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Patrick M. de Winter

French family of patrons. The family, documented from 1100, originally came from Touraine, but in 1469 the line passed to a cadet branch, the Chaumont-d’Amboise. Pierre II Chaumont-d’Amboise (d 1473), Counsellor of Valois, House of family, §8 and Valois, House of family, §9 and governor of Touraine, had a large family, several members of which rose to prominence and were active as patrons: his eighth son, (1) Cardinal Georges I d’Amboise and his grandson (2) Charles II d’Amboise, Comte de Chaumont, both resident for a time in Milan, brought Italian artists to work on their projects in France, and they were instrumental in the spread of the Renaissance there.

The patronage of Pierre II’s eldest son, Charles I (d by 16 March 1503), was centred on the rebuilding of the family château of Chaumont, razed by King Louis XI in 1465. His fourth son, Louis I (...

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Linda Whiteley

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(b Athribis, nr Benha, c. 1440 bc; d c. 1350 bc).

Ancient Egyptian architect and patron. Amenhotpe rose to prominence in his home town during the reign of Amenophis III (reg c. 1391–c. 1353 bc) as a royal scribe and chief of the priests of the local god Khentekhtai. About 1390 bc he moved to the royal court at Thebes and was rapidly promoted by Amenophis III to the position of chief royal architect, responsible for the whole process of temple construction, from quarrying to the sculpting of relief decoration, as well as the commissioning of royal statues. The full list of buildings for which Amenhotpe was architect is not known, but he certainly supervised the construction of a huge temple at Soleb near the second cataract of the Nile in Lower Nubia, where several of the reliefs depict him standing alongside the King during the temple consecration ceremony. He also built two tombs and a mortuary temple for himself on the west bank at Thebes (...

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Ian M. E. Shaw

[Nebmaatre]

(reg c. 1391–c. 1353 bc). Egyptian ruler and patron. He reigned in the late 18th Dynasty (c. 1540–c. 1292 bc), a time of great national peace and prosperity. Amenophis III was a prolific builder: it was during his reign that Amenhotpe, the greatest Egyptian architect since Imhotep, rose to a position of power and influence as ‘Overseer of all the King’s Works’.

Although Amenophis III constructed numerous temples, from Memphis and Bubastis in the north of Egypt to Soleb and Sedeinga in the south (see Nubia, §III), only a small number of these have survived. His mortuary temple, built in fine white limestone on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes, must have been one of the most impressive buildings of the time, but it was systematically dismantled in the 19th Dynasty (c. 1292–c. 1190 bc). Only a few items of sculpture and stelae have been preserved from it, notably the celebrated ‘...

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Elisabeth Landolt

Swiss family of collectors of German origin. Johannes Amerbach (b ?Amorbach, c. 1450; d Basle, Dec 25, 1513) gained his MA at the Sorbonne, Paris, and trained as a printer in Nuremberg and Venice. In 1482 he settled in Basle, where in 1484 he founded his own print shop and publishing house. He was in close contact with Albrecht Dürer during the latter’s stay in Basle (1491–2). Apart from works of art for personal use, for example ornamental daggers, he probably owned graphic and print blocks for woodcut illustrations by Dürer. Johannes’s son, Bonifacius Amerbach (b Basle, 11 Oct 1495; d Basle, 24 April 1562), a lawyer, professor at the University of Basle and syndic of the Basle council, was the heir and executor of Erasmus and owned paintings by the Holbein family and important gold and silver pieces, for example the well-known ‘...

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Claude Vandersleyen

[Amenemhet III; Nymaatre]

Egyptian ruler. Both architecture and sculpture have survived from his reign in the 12th Dynasty (for chronological chart of Egyptian kings see Egypt, ancient, fig.). He built two pyramids, one at Dahshur and the other at Hawara in the Faiyum region, where is also a small temple, finished by Ammenemes III’s successor, Ammenemes IV; the reliefs in this temple have not been published in detail. Some reliefs of Ammenemes III were also found at Abydos (Philadelphia, U. PA, Mus.); they display little of the quality and interest of the reliefs of his predecessor, Sesostris III.

There are more than 50 statues and heads of Ammenemes III, easily identifiable because of his distinctive physiognomy. As with the statues of Sesostris III, they appear to correspond to various ages of the King; however, this progression is probably complicated by wider variations of style and dimensions. The characteristic traits of these heads are large eyes (always serious and impassive), exceptionally large ears and a nose that is far less prominent than that of Sesostris III and hooks back into the face after the bump of the nasal bone. His mouth has thick, curled lips, the corners of which turn up to end against fleshy protuberances. The cheek-bones are very high and wide and are cut by a wrinkle leaving the inside corner of the eye at an angle of 45°....

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Lucia Battista

(b Florence, 1650; d Florence, 1729).

Italian abbot, writer and collector. The son of Girolamo Andreini and Maria Bussini, in 1670 he married Isabella Marsuppini, who bore him two daughters. Widowed at an early age, he devoted his time to his studies, becoming a connoisseur of antique objets d’art. He was frequently consulted by famous collectors and erudites, including Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici, who often approached him for valuations of coins and gemstones. From 1674 to 1687 he lived in Naples as the Consul to the Florentine Nation. Subsequently he moved to Venice and then to Rome, returning eventually to Florence. He was a friend to such important figures as Queen Christina of Sweden, Filippo Buonarroti, Antonio Francesco Gori and Antonimo Magliabechiano. He was also interested in matters of chivalry, which forms the subject-matter of many of his surviving writings. A dedicated collector, he gathered Etruscan and Roman archaeological finds, including ancient funerary inscriptions, bronzes, coins, gems and sculptures, enjoying to the full the contemporary fashion for the study of antiquity. Alongside such artefacts, he also acquired several paintings by ...

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Nancy G. Heller

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Donatella L. Sparti

(b Terni, after 1559; d Rome, ?Nov 29, 1652).

Italian writer, historian and collector. He produced about 38 novels and several comedies, although his literary works have been little studied. In Perugia he was a member of the Accademia degli Insensati, under the name Tenebroso. He is documented as having been in Rome in the late 16th century as secretary to Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini (later Pope Clement VIII) and chief Apostolic Notary. At his home on the Pincio hill he accumulated a substantial collection, containing scientific instruments, examples of flora and fauna, a picture gallery, a large collection of Kleinkunst, medals, and a vast assortment of drawings by contemporary artists especially Annibale Carracci. The collection was accompanied by a rich library. The organization and contents of the collection are described by Angeloni himself in a manuscript in Venice (Fletcher, 1974). From 1634 his nephew Giovanni Pietro Bellori lived in the house; Angeloni educated him in art, literature and antiquities, and introduced him into the circle of classicist artists with whom he had formed a relationship, more in the role of erudite mentor than that of patron....

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David Blayney Brown

(b St Petersburg, 1735; d Blackheath [now London], Jan 22, 1823).

Merchant, philanthropist and collector. He was supposedly the natural son of the Empress Anna of Russia and an English merchant. In the course of his career in the City of London he established Lloyd’s on a new footing. He amassed a fortune that he expended on charity and, from about 1790, on collecting paintings, guided by Benjamin West and Thomas Lawrence. Angerstein’s first acquisitions were English pictures: family portraits commissioned from Joshua Reynolds from 1765, and William Hogarth’s Self-portrait with a Pug (1745; London, Tate), bought in 1789. After 1790 he took advantage of the dispersal of Continental collections after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic campaigns to secure Old Masters in prime examples, sometimes at record prices. His early purchase (1794) of Aelbert Cuyp’s Hilly River Landscape (c. 1655–66; London, N.G.) proved to be untypical of a taste that inclined to figure paintings by Raphael, ...

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Andrew McClellan

[Billarderie d’Angiviller, Comte de la; Flahaut, Charles-Claude]

(b Saint-Rémy-sur-l’Eau, Jan 24, 1730; d Altona, nr Hamburg, Dec 11, 1809).

French administrator. His brief but distinguished military career led to the Dauphin Louis, son of Louis XV, by whose side he had served at the Battle of Fontenoy (1745), entrusting him with the education of the royal princes, including the Duc de Berry, the future Louis XVI. Flahaut’s many years of faithful service were rewarded with his appointment as Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi after Louis XVI’s accession in 1774. Although nothing in his background had prepared him for his new responsibilities—he was of pure military stock and unlike his predecessor, the Marquis de Marigny, had not been groomed in the arts—he proved an excellent civil servant: efficient, imaginative and, above all, devoted to the King. Of all 18th-century Directeurs des Bâtiments, he alone merits comparison with Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV’s great minister.

D’Angiviller is best known for his attempts to revitalize history painting and sculpture (see...

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(fl 1708; d Paris, 1747).

French courtier, soldier and collector. Despite a Jansenist education, he entered whole-heartedly into the life of the royal court and won the favour of Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans. He developed his love of art through his maternal uncle, Du Vivier, who bequeathed him his remarkable collection, rich in curiosities, East Asian porcelain and paintings, which Angran augmented, not hesitating to resell in order to acquire the finest pieces. At his death, his collection was dispersed in sales between December 1747 and March 1748. It comprised fine landscapes, including works by Paul Bril, Jan Breughel I, Claude Lorrain and François Boucher, and numerous Flemish and Dutch genre scenes by such masters as Adriaen van Ostade, Gerrit Dou and Gabriel Metsu, which reflect the contemporary predilection for the Northern painters. The collection included such outstanding works as Breughel’s Abraham Sacrificing Isaac (Geneva, Mus. A. & Hist.), Claude Lorrain’s Judgement of Paris (...

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[Anhalt, Duke of]

(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).

German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...

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L. James

(b ?Constantinople, c. ad 461–3; d Constantinople, c. 527–9). Byzantine patron. As the great-granddaughter of Galla Placidia and daughter of Flavius Anicius Olybrius (Emperor of the West, reg 472) she was the last major figure of the Theodosian house. In 512, during a popular uprising against Emperor Anastasius I (reg 491–518), the imperial crown was pressed on her husband Flavius Areobindus Dagalaifus, an honour he avoided by flight. Her imperial connections and social standing gave her an important status at court and she was an active patron. She is chiefly remembered for the Dioskurides codex (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., med. gr. 1), which was produced in Constantinople c. 512 (see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §I, 2, (ii)). The inscription around her portrait (fol. 6v) indicates that the manuscript was commissioned for her by the people of Onoratou, a suburb of Constantinople, in gratitude for a church she built for them....