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Gordon Campbell

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Gordon Campbell

(b Emporia, KS, Nov 6, 1932).

American furniture designer. He normally worked in wood (sometimes exotic wood), but has also made furniture in plastic and fibreglass; his finest work reflects his mastery of laminated wood. Castle’s decorative furniture is strongly sculptural; his designs are markedly individualistic, but nonetheless evince debts to the traditions of Art Nouveau and the Arts and Crafts Movement. His best-known designs are the Molar chair and loveseat designed for Stendig in ...

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Gordon Campbell

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Chevron  

John Thomas

Form of three-dimensional zigzag ornament particularly associated with Anglo-Norman Romanesque architecture, where it was used to decorate arches, doorways and windows. An equivalent term is dancette (or dancetty), although this is generally reserved for the zigzags used in heraldry. The stripes and flashes set on to the sleeves of military uniform tunics are also chevrons. Architectural chevron is possibly related to Byzantine brick saw-tooth ornament, transmitted indirectly through the decoration of, for example, canon tables in Carolingian and Ottonian illuminated manuscripts (e.g. the Gospel Book of Bernward of Hildesheim; c. 1000; Hildesheim, Diözmus. & Domschatzkam., MS. 18). The saw-tooth motif appears in Romanesque wall painting until the late 12th century (e.g. Terrassa, Spain, S Maria; c. 1175–1200). Chevron is not common in Western buildings before ad 1000, but it is found in Islamic architecture as early as the 8th century at Qusayr ‛Amra, and although it remains unclear precisely how chevron became so closely associated with Anglo-Norman architecture, Borg has suggested that both manuscript illuminations and knowledge of Islamic buildings brought by returning crusaders after ...

Article

Catherine Brisac

French town and château some 8 km south-east of Paris, in the département of Val-de-Marne. The château was built (1680–86) for Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans, Duchesse de Montpensier (1627–93), by Jacques Gabriel IV. His design was a simple one, with strong horizontal lines countered by tall rectangular windows and rusticated quoins to the shallow projecting bays. Artists employed on the interior decoration included the painters Antoine Coypel, Gabriel Blanchard, Jean Le Moyne and Adam Frans van der Meulen and the sculptor Etienne Le Hongre. The grounds were laid out by André Le Nôtre. Used as a hunting-lodge by Louis XV, King of France, from 1740, the château was enlarged by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in several campaigns (1742–52), the additions including a gallery, a theatre and various garden buildings. Much sculpture was commissioned for the grounds, which were remodelled, including work by René-Michel Slodtz and Edmé Bouchardon. In ...

Article

Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Kreibitz]

Czech centre of glass production. A glass factory was established in Chřibská in northern Bohemia on the Česká Kamenice estate in the Lužické Mountains at the beginning of the 15th century. Martin Friedrich (1582–1612) was a renowned glassmaker, and he and other glassmakers at the works were invited in 1601 by the Elector of Brandenburg, Joachim Frederick (reg 1598–1608), to establish a glass workshop at Grimnitz in north Brandenburg. From the list of products made at Grimnitz it is evident that the Chřibská glassworks produced cold-painted, enamelled, engraved and filigree glass. Dishes and goblets were decorated with the imperial eagle, the Electors, allegories of the Virtues, the Apostles and the Seven Ages of Man. During the 17th century the production of painted glass continued at Chřibská. In 1661 the first Bohemian guild of glassmakers, enamellers and glass engravers was established at Chřibská. From the 1660s local records indicate the names of the glass engravers, whose numbers increased after the 1670s. By the end of the 17th century the factory was producing a good-quality potash glass. Between ...

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Gordon Campbell

(b Flensburg, March 6, 1866; d Wiesbaden, Jan 5, 1945).

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer.

M. Zimmermann-Degen and H. Christiansen...

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Citrine  

Gordon Campbell

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Hilary Pyle

Irish artists. (1) Margaret Clarke was a painter; her husband, (2) Harry Clarke, was an illustrator and stained-glass artist. After his death in 1931, Margaret Clarke took over the direction of his stained-glass studios.

Hilary Pyle

(b Newry, 1888; d Dublin, 1961).

Painter. She attended Newry Technical School and went to Dublin in 1905 to study at the Metropolitan School of Art under William Orpen, whose assistant she became. In October 1914 she married Harry Clarke. Her many commissioned paintings include portraits of Dermod O’Brien, President of the Royal Hibernian Academy (1935), Dr Edward Sheridan, President of the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin (1946), and the painting St Patrick Climbs Croagh Patrick (Dublin, Mansion House), commissioned by the Haverty Bequest in 1932, in which the academic influence of Orpen is clear. However, she made her reputation with landscapes and small format subject paintings such as the portrait of ...

Article

J. P. Ward

revised by Geoffrey Batchen

(François Jean)

(b Lyon, Aug 12, 1797; d London, Dec 27, 1867).

French-born photographer, active in England. He began his working life in banking but soon became director of a firm of glassmakers in Paris. In 1826 he moved to London to open a glass warehouse and by 1830 was in partnership with George Houghton in Holborn, selling glass shades and other products. On hearing of the announcement of the first practicable photographic processes in 1839, Claudet visited Paris, where he later claimed he received instruction in the daguerreotype process from Daguerre himself, and from whom he purchased a licence to operate in England. By March 1840 Claudet and Houghton’s firm was selling daguerreotype views of Paris and Rome, obtained from Lerebours in Paris, as well as copies of that publisher’s volume of engravings after daguerreotypes, Excursions Daguerriennes, représentant les vues et les monuments les plus remarquables du globe. In April 1841 the firm was also offering to sell complete daguerreotype apparatuses, including prepared plates....

Article

Carola Hicks

English firm of manufacturers. John Richard Clayton (b London, 30 July 1827; d London, 5 July 1913) and Alfred Bell (b Silton, Dorset, 1832; d 1895) became partners in 1857 in order to improve stained-glass design, having worked as draughtsmen for the architect George Gilbert Scott I. Clayton was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites, but Bell had a more medievalizing style. Their earliest designs were made up by Heaton & Butler, but from 1861 they manufactured their own windows, as well as producing murals and mosaics, in their workshop in Regent Street, London. Demand increased, and by the late 1860s the studio had expanded to 300 employees. Many of their pupils, including Henry Stacy Marks, John Burlison (1843–91), Thomas John Grylls (1845–1913) and C. E. Kempe (1837–1907), later founded their own firms. Architects commissioning their work included Scott, G. E. Street and ...

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Article

Marilyn F. Symmes

[Fr.: ‘glass negative’]

Name most widely used for the process that uses light to print or to transfer on to photo-sensitized paper a drawing rendered on a glass plate or other transparent or translucent surface (e.g. thin paper, plastic sheets or film). The resulting cliché-verre print has the characteristics of both printmaking and photography. Other names include cliché-glace, dessin héliographique, dessin sur verre bichromaté, cliché photographique sur verre, autographie photographique, procédé sur verre, photogenic etching, etching on glass, autograph etching and glass print.

The cliché-verre process involves two basic steps. The artist first makes an image on a matrix (as in printmaking) that is transparent or partially transparent. Then the hand-drawn matrix is used in the manner of a photographic negative when it is superimposed on light-sensitive paper and exposed to light. The light acts as the printing agent, replicating the image on to the sheet below as a positive print, as in photography. Unlike other printmaking or photographic techniques, however, neither ink nor camera apparatus is used to create a cliché-verre. While these basic steps do not change, materials, modes of drawing on the transparent or translucent plate and methods of printing photographically may vary....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Cristallerie de clichy]

French glass manufactory. In 1837 M. Rouyer and G. Maës founded a glasshouse at Billancourt in Paris. In 1844 it moved to Clichy-la-Garenne, and soon became the third of France’s great glass companies (after Baccarat and Saint-Louis). The company concentrated on the production of cheap table glass for export, but also produced opaline, cased glassed and ...

Article

Cathedral in Co. Galway, Ireland, dedicated to St Brendan. The rubble walls of the pre-Romanesque nave (10th or 11th century) originally formed a simple rectangular church. The rectangular chancel, with its paired east windows, was added in the early 13th century, and in the Late Gothic period the building was enlarged with transept-like chapels and an elegant square belfry, similar to those in Irish friaries, above the west end of the nave. The cathedral is renowned chiefly for the 12th-century sandstone doorway inserted into its west façade (see Romanesque, §III, 1, (v), (e)).

The decoration of the doorway consists of an extraordinary range of motifs, of both foreign and Irish derivation, forming the most idiosyncratic of all Hiberno-Romanesque portals. Jambs, archivolts, and a high-pitched ‘tangent gable’ were exploited as fields for a dense array of pattern-making. Following ancient Irish custom, the decorated jambs are inclined inwards. They support seven orders of deeply cut voussoirs, ornamented with interlace, bosses, scallops, geometrical designs, and beast heads. The beast heads bite a roll moulding and are comparable to those on the west portal of the Nuns’ Church at Clonmacnois (Offaly). The gable contains an arcade and a series of triangular compartments filled alternately with carved human heads and floral motifs. The five heads that peer out from the arcade may have had painted bodies, possibly emulating the enamelled figures with cast bronze heads found on contemporary Limoges plaques. Among the many delightful details are the rows of tiny beast heads on the lower faces of the abaci. Characteristic of the Hiberno-Romanesque is the juxtaposition of shallow carving, as is found here on both the jambs and pilasters, with much deeper cutting, as on the archivolts. Although this eclectic and exotic design was once attributed to the 1160s, most scholars now prefer a date of ...

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Cobalt  

Gordon Campbell

Article

(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of drinking glass created in the 18th century with a coin embedded in a knop in the stem. In 1892 a new type of ‘coin glass’ was introduced by the Central Glass Company of Wheeling, WV: coins were used to make moulds that would leave impressions of the coin on glass. This glass, which took the form of drinking glasses, butter dishes, cake stands etc., was produced for five months, whereupon the Treasury declared that the process constituted counterfeiting, and the moulds were destroyed....

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Comport  

Gordon Campbell