epiros, Greece, on the east bank of the River Arachthos, 16 km north of the Ambrakian Gulf. The town occupies the site of Ambrakia, which was colonized by Corinth in 625 bc. Pyrrhos, King of Epiros (reg 319–272 bc), transferred his capital to Ambrakia in 292 bc. It first appears with the name of Arta in 1082. The state (better known as the Despotate) of Epiros, with its capital of Arta, was founded by Michael I Angelos Doukas Komnenos (reg 1205–15) after the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204. His state included the whole of north-west Greece, New Epiros (part of modern Albania), north-west Macedonia and parts of Thessaly. Arta fell to the Turks in 1449, regaining its independence in 1881 when it was incorporated into the Greek state.

The town was laid out on a grid plan and was surrounded by impressive walls, large parts of which survive. Remains of the Doric temple of Pythian Apollo (...


Artistic manifestations of Arthurian legends antedate surviving textual traditions and sometimes bear witness to stories that have not survived in written form. Thus the Tristan sculptures (c. 1102–17) carved on a column from the north transept of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela show that the story was in circulation at least a generation before the earliest surviving written text was composed. The one surviving manuscript of Béroul’s Tristan is unillustrated, while the fragments of Thomas’s version include a single historiated initial showing Tristan playing the harp (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Fr. d. 16, fol. 10). Although Eilhart von Oberge’s Tristrant, composed in the late 12th century, is the earliest version of the Tristan story to survive complete, the only surviving illustrated copy dates from the 15th century (c. 1465–75; Heidelberg, UBib., Cpg 346), while the Munich manuscript of Gottfried von Strassburg’s Tristan was made in south Germany ...


[Master of Gerlamoos]

(b Thörl, nr Villach, c. 1435–40; d Villach, 1523–9).

Austrian painter . Known formerly for his frescoes at St George, Gerlamoos (Carinthia), he was identified in 1939–40 by the name Thomas, which during restoration work was found inscribed by a Crucifixion painted by the same hand in St Andreas, Thörl; this name was in turn linked with a Thomas von Villach mentioned in a register of tenants of 1468 and described by the chancellor to the patriarch of Aquileia in 1486 as a ‘second Apelles’ who had painted altar retables in Villach (these are untraced). Further documents indicate he was a town magistrate of Villach in 1520.

Thomas appears to have trained in the workshop of Friedrich of Villach, and his earlier work displays a Carinthian version of the mannered figure poses and cascading drapery of the ‘Soft Style’, which had originated in Bohemia in the late 14th century. His painting, however, perhaps influenced by 14th-century North Italian work and by the ...


Dorothy Verkerk

Illuminated manuscript of the first five books of the Old Testament (now incomplete), dating from the late 6th or early 7th century (Paris, Bib.N., MS. nouv. acq. lat. 2334) and named after the English collector Bertram Ashburnham. Also known as the Pentateuch of Tours, the Ashburnham Pentateuch is one of the oldest surviving pre-Carolingian Vulgate manuscripts of the Old Testament. In its present condition, it lacks the last verses of Numbers and all of Deuteronomy; while 18 pages of illustration and 1 frontispiece survive from the original 65 pages with illustrations. The illustrated pages comprise several scenes generally arranged in two or three bands, although some pages have one or two large scenes, others combine illustration and text. Painted tituli that follow the Vulgate accompany the miniatures; however, beneath the painted titutli are preliminary inscriptions penned in ink that follow the Vetus latina text.

Based upon stylistic, iconographical and codicological evidence, the Pentateuch appears to have been made in a late 6th- to early 7th-century Italian scriptorium. Twelve pages were added in the 8th century by scribes from Fleury; an additional restored page (fol. 33) was added in the 7th century by a Touronian scribe. The illustrations often deviate from the exact retelling of the biblical text. The column of smoke and fire, for example, in the story of the Crossing of the Red Sea is depicted as a large candle held in two hands, a reference to Easter Vigil liturgical ceremonies (fol. 68...


Debra Higgs Strickland

Richly illustrated bestiary manuscript (275×185mm, 105 fols; Oxford, Bodleian Lib., Ashmole 1511), written in Latin and illuminated probably in southern England around 1210. The original patron is unknown. It contains the text and illustrations of a complete bestiary, with prefatory Creation scenes and excerpts from Genesis and part of Hugh de Folieto’s Aviarium (Book of Birds). It is a luxury manuscript with lavish use of gold leaf, sometimes tooled, in the backgrounds of the full-page miniatures and numerous smaller framed animal ‘portraits’. Its images are especially notable for their ornamental qualities, evident in both the pictorial compositions and a wide variety of geometric framing devices. The prefatory cycle includes a full-page miniature of Adam Naming the Animals. The Ashmole Bestiary is considered a ‘sister’ manuscript to the Aberdeen Bestiary (Aberdeen, U. Lib., MS. 24), to which it is iconographically very closely related, but owing to major stylistic differences the two manuscripts have been attributed to different artists. The chronological relationship between the two has been disputed: based on proposed workshop methods, Muratova (...


Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

Town on the banks of the K‘asagh River, 20 km north-west of Erevan, Armenia. It is the site of several churches (5th–19th centuries) and a cemetery with khatchk‘ars (see Armenia, Republic of §IV 1.; Cross, §II, 4) of the 12th to the 14th century.

The earliest church is the three-aisled basilica of Tsiranavor, which was built in the 5th century and partially reconstructed in the 6th, probably by Catholicos Nerses II (reg 538–57), a native of Bagravand. It subsequently underwent numerous alterations and was finally left a ruin in 1815. Restoration work in 1963 revealed that the exterior walls, the apse area, the north pier bases and the south aisle and nave arcade have survived. Traces of the beginnings of the main vault can be seen at the west end.

The walls are of tufa ashlars, facing a rubble core. The plan was defined by three pairs of T-shaped piers, a characteristic of 5th-century Armenian architecture (...