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Economically and socially independent urban unit of medium size surrounded by a green belt. The term is often loosely applied to various other forms of urban planning. Letchworth, Herts, begun in 1903, was the first garden city proper; it was followed in Britain by Welwyn, Herts (from 1920), and examples in Germany, Russia and France. The garden city idea is usually considered to derive from two quite distinct sources: the social Utopias of such philosophers as Henri de Saint-Simon (1760–1825) and Charles Fourier (1772–1837; see Fourierism) and the model estates and villages of industrial philanthropists of the second half of the 19th century. British industrialists, such as William Hesketh Lever and George Cadbury, built planned communities for their workers, for example at Port Sunlight (from 1888), near Liverpool, and Bournville (from 1879), near Birmingham, along the lines of picturesque, medieval villages, with strong influence from the Arts and Crafts Movement. These model villages or suburbs were laid out with the health of the residents as a principal consideration; they became the flagships of the emerging international housing reform movement, which attempted to eradicate the insanitary conditions of working-class housing....



Tim Mowl

Garden house built on a terrace, with views to a road outside or the distant countryside. Until the 1830s, when ‘belvedere’ became the more acceptable term, small turrets on a roof-top were also described as gazebos, as were Maltese mirador windows. The term, with its implied meaning ‘I will look out’, was coined whimsically in the early 18th century using the Latin future tense ending, but the type of structure it describes developed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I from the less ambitious forms of the medieval garden mount.

The compact houses of the English Renaissance afforded neither the privacy nor the viewpoints that had been common in the towered domestic castles of the late Middle Ages. Gazebos developed to supply these two advantages, and both Longleat House, Wilts (c. 1572), and Hardwick Hall, Derbys (1591–7), have prospect rooms on their roofs. As garden design in this period grew more ambitious, it became usual for these to be built, often in pairs, on a terrace. From there, the parterres could be viewed and, away from prying servants, alfresco meals enjoyed. ...


Hilary J. Grainger

English architectural partnership formed in 1876 by Ernest George (b London, 13 June 1839; d London, 15 Dec 1922) and Harold Ainsworth Peto (b Somerleyton, Suffolk, 11 July 1854; d Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts, ?14 April 1933). George was articled to the architect Samuel Hewitt in London (1856–60), and in 1857 he entered the Royal Academy Schools, where he won the Gold Medal two years later. After a few months in the London office of William Allen Boulnois (1823–93), he made a sketching tour of France and Germany. On his return in November 1861 he set up in partnership in London with a fellow Royal Academy student, Thomas Vaughan (?1839–75). By the early 1870s they had established a sound practice, designing commercial, domestic and some ecclesiastical buildings, principally in London and Kent. They designed a villa (1870) for Arthur Richard Wellesley, 2nd Duke of Wellington, at Molino del Rey, Granada, Spain, and in ...


(fl 1715; d Munich, 1738).

French landscape designer and engineer, active in Germany. He trained under André Le Nôtre at Versailles, from where he was seconded by Louis XIV to serve Maximilian II Emanuel, the exiled Elector of Bavaria, who was then building the château of Saint-Cloud. On being restored to power, Maximilian II Emanuel took Girard back with him to Munich to oversee the landscaping of his estates; Girard was appointed Fountain Engineer and Inspector of Works in 1715. His principal work for the Elector was at Schloss Nymphenburg, where he and Charles Carbonet (fl 1700–15; also a pupil of Le Nôtre) replanned and enlarged the park, laying down a series of formal gardens, pavilions and spectacular fountains about the central axis of the Würm canal. Girard and Carbonet also worked for Maximilian II Emanuel at Schleissheim, Schloss. The Neues Schloss (1701–27) and gardens were designed together to enhance each other. The project was intended to supersede Schloss Nymphenburg as a symbol of princely ambition, but it was never completed. In ...


(b Paris, Feb 24, 1735; d Vernouillet, Sept 20, 1808).

French landscape designer and writer. He inherited a considerable fortune, which allowed him to develop his interests as a seigneur-philosophe. In 1754 he joined the army and, following the cessation of the Seven Years War in 1763, entered military service at Lunéville under the exiled King of Poland, Stanislav I Leszczyński. Between 1761 and 1766 Girardin also travelled in Italy, Germany and England, where he visited several English landscape gardens, including Stowe, Blenheim and the Leasowes.

In 1766, following the death of Stanislav, Girardin settled at Ermenonville, Oise, where during the next decade he laid out an influential Picturesque landscape garden. Shortly after its completion he published De la composition des paysages (1777), in which he codified his own accomplishments and presented his theory of landscape gardening. Although this treatise reveals his intimate understanding of the associationist aesthetics of contemporary French and English garden theory, as found for example in Thomas Whately’s ...


(b Beauvais, Feb 20, 1927).

French fashion designer. Givenchy is considered by many to be the last of the traditional couturiers, yet he is best known for spare, impeccably modern designs and for his long association with the actress Audrey Hepburn.

The younger son of the Marquis Taffin de Givenchy, Hubert de Givenchy was born into a wealthy Protestant family. After seeing the Pavillon de l’Elégance at the Exposition Internationale in Paris in 1937, Givenchy decided to become a couturier. Although his family would have preferred him to have become a lawyer, they eventually acquiesced and in 1945 he began work for Jacques Fath and took courses at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1946 he moved on to work for Robert Piguet. In 1947 he spent six months at the house of Lucien Lelong, where he briefly succeeded Christian Dior as head designer, before settling down to work with Elsa Schiaparelli for four years, taking charge of her boutique on the Place Vendôme....


(b Bristol, May 26, 1833; d London, Oct 6, 1886).

English architect, designer and writer. He had an early interest in archaeology, which was fostered by fragments of medieval carving in his parents’ garden. From the age of 15 he began sketching buildings all over the West Country. In 1851 he contributed illustrations to The Antiquities of Bristol and Neighbourhood, by which time he was apprenticed to William Armstrong of Bristol. Armstrong, perhaps recognizing Godwin’s aptitude, entrusted him with much of his architectural work. This brought Godwin early responsibility but little formal training, a lack that he felt dogged his professional life. In 1854 he established an independent practice, and in an attempt to further his career, in 1856 he joined his brother, an engineer, in Londonderry, Ireland. During his visit he studied castles and abbeys throughout Ireland. He also designed three small Roman Catholic churches in a severe Gothic style at St Johnstown (1857–61), Newtown Cunningham (...


Gérard Rousset-Charny

(b St Ouen, nr Paris, June 7, 1737; d Paris, Dec 29, 1818).

French architect and designer. He was the son of the gardener at the royal château of Choisy-le-Roi and attended Jacques-François Blondel’s school of architecture, the Ecole des Arts, winning third place in the Prix de Rome competition of 1759. He spent five years in Rome (1761–6) on a bursary granted by Louis XV, and he made friends there with Giovanni Battista Piranesi. He returned to France via Holland and England. In 1769, at the suggestion of the King’s surgeon Germain Pichault de la Martinière, he was commissioned to design the new Ecole de Chirurgie (1771–86; now the Faculté de Médecine, Paris). The layout is in the manner of an hôtel particulier, with a court surrounded by an Ionic colonnade and closed off from the present Rue de l’Ecole de Médecine by a columnar screen. It was this feature that made a great impression on Gondoin’s contemporaries, lacking as it does the usual inflections by projecting end pavilions and central ...


[P’yetro di Gonzaga]

(b Longarone, nr Venice, March 25, 1751; d St Petersburg, Aug 6, 1831).

Italian painter, stage designer and landscape designer, also active in Russia. He studied in Venice (1769–72) under Giuseppe Moretti and Antonio Visentini (1688–1782) and finished his education in Milan (1772–8), studying with the stage designers Bernardino, Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio Galliari. He was considerably influenced by the works of Canaletto and Piranesi. He made his début as a stage designer in Milan at the Teatro alla Scala in 1779 and designed over 60 productions in Milan, Rome, Genoa and other Italian cities. From 1792 he worked in Russia, where he went on the recommendation of Prince Nikolay Yusupov, who was at that time the chief director of music and pageantry at the court of Catherine II.

In his stage designs Gonzago put into effect his theoretical principles, which he explained in the handbook Information à mon chef ou éclaircissement convenable du décorateur théâtral (St Petersburg, ...


Priscilla Boniface


Building for the protection, propagation and cultivation of plants. Greenhouses, probably roofed in mica, existed in Roman times. During the 16th century, the beginnings of the application of science to plant-growing, which led to the development of the Botanic garden in Europe, encouraged the construction of greenhouses. In ‘houses’ formed of a ‘hot bed’ of such heat-generating substances as bark or dung, situated against a south wall and ‘roofed’ with straw, canvas matting or individual glass cones, tender plants could be encouraged to survive and prosper. Such ‘houses’ gradually became more substantial, with brick or masonry sides, and eventually incorporated small panes of expensive glass. One of the most dramatic uses of portable glass coverings for plants was at Sanssouci (see Potsdam §2), where from 1773 the vineyard terrace (1747; by Georg Wenceslaus von Knobelsdorff), which was also used for growing pomegranate and orange trees, was covered in glass in cold weather. The greenhouse was introduced on the east coast of ...


Kim Sloan

[de Grey]

English family of architects, patrons and collectors. Principally noted for their interest in garden design and architecture as represented in the family estate at Wrest Park, Beds, many generations of the family were active as statesmen and parliamentarians. Among the important works of art once owned by the family are Claude Lorrain’s Coast View of the Embarkation of Carlo and Ubaldo (Toronto, A. G. Ont.) and Anthony van Dyck’s portrait of the Balbi Children (London, N.G.). In 1676 Anthony, 11th Earl Grey (b 1645; d 19 Aug 1702), designed and built a new north front for the Elizabethan house at Wrest; during the late 1680s he began making Baroque formal gardens to the south of it. His son, Henry Grey, 12th Earl of Kent (b 1671; d 5 June 1740), whose Grand Tour in 1690–91 had included a visit to Rome, inherited the estate on his father’s death and resumed work on the gardens in ...



Barbara Rietzsch

Artificial cavern built above a spring or a fountain, usually in a private garden. In Classical times grottoes were widespread in Mediterranean countries, and after the Renaissance they became common throughout Europe. Used initially as a place in which to honour the Muses and to seek philosophical inspiration, the grotto could also form a pleasant summer retreat, the running water affording coolness and repose. It gradually acquired associations with magic and alchemy, and later with Christianity.

Natural rock grottoes were regarded by the ancient Greeks as the abode of nymphs and deities, and the water emerging within them was considered sacred. In some cases doorways were simulated at the entrances, and later fountain-houses were built, with a basin to hold the sacred water. Hellenistic fountain-grottoes of the 3rd century bc could be semicircular or of a tall fountain type later found at Pompeii, some decorated with shells, others with lion-headed waterspouts. Under the Romans, nymphaea became huge public buildings decorated with tufa, shells and innumerable statues, but those in private gardens, with rich statuary, preserved their traditional character as shrines and seats of the Muses. In Roman literature and painting the idea of the grotto was frequently used to emphasize the rustic atmosphere of a landscape or scene. The ...


Ha ha  


Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn

(b Nuremberg, Dec 2, 1900; d Starnberg, May 25, 1985).

German landscape architect. She studied garden design in Berlin in the 1920s, followed by employment as a garden architect for the famous Ludwig Späth nursery in Berlin. In 1928 she started a long collaboration with Hermann Mattern (1902–71), a garden architect, and with Karl Foerster (1874–1970), a breeder of herbaceous perennials. She later collaborated also with such architects as Hans Scharoun, Peter Poelzig, Egon Eiermann and Richard Neutra. In the course of her career Hammerbacher created over 3000 gardens, parks and cemeteries, and open spaces for hospitals and schools. She was influenced by the garden architect Willy Lange (1864–1941), who developed concepts of natural garden design that gained particular ideological influence in Germany during the Nazi period. Hammerbacher interpreted the garden as part of the landscape and promoted informal design and the use of so-called native plant associations. Her own garden in Nikolassee, Berlin, planned together with the gardens of ...


(b Stockholm, 1700; d Stockholm, 1753).

Swedish architect. His father, Johan Hårleman (1662–1707), was a landscape gardener who collaborated with Nicodemus Tessin the younger at Steninge Manor and on the garden at Drottningholm, near Stockholm. Carl Hårleman first trained as a draughtsman and architect at the palace works in Stockholm under Tessin and G. J. Adelcrantz (1668–1739). On Tessin’s recommendation he was sent to study in Paris and Italy (1721–6); he also visited Britain. In 1727 he was recalled to Stockholm to direct work on the Royal Palace as Tessin’s successor, and in 1741 he was appointed Superintendent. He visited France in 1731–2 and 1744–5 to recruit artists and craftsmen to work on the interiors of the Royal Palace and Drottningholm in Stockholm. Such visits also enabled him to remain in touch with French stylistic developments.

There are close connections between Hårleman’s designs for town and country houses and those of such French architects as Charles-Etienne Briseux and Jean-Baptiste Bullet. Svartsjö (...


Gordon Campbell

English country house and garden in Hertfordshire built for Cecil family §(2), Earl of Salisbury, between 1607 and 1612. The U-shaped house is a distinguished example of a Jacobean nobleman’s house, with a central hall and two symmetrical wings. The large two-storey hall with its minstrels’ gallery and plastered ceiling is a development of the English medieval hall. The state apartments are on the first floor, in the Italian style. The oak staircase that leads to these apartments is one of the finest in England.

The east garden was initially laid out on two terraces by Thomas Chandler, but in 1611 Caus, de family §(1) redesigned the garden, though he retained the services of Simon Sturtevant, Chandler’s water engineer. Water ran from the grand Fountain of Neptune in a garden laid out in parterres down to a water-garden for which Sturtevant built the hydraulics, which included a stream and fountains on an island with a pavilion. The collection of plants from the botanical gardens of the Netherlands, France and Italy was entrusted to John Tradescant (...


Dutch house and garden at Houten in the province of Utrecht. In 1680 Diderick van Velthuysen (1651–1716) bought the manor of Heemstede. The house had been built in 1645 and was surrounded by a rectangular garden with a symmetrical plan traversed by paths and canals. Van Velthuysen planned his garden as a visible demonstration of his loyalty to the house of Orange Nassau, and it is among the finest examples of Dutch classicizing gardens (see Garden §VIII 4., (v)). The plan may be French-inspired (and has been attributed to Daniel Marot I), but the ‘introspection’ of the individual gardens, each with its own views and decorations, is typically Dutch. The main axis runs east–west the full length of the garden, through wooded areas, avenues and formal gardens. All the paths are narrow, to disguise the narrowness of the estate itself. Behind the house are parterres de broderie...


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...


Reinhard Zimmermann

Place of retreat. The term refers to a building or group of buildings designed to allow a solitary form of existence. The outward forms of hermitages are extraordinarily diverse, reflecting in architectural terms the difference between the religious solitude of hermits and monks (see also Monastery) and the profane, worldly solitude of, for example, a ruler withdrawing from his official residence. While ‘hermitage’ refers literally to the religious aspect it conceals, the profane tradition lacks a special term; the most apt is ‘retreat’, although trianon (Fr.) and casino (It.) have been used occasionally (see also Grotto), and these should be distinguished from religious hermitages.

The architectural prototype of the worldly retreat in the Western tradition is the Island Villa of Hadrian’s Villa (ad 118–34), near Tivoli (see Tivoli, §2(i)). Its small size and centralized structure express its close relation to the Emperor’s individual life, while its isolation within the enormous villa complex and the circular moat around it indicate its function as a place of withdrawal. The centralized configuration influenced the Baroque profane hermitage through ...


Johannes Zahlten

Palace and garden on the outskirts of Hannover, Germany. After Duke Georg of Calenberg (d 1641) had elevated Hannover to the status of Residenzstadt, his summer residence was developed from an existing palace to the north-west of the town (from 1638). The modest palace, which was altered several times, was almost completely destroyed in 1943, but its Baroque gallery-building (1694–6) survives. The banqueting hall and residential wings are richly decorated: the frescoes (including an Aeneas cycle) were painted by the Venetian Tommaso Giusti (1644–1729), while the stucco decoration was executed by Dossa Grana, Pietro Rosso (fl 1695–1706) and others. To the south of the Residenz lies the park, the Grosser Garten, for which Herrenhausen is famed. The first pleasure garden, inspired by Venetian villa design, was created in 1666 by the landscape gardener Michael Grosse and developed (from 1674) by ...