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D. O. Shvidkovsky

Monastery at Teryayevo in Russia, some 110 km north-west of Moscow. It was founded in 1479 by Iosif Volotsky (1439–1515), who successfully resisted the 15th-century movement to secularize monastic properties, and was partially paid for by the Grand Princes of Moscow, who helped to establish it as a centre for icon painting and manuscript illumination and who established its collection of ancient reliquaries. Between 1484 and 1500 Dionisy painted an extensive series of icons for the monastery.

The monastery’s first stone church was built between 1484 and 1486 and was surrounded by brick walls c. 1543–66. The whole complex, which is enclosed on two sides by a lake, was completely rebuilt between the 1670s and 1690s and is a fine example of 17th-century Russian architecture, with its numerous white walls and towers and well-proportioned stone-stepped roofs. A two-storey building pierced by two asymmetrically placed gates, the Holy Gates, serves as the main entrance to the monastery. The five-domed church of the Dormition (...

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John Curran, Andrew N. Palmer, J. van Ginkel, Francis Woodman, John W. Cook, Robert Ousterhout, Natalia Teteriatnikov, Warren Sanderson, Tania Velmans, Nigel J. Morgan and Doug Adams

In 

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Julia Robinson

American artists’ space located at 239 Thompson Street at the south edge of Washington Square in New York City. Beginning in the late 1950s the Judson Church hosted experimental avant-garde activities—art installations, Happenings, the beginnings of postmodern dance—launching a now celebrated group of artists, dancers, poets and composers, and fueling the radical downtown art scene. The platform of free expression Judson provided for the untested work of the 1960s generation, at a time when these artists were far from established, was a critical contribution to the invention, originality and ultimate international renown of these preeminent American artists.

Built in 1890 and designed by the renowned architect Stanford White (of McKim, Mead & White), the church’s original mission was to serve the immigrant population of Lower Manhattan with health and recreational programs as well as religious services. In the 1950s Reverend Bob Spike (1949–55) asked his seminary intern, Budd Scott, to go into the neighborhood and spend time with the locals—including a significant contingent of struggling artists—to discover their needs. Scott found out that the artists urgently needed a place to present their work. Judson’s national reputation for fostering radical artistic practice came under the tenure of Reverend Howard Moody (...

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H. Soukupová and Jakub Vítovský

Fortress in central Bohemia, Czech Republic, on a cliff above the River Berounka, c. 30 km south-west of Prague. It was built by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, to protect the crown jewels and state treasure of the Empire, and its unique design was greatly influenced by the presence of the holy relics. It retains much of its important programme of painted decoration (see §2 below). The foundation stone was laid on 10 June 1348 by Arnošt of Pardubice, Archbishop of Prague, and by 1355 the Emperor was already living there. In 1357 he founded the castle chapel, and in the same year two chapels—to the Stigmata and the Virgin—were consecrated.

H. Soukupová

The core of the castle lies behind a massive inner wall with the outer castle in front of it; there are two gates and an independently fortified residential quarter with a moat and well tower. The buildings of the inner castle (the palace, Church Tower and Great Tower) are built on three stepped terraces, the design reflecting Karlštejn’s special function....

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Gordon Campbell

English castle in Warwickshire. In 1265 the medieval castle at Kenilworth was granted by Henry III to his second son, Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, and for the next three centuries it was passed back and forth between the crown and various noble families. In 1563 the castle was granted by Queen Elizabeth to her favourite, Dudley family §(2), Earl of Leicester, who decided to convert the castle into a great house fit to receive occasional visits from the Queen. He retained the banqueting hall that had been built in 1392, and redesigned the Norman keep (built 1120), inserting mullioned and transomed windows on the first floor and renovating the accommodation within the building. He also demolished part of the curtain wall to construct the magnificent guest house that has been known since the 17th century as Leicester’s Building.

Dudley also built a gatehouse, beside which a large garden was laid out. The design shows indirect French influence, mediated through the English royal palace gardens. Like the gardens at ...

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Jonathan M. Bloom

[khānaqāh]

Building reserved for Muslim mystics belonging to a religious order. The Arabic word is of Persian origin (khān: ‘lodging’; gāh: ‘place’), but several variant forms (khanqah, khanka etc) underscore its distance from that origin. The word first appeared in the works of 10th-century geographers in reference to Manichaean institutions of teaching and evangelism in eastern Iran and Transoxiana, as well as to those of the ascetic Karrami sect of Islam. By the end of the century, however, khānaqāhs begin to be associated with groups of Sufis, who lived a communal mystical life regulated by a code of rules. The khānaqāh seems to have absorbed and replaced the earlier institution of the ribāṭ, although in some regions the two terms, together with zāwiya, were used interchangeably. In the second half of the 11th century, adherents of khānaqāhs allied themselves with the ruling Saljuq élite and vice versa, which led to the rapid proliferation of the institution throughout the eastern Islamic lands under Saljuq suzerainty. The spread of the ...

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Malcolm Thurlby

English parish church in Hereford and Worcester dedicated to SS Mary and Paul. The architectural sculpture of Kilpeck is the best-preserved example of the ‘Herefordshire school’ of Romanesque carving; the south doorway, chancel arch, apse boss, west window and corbels are all richly carved. The church is of sandstone. It was probably built c. 1134, when it was given to St Peter’s Abbey, Gloucester (now the cathedral). The sculptors had probably worked at Shobdon Church after 1131 (and one was previously employed at Tewkesbury Abbey). The Kilpeck sculpture reflects many other influences; the positioning of figures carved in relief one above the other on the jamb-shafts of the chancel arch recalls a similar feature on the Puerta de las Platerías, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, which had been visited by Oliver de Merlimond, founder of Shobdon, c. 1131. Superimposed figures also occur on the doorway, although here they are intertwined in foliage, as at Shobdon, and have characteristic ‘Herefordshire school’ ribbed draperies and Phrygian caps. The basic form and geometric decoration of the doorway are similar to the work of the ‘Dymock school’, while from Hereford Cathedral come the foliate motifs and large egg-shaped heads and clinging draperies of the chancel arch figures. The beakheads and medallions of the doorway reflect Reading Abbey, perhaps through the lost cloister of its daughter-house, Leominster Priory. The radiating voussoirs and certain corbels betray western French sources (e.g. Aulnay-de-Saintonge), and the unusual form of the paired columns of the doorway is paralleled in the cloister of St Aubin at Angers, although the interlacing serpents on the outer shafts and crocodile-like heads projecting from the west wall are Scandinavian-inspired. One of its most famous sculptures is the celebrated Sheela-na-Gig corbel figure, a rare example of this motif outside of Ireland....

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D. O. Shvidkovsky

One of the largest and most renowned monasteries in Russia, located 150 km north-west of Vologda on Lake Siversk. It was founded in 1397 by Cyril (Rus. Kirill), a monk from the Simonov monastery (1379; largely destr.) in Moscow, and it expanded rapidly under the patronage of the grand-princes of Moscow. By the mid-15th century it had become an important religious centre and one of the focal points of economic activity in northern Russia, with several icon-painting workshops. Between the 15th and 17th centuries it served as a place of confinement for members of the secular and ecclesiastical aristocracy.

The present tripartite composition of the monastery was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries out of the former Uspensky and Ivanovsky monasteries, the New Town and the grounds of the Ostrog fortress between them. The complex’s first stone building, the cathedral of the Dormition (Uspensky; 1497), stands in the centre of the Uspensky monastery. Its plan is derived from the early churches of Moscow, with three apses and four inner piers supporting a single dome. In ...

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Jakub Vítovský

[Ger. Pürglitz]

Gothic castle situated in the Czech Republic c. 60 km west of Prague. It was a favourite country seat of the kings of Bohemia. Founded on the site of a fortress dating from c. 1110, it was built in the 13th century by Ottokar II Přemysl (reg 1253–78). About 1400 it was extended by Wenceslas IV (reg 1378–1419) and was burnt down in 1422. Between 1493 and 1522 it was totally rebuilt by Vladislav II Jagiellon (reg 1471–1516) and his son Louis (reg 1516–26). The castle later passed into the hands of the nobility and deteriorated. Between 1882 and 1938 it was restored.

The castle is built on an asymmetrical headland above a stream and is triangular in plan; the nucleus of the eastern part, forming a small triangular courtyard, dates from the 13th century. There is a cylindrical tower à bec in the eastern corner. The west wing consists of the residential palace, with a passage in the centre and a ceremonial hall on the first floor. There is a chapel in the south wing. The oldest part of the castle is marked by the Romanesque windows (first half of the 13th century) that are found on the ground-floor of all three wings. The passage through the palace is enhanced by blind arcades in the so-called Cistercian–Burgundian style used in Central Europe. The remains of the vault of the ceremonial hall are similar in style. There is written evidence of a vaulted ceiling with bosses decorated with the coats of arms of all the countries ruled by Ottokar II Přemysl....

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Felipe Valbuena

Fortress in Medina del Campo, Valladolid province, Spain. The origins of this castle, called ‘de la Mota’ because of its site on a small raised mound overlooking the town, go back to the 12th century, when it guarded a fortified town within the Kingdom of Castile, on the frontier with León. Its present form, however, is the result of alterations carried out in the 15th century, from the reign of John II (reg 1406–54) onwards. Some records indicate that Master Fernando Carreño participated in work done on the castle in 1440. In the reign of Henry IV (reg 1454–74) the castle belonged to the Archbishop of Seville, Don Alonso de Fonseca, and was besieged by the townspeople. In 1475 it passed into the hands of the Catholic rulers Ferdinand and Isabella. During their reign new work was carried out under the direction of Alonso Nieto with the collaboration of Moorish architects such as masters ...

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Jacques Thiébaut

Belgian 14th-century moated castle situated south-east of Ghent on a flat marshland site in a bend of the River Scheldt. About 1150–57 Thierry de Masmines built a fortified house there, elements of which survive in the present castle. The building has been heavily modified, especially during the 17th century. The castle is built of Baelegem stone, the oldest parts in large squared blocks and the 15th-century parts in well-cut ashlar, while the 17th-century section is of a more roughly hewn construction.

Access to the castle, which has a pentagonal plan, is now on the eastern side through a cour d’honneur, its corners marked by pavilions and the enclosure walls pierced centrally by four portals leading respectively to the exterior, the outbuildings, the grounds, and, in the fourth side, a fixed bridge that was substituted for a drawbridge, which leads to the castle itself. The original fortified entrance is on the west side, a rectangular three-storey block with a staircase turret at its south-east corner. Remains of the original construction in the basement of the forebuilding survive, a Tournai ‘marble’ column supporting vaults with (later) brick ribs and corbels dating from the end of the 12th century or beginning of the 13th supporting the lintel of the entrance portal. At ground-level a bridge gives access to a pointed-arch doorway. On either side of the passage are rooms with fireplaces, vaulted in the 16th century when the stepped brick gables were also built. There is evidence that the building was originally two storeys higher....

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Derek Linstrum

Building in which justice is dispensed and, since the late 18th century, a significant architectural focus of a city. Although Francis Bacon, Viscount Verulam, wrote ‘the place of justice is an hallowed place’, in the 16th century courts of law were not the monumental buildings they were to become later. In Roman times justice had been dispensed in basilicas: large meeting halls that served other commercial and public uses as well as incorporating in the tribune a dais on which the magistrate sat in court surrounded by his assessors. To emphasize his authority he sat beneath an effigy of the emperor, in whose name he was giving judgement. This linking of law courts with civic life and government continued in varying degrees in most European countries until the 19th century. Even the so-called Palazzi della Ragione, for example at Padua (1172–1219) and Vicenza (1441–94), and Palais de Justice, such as those at ...

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Island monastery on Saint-Honorat, c. 3 km south-east of Cannes, France. It was founded c. ad 410 by St Honoratus of Arles (d 429), a Roman who had left northern Europe at the collapse of the empire, and it combined the traditions of the educated Roman élite and the ascetic desert fathers to create a centre of monastic spirituality and theology, a training ground for bishops and holy men unique in 5th-century Europe. At its height there were some 3700 monks living in solitary cells scattered across all four islands in the group. The Rule of St Benedict, introduced c. 661, brought a greater element of common life to Lérins and probably prompted the building of the cloisters. This golden age came to an end in 732 with the first Saracen invasion. Regular life was re-established at Lérins by the 11th century; the community accumulated vast estates and privileges, with some 60 dependent priories on the mainland. From ...

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Library  

Virginia M. Kerr, Colum Hourihane and Godfrey Thompson

Building for storage of and access to texts. Over time the format of texts has changed, from papyrus rolls and cuneiform tablets, to codices, to printed books, to microforms, and the technology of storage and the notion of ‘access’ have also changed significantly. Library buildings in turn have evolved.

Libraries have often hosted other activities, including lectures and the display of art and artefacts. These roles extend back to the Hellenistic period (323–31 bc), were revived in the Renaissance and Baroque libraries of Europe, and have found new emphasis in the 20th century.

Libraries also have performed important symbolic roles: they preserve knowledge, inspire scholars, and measure cultural achievement for institutions or entire nations; they also provide an opportunity for enlightened patronage. These symbolic functions have been expressed in various furnishings: for example, gates and chains protect medieval bookcases; allegorical motifs or emblems serve to glorify the arts and sciences; authors’ portraits may inspire readers; and donors’ portraits immortalize their dedication to literature....

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Jiřina Hořejší

Renaissance palace in Litomyšl, 57 km south-east of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. The 16th-century building is one of the best examples of Czech Renaissance architecture. There was a fortified Slav settlement on the site, then a castle (first mentioned in ad 981) and from 1344 a bishop’s residence. In 1567 it was acquired by the Bohemian Chancellor, Vratislav of Pernštejn, who decided to build a luxurious and imposing family residence there. He summoned from Prague the court architect Giovanni Battista Aostalli, who was in charge of the project from 1568 to 1575. The house was completed by Ulrico Aostalli in 1581. Its plan comprises a massive three-storey block in four wings around two internal courtyards, with the chapel of St Michael in the south-east corner. The older medieval buildings were incorporated into the Renaissance complex in parts of the west and north wings. The main exterior façades are not architecturally articulated except for a loggia opened to both sides on the second floor of the south wing. After ...

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Priscilla Metcalf

Building that houses the headquarters of a livery company or guild, or association of merchants, craftsmen or traders, so named from the trade’s distinctive ceremonial livery. Houses or buildings belonging to late medieval guilds or fraternities of merchants survive in several cities (e.g. York, Merchant Taylors’ Hall, interior c. 1400, and Merchant Adventurers’ Hall, c. 1580), but the livery companies and their halls are specifically associated with the City of London, emerging in the 15th century with the development of guilds and lay fraternities. The late medieval type of large hall with ancillary rooms persisted in City livery halls, despite their almost complete rebuilding after the Great Fire of London in 1666. All but three were destroyed in World War II.

The livery hall is not a seat of government or of active trade: it houses the administration, business meetings, charity-dispensing and social gatherings of the company members. While there is no exact equivalent elsewhere, the activities of the livery companies may loosely be compared with those of the Venetian Scuole (...

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David L. Simon

Fortress in Huesca province, Aragon, Spain. It commands a magnificent situation in the foothills of the Pyrenees overlooking the vast plains of Sotonera south to Huesca and beyond. The complex was built largely during the 11th and 12th centuries, when its position on the frontier between Christian and Muslim lands gave it its strategic importance. The first of the two major building programmes began c. 1020, when Sancho el Mayor (reg 1063–94) reconquered the surrounding lands from the Muslims. At least three towers, two of which survive, the Torre del Homenaje and the Torre de la Reina, as well as a chapel dedicated to S María de Valverde and connecting walls are attributed to this campaign. The Torre del Homenaje was built in an isolated position in front of the fortifications, to which it was connected by a wooden bridge. It contained a basement and five floors. The Torre de la Reina, comprising a basement and three floors, is particularly noteworthy for three sets of twin-arched windows, with columns of exaggerated entasis and trapezoidal capitals that have been related to both Lombard and Mozarabic architectural forms. The chapel is composed of a single-cell nave with an eastern apse covered by a semicircular vault. The original timber roof of the nave was replaced by a vault at the end of the 11th century....