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Citrine  

Gordon Campbell

Article

M. B. Whitaker

[Raymond Oswald]

(b Liverpool, June 9, 1942; d London, Aug 8, 1996).

English fashion designer. Clark revolutionized London fashion for young women during the pivotal transition from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, embracing the youth movement of the ‘Swinging Sixties’ and the raucous and reckless spirit of the drug-riddled 1970s. He and his wife, textile designer Celia Birtwell (b 1941), collaborated to create boldly printed, sexy evening wear and well-tailored yet feminine sportswear (see fig.). Their work was sold at the London boutique Quorum until its close in 1975.

Born Raymond Oswald Clark to a working-class family in Liverpool, Clark was raised in northern England in Oswaldtwistle—his family’s ancestral village, to which he owed his middle name. Granted a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London, Clark was a star fashion design student. British Vogue featured the young mastermind in August 1965 at the age of 23. He entered into a business partnership with Alice Pollock and they opened the boutique Quorum, which was distinctive for its range of products: dresses, trousers, suits, coats, sweaters, stockings and accessories. That Clark was designing much of what the boutique sold speaks to his vast skill set and artistic vision. His innovative cutting and draping techniques and experimental use of different fabrics made him capable of producing slinky, often bias-cut, jersey gowns with plunging necklines but also expertly tailored suits. The contribution of his talented wife’s textiles added to the depth of his opus. Birtwell’s nature-inspired prints were both striking and romantic (...

Article

Ann Poulson

The costume of ancient Greece and Rome, as represented in sculpture, frescoes and vase paintings, and often associated with the divinities of mythology, democratic ideals and powerful empires, is fundamental in the history of Western dress. Despite the fact that the Greek system of pure drapery was the polar opposite of the tailored costume that ultimately prevailed after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Greek system has been one of the greatest influences on Western fashion. Twentieth-century fashion designers, for example, have been particularly attracted to its principles and its elegant simplicity. Although not always dominant, classicism has never been completely absent from fashion.

The apogee of Greek art occurred during the Classical period (c. 500/480–323 bc) when there were three main garments: the peplos, himation and chiton (see Dress, §II, 2). The peplos, worn by women, was a single rectangle of wool woven to the proportions of the wearer. In the Classical period it was folded in half lengthwise to cover the front and back of the body and again folded down at the top, then secured at each shoulder with a fibula, or pin. One or more belts could be worn to anchor the garment to the body. The ...

Article

Sharon Matt Atkins

(b Oakland, CA, Aug 26, 1925; d Tucson, AZ, June 4, 2009).

American painter, printmaker and teacher. Colescott produced highly expressive and gestural paintings that addressed a wide range of social and cultural themes and challenged stereotypes. Interested in issues of race, gender and power, his work critiqued the representation of minorities in literature, history, art and popular culture. Stylistically, his work is indebted to European modernism, particularly Cubism and Expressionism, but also makes references to African sculpture, African American art and post–World War II American styles.

Colescott was introduced to art at an early age. His mother was a pianist and his father was a classically-trained violinist and jazz musician. Through his parents’ social circles, he often found himself surrounded by creative individuals as he was growing up, like his artistic mentor, the sculptor Sargent Johnson (1888–1967). Colescott received his BA in 1949 and later his MFA in 1952 from the University of California, Berkeley. He also studied with ...

Article

(b Toronto, Aug 24, 1920; d Wolfville, Nova Scotia, July 16, 2013).

Canadian painter. He moved with his family to Amherst, NS, in 1929; his father, a Scottish immigrant, worked in steel construction, his mother was a milliner. His work at a local art class came to the attention of Stanley Royle (1888–1961), an English artist teaching at Mount Allison University in Sackville, NB, who persuaded him to study art. Colville studied for a BFA at Mount Allison University and on graduating in 1942 joined the Canadian Army, serving in the infantry until 1946. In May 1944 he was appointed an Official War Artist; he served in England, at the landings in southern France, and with the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division in Holland and Germany. He returned to Canada in October 1945 and on his demobilization in the following year began teaching at Mount Allison University, remaining in that post until 1963, when he resigned to paint full-time. The war art experience had a profound effect on his development, both in the need rapidly to master techniques and by the special circumstances of being both an observer of and participant in momentous events. He rejected the concern with landscape that dominated Canadian painting, instead valuing the traditions of figurative art ranging broadly from ancient Egypt through Renaissance painting to the work of Manet. He was especially drawn to American artists such as Thomas Eakins and, among 20th-century painters, to Ben Shahn and Edward Hopper....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Variety of chalcedony, a semi-transparent quartz, of a deep dull red, flesh, or reddish white colour. It has been carved since the time of the ancient Egyptians, for whom supplies were available as pebbles that could be collected in the Eastern desert.

M. M. Bullard and others: ‘Lorenzo de’ Medici’s Acquisition of the Sigillo di Nerone’, ...

Article

Molly Sorkin

(b Pau, March 9, 1923).

French fashion designer. Courrèges is credited with introducing a youthful, unadorned and undeniably modern style to couture in the mid-1960s (see fig.). His radical views on the way women should dress, though considered shocking in some quarters, were enthusiastically adopted by socialites and pop stars alike, including Princess Lee Radziwill and the French singer Françoise Hardy. The Courrèges style helped define a generation of women who were youthful, active and receptive to designs influenced by such seemingly disparate elements as technology, sex, childhood and architecture. Courrèges’s sleek, futuristic designs earned him such nicknames as the Le Corbusier of fashion and the space-age couturier.

Courrèges was born in Pau in the Basque region of France and received training as an engineer. In 1950, he began working for the Spanish couturier based in Paris, Cristobal Balenciaga. The two men shared their Basque heritage and a design philosophy that was ruled by proportion and the architecture of tailoring. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1723; d 1800).

English jeweller, clockmaker, toymaker and maker of automata. In 1745 he established himself in Fleet Street a goldsmith, jeweller, and toyman; 1756 he entered into partnership with Edward Grace and moved to 103 Shoe Lane. The business went bankrupt in 1758, but when Cox was discharged from bankruptcy in 1763, he started a new business, manufacturing mechanical clocks for export to the Far East. Few examples of his products survive, but they include the Swan automaton (Bowes Museum, Castle Barnard), and (probably) the Peacock clock (Hermitage, St Petersburg) (see fig.). In 1772 he opened Cox’s Museum in Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, in which he housed 22 of his large automata, ranging in height from 3 to 5 metres.

In 1769 Cox bouught the Chelsea Porcelain Factory from Nicholas Sprimont, but soon sold it on to Derby Porcelain Factory. Cox & Son traded as jewellers in Shoe Lane until ...

Article

Nancy Deihl

British couture firm known for fine tailoring. Founded in 1710 by James Creed, the house was operated by six generations of the Creed family. Over the course of two and a half centuries, Creed grew from a small tailor’s shop into a respected couture house, offering women the fine materials, technical finesse and prestige associated with bespoke menswear. The same family established a renowned fragrance company that continues in operation as the House of Creed, under the direction of Olivier Henry Creed (b 1943).

For almost 150 years, Creed was located solely in London, by the 1820s at 33 Conduit Street, where its clientele appreciated the traditional styling and impeccable workmanship of the firm. As the restrained elegance associated with English style grew in popularity in the early 19th century, Creed gained a more international following. Many important and memorable figures of fashion, including Alfred, Comte d’Orsay (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Stiff cloth made with a warp of cotton or linen thread and a woof of horse-hair (Fr. crin). It was originally used for shoes and half-boots (bottines), and in the early 19th century for dresses and bonnets; from the mid-19th century it was primarily used for hooped petticoats, which came to be known as crinolines....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Philip Attwood

[Crocker, Johann]

(b Dresden, Oct 21, 1670; d London, March 21, 1741).

British medallist of German birth. Trained as a jeweller, he arrived in England in 1691 and learnt the art of die-engraving. He became assistant engraver at the Royal Mint, London, in 1697, the year in which he executed a silver and bronze medal for William III symbolizing the State of Britain after the Peace of Ryswick (see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, pp. 192, 499). Such medals as those commemorating the accession and the coronation (both gold, silver and bronze, 1702; see hfg, ii, pp. 227–8) of Queen Anne, together with the medal celebrating the Battle of Blenheim (silver and bronze, 1704; see hfg, p. 256), ensured that he was given the post of Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint when it became vacant in 1705. For the next 30 years he produced single-handedly most of the British official medals, as well as engraving the dies for the coinage of Queen Anne, George I and the first issue of George II. He also modelled a large cast medallic portrait of ...

Article

Culet  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Cutwork  

Gordon Campbell

[It. punto tagliato]

Openwork linen fabric made by cutting away portions of the fabric and filling the gaps with ornamental designs made with needle and thread. The technique was evolved prior to that of Lace, of which it is an early form, and cutwork clothing became fashionable in 16th-century Italy. The most important designer of cutwork patterns was Matio Pagano....

Article

Kristen Shirts and Pamela Roskin

(b Bègles, ?Oct 10, 1893; d Louvecienne, Dec 31, 1989).

French milliner, active also in the USA. Daché was a milliner whose career spanned over five decades. Her success, like that of her fellow countrywoman, Coco Chanel, lay in her ability to sell her image as well as her product. Daché started her career in hats but later moved into perfumes, apparel, cosmetics and other products. She innovated the now-common practice of licensing her name to other manufacturers. Unlike the avant-garde fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli, Daché produced hats that were accessible and appealed to a wide audience. Her trademark designs included floral hats, turbans and hairnets decorated with ribbons and trimmings (see fig.). Her celebrity clientele included Marlene Dietrich, Joan Crawford, Ginger Rogers and Carmen Miranda.

Daché began her millinery career in her teens as an apprentice to the famous Parisian hat makers Suzanne Talbot and Caroline Reboux (1837–1927). At the start of the 1920s, she moved to the United States. She worked briefly as a hat salesgirl at Macy’s in New York and as a milliner in small shops; by ...

Article

(b Venarcy, Côte-d’Or, Jan 2, 1854; d Dijon, Sept 26, 1945).

French sculptor, jeweller and furniture designer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Dijon and then, in 1874, under François Jouffroy and Paul Dubois (ii) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He first exhibited at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français in 1876 with his bust of an architect called Belot (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.) and in 1877 he came second in the Prix de Rome. In 1879 he was awarded a second-class medal for his plaster sculpture Ismael (Châlons-sur-Marne, Mus. Mun.) and in 1881 he won a first-class medal for the marble St John the Baptist (Paris, Mus. d’Orsay). He travelled in Italy from 1882 to 1883 and later visited Spain and Morocco on a travel scholarship. In 1889 he ceased exhibiting at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français and instead exhibited at the recently established Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He worked primarily in bronze but also in ivory, silver and gold, and produced some jewellery. His sculptures were mainly inspired by religious and mythological subjects executed in a highly finished academic style (e.g. ...

Article

Julius Bryant

(b Liverpool, Oct 26, 1759; d Rome, Aug 17, 1798).

English sculptor. He was born into a family of jewellers and as a child showed prodigious carving skills before serving his apprenticeship in the workshop of Thomas Carter (d 1795) from 1776. The following year he enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools, where his fine draughtsmanship is said to have prompted Joseph Nollekens (then Visitor) to abandon sketching altogether. In 1780 Deare became the youngest artist to win the Academy’s gold medal, with a model representing Adam and Eve from Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ (probably terracotta; untraced). After a further three years with Carter he set up his own workshop in 1783, modelling figures for John Bacon (i), John Cheere and others, and exhibiting that year at the first exhibition of the Society for Promoting Painting and Design in Liverpool. Like John Gibson (i) later, he was encouraged by William Roscoe, the Society’s Vice-President. The four exhibited works represented ...

Article

Nele Bernheim

(b Kortrijk, Belgium, Dec 29, 1959)

Belgian fashion designer. Ann Demeulemeester studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Antwerp (1977-81). In 1982 she won the first-ever Gouden Spoel (Golden Spindle) award. She created the company bvba ‘32’ in 1985 with her photographer husband, Patrick Robyn, in Antwerp. Her breakthrough came with her first women’s collection as a member of the informal group known as ‘The Antwerp Six’ at London’s British Designer Show in 1987. Her first line of shoes and accessories followed in 1988. Demeulemeester established herself as a leading avant-garde independent designer with her first show in Paris in 1992. Her designs, chiefly executed in black and white, are typified by the union of contrasts such as elegant flowing drapery and sharp cuts.

Demeulemeester’s vocabulary consists of a poetic mix of modernism, sensuality and a spark of rebellion. Her game of contrasts—a sharp cut and flowing layers—demonstrates a gamut of emotions. The silhouettes she has been creating since the beginning of her career are innovative and modern and have proven to be strong enough to survive short-term trends. The coexistent subversive sobriety, uneasy romanticism, and rough finish of her creations earned her the label ‘deconstructivist’ in the early 1990s. However, her output has changed and evolved from one collection to the next with the distillation of her ideas. Demeulemeester works with a compelling sense of abstraction, often disrupting codes and playing with the notion of androgyny. She explores a silhouette in depth, in all its possibilities. Her creative process is almost scientific. Solving successive design problems, she arrives at new forms, and a collection is built that generates tension by means of contrasts. The search for the right cut, the right form, the right drape, the right proportion animates Demeulemeester’s love of transformable clothing. An intricate assemblage of ties and slits permits the perfect drape. Her garments suggest movement, even when the wearer is standing still. Trousers appear to slip off the hip; blouses slip off the shoulder; a dress is tight on one side of the body and loosely draped over the other (...

Article

Ann Poulson

[Verginie, Jean Dimitre]

(b Alexandria, Aug 6, 1904; d Athens, Aug 2, 1970).

Greek fashion designer based in Paris. Dessès was born in Egypt to Greek parents and arrived in Paris in the 1920s to study law and diplomacy. By 1925 he had changed his mind and was employed as a designer for Maison Jane. He left Maison Jane to open his own couture house in 1937 at 37, Avenue George V, eventually moving to 17, Avenue Matignon. Dessès is best known for his silk chiffon evening gowns draped asymmetrically in a Neo-classical style.

Though Dessès was raised in Egypt, he considered Greece his native land and the influence of Greek antiquity is clearly seen in his signature draped evening gowns. In appearance they resembled garments represented in ancient sculpture, but in construction they were more closely allied to the moulded and heavily structured gowns of the 19th century, being mounted on corseted bodices and stiffened petticoats. Over this foundation he skilfully manouevered the fabric into pleats and twists, bunches and braids, occasionally releasing it into a flowing scarf. When Dessès used materials stiffer than his favourite silk chiffon, he would often incorporate similar techniques, using sunray pleating or knotting the material, sometimes gathering it at the hips to suggest paniers....

Article

Judith O’Callaghan

(b Geelong, Victoria, Oct 9, 1931).

Australian silversmith, jeweller and designer, active in England. He trained at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, the Royal College of Art, London, and Columbia University, New York, between 1950 and 1962. Based in London from 1965, he specialized in the production of elaborately decorated wares distinguished by the extensive use of textured surfaces, filigree and gilding, frequently incorporating figurative and floral motifs. His range of products, which includes flatware, hollow-ware and jewellery, extends from large sculptural presentation pieces to such luxury novelty items as surprise eggs. He also designed the first Australian decimal coins (1965), commemorative medallions and insignia, as well as interiors and furniture. Devlin was made a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company by special grant in 1966 and elected a liveryman in 1972. In 1980 he was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George ‘for services to the art of design’ and in ...