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Article

Francis Summers

(b Montreal, Sept 27, 1943; d San Bernardino, CA, March 14, 2003).

Canadian painter, film maker and performance artist active in the USA. He completed his BFA at the Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, in 1970 and went on to complete his MFA at the California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, in 1972. He later settled in New York. His early work was mainly based around technological media, such as film and photography. At the beginning of the 1980s, in response to the widely touted return to painting, Goldstein also began to use this more traditional medium. Like other artists of his generation, such as with Cindy Sherman and Sherrie Levine, he questioned the value system of images and their manner of construction; he went so far as to have his works executed by other painters. His Untitled (1981; see 1988 exh. cat., p. 16) is an explosion of light effects in a night sky, against a smudged silhouette of the countryside, in a Photorealistic style. Goldstein’s major visual motif of this time was that of the night sky, fireworks or clouds as surrogates of the sublime. Goldstein sought in his paintings to remove any notion of the original and to replace it with empty spectacle. His ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(Lamont)

(b Glasgow, Sept 20, 1966).

Scottish video and installation artist. After studying at the Glasgow School of Art (1984–8) and at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1988–90), he returned to Glasgow. His work is often based on a disruption of perception; by making his audience aware of their own fugitive subjectivity, he questions how we give meaning to our experience of things. An early text work, Meaning and Location (1990), installed at University College London, demonstrates not only his emphasis on the importance of context, but also his exploration of semantic anomalies. By printing the same text twice with a misplaced comma (‘Truly I say to you, today you will be with me in paradise. Truly I say to you today, you will be with me in paradise’), he compromises and multiplies the original meaning of the words from the gospel of St Luke. In the 1994...

Article

Revised and updated by Margaret Barlow

(b Urbana, IL, March 31, 1942).

American performance artist, video artist, and writer. Graham founded the Daniels Gallery in New York and was its director from 1964 to 1965; there he came into contact with Minimalist artists such as Carl Andre, Sol LeWitt, and Donald Judd. This led him to question the gallery structure and the art displayed and to experiment with conceptual art. From 1965 to 1969 he produced a series of works published in magazines, such as Schema (1966; Brussels, Daled priv. col., see 1988 exh. cat., p. 9). This series consisted merely of a descriptive list of its own contents, including the number of words, and so referred to nothing beyond itself, unlike Minimalist art that he believed referred to the surrounding display space. Furthermore, the magazine was, unlike a gallery, clearly related to time and change through its regular appearance and topicality.

From 1969 to 1978 Graham was primarily involved with performance, film, and video. His first performance took place at the Loeb Student Center at New York University in ...

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, 1920).

Colombian painter, sculptor, printmaker, film maker and stage designer. He studied at the Art Students League in New York from 1941 to 1943 and subsequently visited Italy, where he studied fresco and etching techniques before settling again in Colombia. Consistently devoted to the human form, he initially depicted figures with angular heads and striped tunics in a strong light, with symbolic objects such as eggs, masks or cages.

In such later paintings as Boy with Umbrella (1964; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas) Grau’s figures were transformed into plump, fleshy and voluptuous beings, richly arrayed with lace, feathers, hats and fans, like characters taken from the theatre or from popular turn-of-the-century postcards. His scenes were gradually filled with anecdotal details and numerous objects, including cupboards, easels, boxes, masks and flowers, through which he suggested emotionally charged atmospheres. Grau also produced murals, prints, stage sets, films and especially sculptures. The first of these were assemblages of antique and industrial objects, but he subsequently made cast-bronze sculptures that convey a sensuousness, mystery and nostalgia similar to that evoked by his paintings....

Article

Catherine M. Grant and Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Cleveland, OH, 1959).

American printmaker, film maker, installation and conceptual artist and writer.

Green, of African descent, has worked primarily with film-based media, and has published criticism and designed installations that reveal her commitment to ongoing feminist and black empowerment movements. She earned her BA from Wesleyan University in 1981 and also spent some time at the School of Visual Arts in New York in 1980, returning in the late 1980s to study in the Whitney Independent Study Program, graduating in 1990. At the age of 24 she began exhibiting her comparative compositions containing found objects, images, and texts that question recorded history.

Green’s work deals with issues of anthropology and travel. By undertaking projects via the methodology of the 19th-century explorer, she exposed the arbitrary and prejudiced nature of classification, as in Bequest (1991; see 1993 exh. cat.), an installation she made at the invitation of the Worcester Museum of Art to commemorate their 50th anniversary. Using the museum as a ready-made stage set, she installed works of art alongside 19th-century texts explaining stereotypes of whiteness and blackness. Green characteristically intervened in the history of her chosen site to produce a fiction that included her own responses as an African American woman to her findings. In ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Newport, Wales, April 5, 1942).

British film maker, painter, writer, draughtsman, curator and installation artist. He was brought up in Walthamstow, London, studying design at Walthamstow School of Art between 1960 and 1964. After he left college he decided that he would go into the film industry and worked as a film journalist and an editing assistant before getting a job at the Crown Film Unit in 1965. He spent the next 11 years as an editor at the unit making short public information films. He continued to paint, with an increasing preoccupation being the classification and numbering of objects and events, as in Computer Vocabulary (1968; see 1998 exh. cat., pl. 12). In the mid-1960s he began to make short experimental films that often incorporated these ideas, as in A Walk Through H (1978) that includes shots of his paintings used as maps and landscapes. In the 1980s he gained a large new audience with his feature films, which continued to use painterly tableaux and intricate classification, as in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Nashville, TN, June 1, 1937).

American painter, sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, performance artist and film maker. He studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955), at the New School for Social Research in New York (1956) and under Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, MA (1957). Together with Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Robert Whitman (b 1935) and others, he was briefly an instrumental figure in the history of performance art in New York during the late 1950s with the Happenings he presented as early as 1957, most famously The Burning Building (1959), which took place in his loft at 148 Delancey Street (designated the Delancey Street Museum). With their narrative flow and elements of comedy, Grooms’s highly engaging performances were closer to the ‘painter’s theatre’ of Dine than to the events created by Kaprow or the Fluxus artists. The energy that went into these performances was soon redeployed into films, beginning with ...

Article

Andrew Cross

(b Newcastle Upon Tyne, June 20, 1964).

English sculptor, video artist, film maker and installation artist. She began making and exhibiting film and video works soon after graduating in sculpture from Falmouth School of Art in 1987. She moved to London and had made a number of video works by the time she had completed an MFA at Goldsmiths’ College in 1994. Setting the tone for future work, these videos mostly document her own and other people’s actions. In Climbing around my Room (1993), lasting seven minutes and thirty seconds, a woman wearing a red taffeta dress is seen circumnavigating a room without ever touching the floor. Much in Gunning’s videos references early works by video artists such as Bruce Nauman, but her focus on formal actions is overlaid by the complexities of metaphor and humour in situations that determine their own language and structure. For another video seven and a half minutes in length, ...

Article

Klaus Ottmann

(b Lima, OH, June 22, 1956).

American installation artist, photographer, and video artist. Hamilton is known for creating complexly structured, highly sensual, site-specific environments that investigate visual and aural relationships with the human body. Hamilton studied textile design at the University of Kansas in Lawrence and sculpture at Yale University School of Art in New Haven. Using a wide range of metaphorical and associative materials, her installations function in the chasm between immediate experience and memory and frequently address the antinomy of creation and destruction in art.

In Privations & Excesses (1989; San Francisco, CA, Capp Street Project), Hamilton sat in a room whose floor was covered with 750,000 pennies, while obsessively wringing her hands in a hat filled with honey and, in an barred space behind her, several sheep grazed. In topos (1993; New York, Dia Center for the Arts), a figure seated in the midst of an expansive sea of interwoven horsehair, fastidiously erased printed letters from a book with a heating coil. In ...

Article

Andrew Cross

(b Heidelberg, April 12, 1963).

German sculptor and film maker active in the UK. At the age of nine Hansen moved with his family to Liverpool. He grew up in England, eventually studying Fine Art at Reading University; after graduating in 1985 he settled in London for six years. At this time he was producing large, highly staged, poetic black-and-white photographs deconstructing masculinity, placing himself in the images in a shaman-like role. Pursuing interests in anthropology, in 1986 he travelled to Colombia, where he spent a full year living with the Waunana Indians; the experience had a profound influence upon his future work, surfacing through themes of gender, power and imperialism. Returning to London he developed the ambitious work Feature (installed London, Interim A., 1991). This architectural installation occupied two small gallery rooms, a significant aspect of the work being the cladding of the galleries with untreated wood panels. Each room housed a cabinet containing select objects heavily loaded in symbolism and referring, on the one hand, to the dwellings and rituals of a native culture and, on the other, to the sanitation of a European hospital. Included among these objects were hybrid sword-like tools highly crafted in polished chrome. Similarly crafted creations, but also objects made in leather, wood, glass and chocolate, appeared in later works. In ...

Article

Julia Bryan-Wilson

(b Baltimore, MD, 1970).

American performance, video, and installation artist. Her work investigates questions of history, memory, and language, particularly through feminist and queer lenses. Hayes received a BA in anthropology from Bowdoin College in Maine in 1992, and then moved to New York, where she became involved in the intertwined worlds of queer dance/performance/theatre and AIDS activism. From 1999 to 2000 Hayes attended the Whitney Independent Study Program, and in 2003 she received her Masters of Fine Arts from the University of California at Los Angeles, where she studied with the conceptual feminist artist Mary Kelly.

Hayes pioneered what she referred to as ‘re-speaking’, a mode of performance in which she activates archival documents by speaking them again, as a way of reflecting upon how the circumstances of speech and utterance have changed. Some projects that utilized re-speaking include her project Symbionese Liberation Army (2003), a series of videos showing Hayes reciting transcripts she partially memorized of the audio tapes made by kidnapped heiress Patty Hearst in ...

Article

Barbara Lange

revised by Andrés Mario Zervigón

[Herzfeld, Helmut ]

(b Berlin, June 19, 1891; d Berlin, April 26, 1968).

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in 1913, where he and his brother Wieland Herzfeld made contact with avant-garde circles. (Wieland changed his surname to Herzfelde in early 1914.) Heartfield’s experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art was that which took account of social realities (see Eclipse of the Sun on the Rhine, 1957). He destroyed all his early work.

From 1916 Heartfield collaborated closely with George Grosz and in the summer of 1917, like Grosz, anglicized his name, although he did not adopt this form officially until after the war. His earnest criticism of bourgeois society found its expression in his commitment to the ...

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

(b Cleveland, OH, 1941).

American performance artist, filmmaker and teacher. She received degrees from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and San Francisco State University and numerous awards, including the Siemens-Medienkunstpreis award from the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (1995), a prize from the Flintridge Foundation (1998) and a Golden Nica Prize at Ars Electronica (1999). She started her career making sculptural figures with a soundtrack of breathing and voices, which she exhibited in 1972 at the University Art Museum in Berkeley, CA. The exhibition was unexpectedly cancelled because the museum didn’t accept the audio component as a legitimate part of the show. Soon after, she became interested in construction of identity, focusing on fictional lives, using masquerade and persona in works such as Self-Portrait as Another Person. During the period 1973 to 1978, she created an imaginary person Roberta Breitmore, which included transformation of her appearance as well as practical things such as a driver’s license, intended to highlight women’s experience in society and culture....

Article

(b Melbourne, July 31, 1937).

Australian painter. He studied graphic design from 1954 to 1957 at the Swinburne Technical College in Melbourne, where Robert Rooney was a fellow student. For the next two years he worked as a graphic artist for ABC Television in Melbourne and in 1964 had his first one-man show at the Toorak Galleries there. His early work of the mid- to late 1960s was based on a reduction of mundane objects into a geometrical pattern. Untitled (1967–8; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria), for example, is derived from an eiderdown and like many works of this period creates an ambiguity between flatness and depth through trompe l’oeil modelling. This process of reduction was carried to extremes from 1967 to 1970 with, for example, an exhibition of fences in 1969.

Hickey’s interest in mass-produced objects and patterns led to a pictorial search for the essence or archetypes of objects in the 1970s. The Cup Series...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Santa Monica, CA, April 4, 1951).

American video and installation artist. In 1969 he moved to Woodstock, NY, and began studying in New York at the Art Students’ League. His early work was sculptural, but in the early 1970s he turned to audio and video, experimenting with imaging equipment and digital processing to create visual effects analogous to the appearance of abstract paintings. Much of this experimentation took place during a residency at the Experimental Television Center, Binghampton, NY (1975–7). His sculptural background continued to play a part in his video installations; for his earliest video installation, Hole in the Wall (1974), he broke a hole through a wall of the Woodstock Artists’ Association, placing on the other side a monitor that replayed his destructive action. In the late 1970s he became interested in the possibilities of combining images, sound and language. His work often makes specific literary references; Incidence of Catastrophe...

Article

Deborah Nash

(b Nuremberg, Feb 21, 1938).

German painter, film maker and teacher. In 1959 he studied under Fred Thieler at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, but turned away from his mentor’s abstraction to a more figurative Expressionist style of painting. In 1961 he joined a group called ‘Vision’ and in 1964 co-founded Grossgörschen 35, an artists’ co-operative that exhibited a range of figurative work by artists who rejected abstraction. Passage V (1964; Düsseldorf, priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 32) is typical of Hödicke’s interest at the time in light and reflections: a car speeds past a department store at night and the instant is caught as rapid streaks of light; lights from the car collide with the artificial lights of the glass façade.

In 1966 the Grossgörschen group dissolved and Hödicke temporarily abandoned painting for a more conceptual approach. He moved to New York where he made a number of experimental films, such as ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

revised by Jean Robertson

(b Brussels, Dec 6, 1961).

Belgian sculptor, installation and conceptual artist active in Germany and Sweden. He studied phytopathology (plant diseases) and agronomic entomology at the University of Kiel, where he received a doctorate in 1988. After an early career as an agricultural scientist specializing in insect communication, Höller became a full-time artist in 1993. He created a wide variety of objects and situations, many of them participatory in nature, using such means as toys, animals, flashing lights, mirrors, sensory deprivation tanks, dark passages, giant slides, carousel rides, pheromones and huge rotating sculptural replicas of upside-down fly agaric (a poisonous, hallucinogenic mushroom; see fig.). His art projects include various optical and sensory experiments that explore individual physiological and psychological reactions to experiences that alter perception and consciousness. Despite his scientific training, Höller’s goals as an artist have not been to achieve the certainty of quantifiable scientific conclusions. Rather he has emphasized doubt and the inability to achieve conclusive explanations. He signalled his preoccupation with doubt in ...

Article

Diane Kirkpatrick

Image with the illusion of three-dimensionality, recorded on light-sensitive plates, paper or film. It is made by using a laser beam of high-intensity coherent monochromatic light. The original holographic process was discovered in the late 1940s by the British scientist Dennis Gabor (1900–77), who gave it its name; deriving from the Greek words holos (‘whole, entire’) and gramma (‘picture’). The medium was developed only after the invention of the laser in 1960. After that, many scientists joined in perfecting variations of the process, which captured and stored all visible detail in a subject. By moving in front of a holographic plate, the viewer has the sensation of looking over and around holographed foreground objects.

Although holographic techniques differ in detail, the basic principle is to split the laser beam so that one part reflects light waves over the surfaces of the subject and from there towards a very fine-grain photosensitive surface. The second part of the reference beam comes unimpeded towards the photo-plate, where the interference pattern, made when the object waves interact with the light waves of the reference beam, is recorded. Early holograms were viewed by projecting a duplicate of the recording laser beam through the plate to reconstruct the original three-dimensional light image of the subject....

Article

Beatrice v. Bismarck

(b Michelstadt, March 24, 1944).

German sculptor and film maker. She studied at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Hamburg (1964–70). After a period in London (1971–2), she lived for a long time in New York, with visits to Berlin and a visiting lectureship at the California Art Institute, Los Angeles, in 1974. In 1968 she produced her first body sculptures, in which she attached objects and instruments to the human body, taking as her theme the contact between a person and his or her environment. Artificial extensions of fingers and arms, antenna-like headpieces or disguises for the whole body illustrate the various sensitive functions of the human body (e.g. Arm Extensions, 1968; see 1983 exh. cat., p. 21).

From 1970 Horn documented her work using video and film, establishing a connection between sculpture and action. She increasingly used feathers, for example in masks or constructions that enclose the entire body, closing off the wearer from the environment. The spectator’s occasional glimpses through the constructions produce a high level of intimacy; in ...