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Andrew Maske

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Evita Arapoglou, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, Alexander Koutamanis, Maria Katsanaki, Tonia P. Giannoudaki, Roderick Taylor and Natasha Lemos

[Elliniki Dimokratia]

Country in south-east Europe, comprising the southern part of the Balkan peninsula and bordering the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Albania and the Ionian Sea to the west, Turkey and the Aegean Sea to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The principal cities are the capital, Athens (including Peiraeus), Thessaloniki, Larisa, Volos, Patras, and Herakleion. The country’s area is 130,833 sq. km and includes hundreds of islands in the Aegean and the Ionian seas. The central region of Thessaly has large plains, but most of the country is mountainous, with such ranges as the Pindus in the west. The coastline is rocky and indented, and there are few navigable rivers. One of Greece’s chief industries is agriculture, although only a third of its land is cultivable. Other industries include fishing, shipping, and tourism. Greece was under Turkish rule from 1453 to 1821...

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Jorge Luján-Muñoz, A. Méndez-Domínguez, Linda Asturias de Barrios, Christopher Hartop and Rossina Cazali de Barrios

Central American country. It is bordered on the north and west by Mexico, on the north-east by Belize, and on the south-east by El Salvador and Honduras; the Pacific Ocean forms a coastline 250 km long to the south-west and the Caribbean Sea a shorter coast to the north-east (see fig.). The capital is Guatemala City (formerly Nueva Guatemala or Guatemala de la Asunción), although before its foundation in 1776 the capital was Santiago de Guatemala (founded 1527), which, following a landslide in 1541, was relocated (1543) several kilometres away on the site of present-day Antigua. Despite the country’s relatively small size, it can be divided into three distinct geographical areas: the lowlands in the north (comprising about a third of the country’s territory); the central, mountainous highlands; and the southern coastal plain. The lowlands contain notable classic Maya archaeological sites (see Maya, §1...

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Frederick Lamp

[République de Guinée]

Country in West Africa on the Atlantic coast, bordered by Guinea-Bissau and Senegal to the north, Mali to the north and east, Côte d’Ivoire to the east and south and Liberia and Sierra Leone to the south. The capital is Conakry. A French colony from 1891, Guinea became independent in 1958. A Marxist government subsequently came to power but was overthrown in a military coup in 1984. The population of 6,706,000 (UN estimate, 1989) comprises mainly Fula, Malinke and Susu peoples. The language of government is French. The country covers 245,857 sq. km, and the geography is varied and includes coastal marshlands, savannah, high mountains and forests. Guinea is rich in mineral resources, and this has encouraged industrial development; agriculturally, the country is less developed.

The area was settled early and became the political centre of the Mali Empire of the Malinke (Manding; 13th–15th centuries), with its capital at ...

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Eve L. Crowley

[Repûblica da Guiné-Bissau; formerly Portuguese Guinea]

Country in West Africa. It is bordered by Senegal to the north, Guinea on the east and south and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. The capital is Bissau and the national language Portuguese. It includes within its territory of only 36,125 sq. km the Bijagós Archipelago and a string of coastal islands. The mainland territory comprises coastal swamps and rain-forests that slope upward to become heavily forested interior plains and then typical savannah. The hot climate receives all of its annual rainfall between December and May and supports the largely agricultural economy.

Although the Portuguese arrived in the mid-15th century and, because of the slave trade, maintained colonies thereafter, Guinea-Bissau did not formally become a Portuguese colony until 1879. In 1951 it was declared an overseas colony of Portugal, becoming independent in 1974. Major ethnic groups include coastal Balanta, Manjaco, Bijago (Bijogo), Diola and Beafada-Nalu; Mande and Fulbe (Fulani) in the savannah; and urban populations of Cape Verdean and mixed descent. Of the 966,000 inhabitants (UN estimate ...

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[formerly British Guiana]

Country in South America. It is bordered by Venezuela on the west, Brazil on the south, Surinam on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the north (see fig.). It includes the counties of Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice; the capital is Georgetown in Demerara. Its terrain consists of a highly cultivated coastal region, an interior of rain-forest, and open savannah in the south-west. Initially colonized by the Dutch in the early 17th century, it came under British rule in the early 18th, gaining independence in 1966.

For the history and art of Guyana before colonization see South America, Pre-Columbian, §VII, 1.

Denis Williams

The Dutch began to settle Guyana in 1616, and in 1621 the Dutch Chartered West India Company was given a monopoly in trade with the region. Failed attempts to settle the Pomeroon River were made by English colonists in 1639 and 1642...

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Dolores M. Yonker and Eva Pataki

revised by C. C. McKee

Country in the Caribbean. Occupying 26,000 sq. km of the western part of the island of Hispaniola (see fig.), it is volcanic in origin and mountainous. Intense cultivation of mountain slopes has caused severe erosion, and despite attempts at reforestation, Haiti is virtually barren of forest cover. The principal agricultural regions are the lowlands of the northern plain, the central plateau, the valley of the Artibonite River, and the Cul de Sac plain in the south. Over one hundred rivers and streams flow from mountain headlands into the Atlantic to the north, the Gulf of La Gonâve to the west, and the Caribbean Sea to the south. The largest cities are the capital of Port-au-Prince and Cap-Haïtien in the north. The majority of Haitians speak French Creole and practice the religion of Vodoun.

Dolores M. Yonker, revised by C. C. McKee

Christopher Columbus landed on ...

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Colin-John Collins and Marja-Liisa Bell

[Swed. Helsingfors]

Capital of Finland since 1812, in the district of Uusimaa on a peninsula of the north shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The largest city in the country, it is the principal financial, educational and cultural centre, with a population of c. 500,000.

The town was commissioned in 1550 by the Swedish King Gustav I (reg 1523–60) to compete with the Hanseatic towns for trade with Russia. It was to be built on the estuary of the River Vantaa and to be populated from other towns in the area. The initial efforts were unsuccessful, as the coastal waters were too shallow for shipping, and in 1640 the development was relocated at Vironniemi (now Kruunuhaka). Largely owing to the rocky nature of the topography, for many years the original project remained nothing more than a small, arbitrarily developed town. Helsinki revived when Suomenlinna Fortress...

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Jessica Rawson, Zhou Lijun, William R. Sargent, Henrik H. Sørensen, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, Jerome Silbergeld, Peter Hardie, Haiyao Zheng, Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Puay-Peng Ho, Bent L. Pedersen, Tan Tanaka, Petra Klose, Frances Wood, Robert L. Thorp, Ann Paludan, Peter Wiedehage, Carol Michaelson, Stephen B. Little, Stephen J. Goldberg, Friedrich Zettl, James Cahill, Caroline Gyss-Vermande, Roderick Whitfield, Michael Sullivan, Susan H. Bush, James Robinson, Maggie Bickford, Robert E. Harrist jr, Richard Vinograd, Ellen Uitzinger, Ann Barrott Wicks, Colin Mackenzie, Robert W. Bagley, Li Xueqin, Jenny F. So, Nigel Wood, Margaret Medley, S. J. Vainker, Mary Tregear, Regina Krahl, Yutaka Mino, Laurence Chi-Sing Tam, Rose Kerr, Guy Raindre, Nicholas Pearce, John Guy, C. J. A. Jörg, Barry Till, Paula Swart, Rosemary Scott, Rosemary Ransome Wallis, Sarah Handler, John E. Vollmer, Albert E. Dien, Sören Edgren, Yang Boda, Joe Cribb, Verity Wilson, Jane Portal, Zhong Hong, Donald B. Wagner, Ho Chuimei, Bent Nielsen, B. V. Gyllensvärd, J. A. Marsh, Cordell D. K. Yee, F. Richard Stephenson, Keith Pratt, Henryk Jurkowski, Jan Chapman, Uta Lauer, Sarah Waldram, Richard Rutt, Mayching Kao, Chu-Tsing Li, Michel Beurdeley, Jessica Harrison-Hall, Basil Gray and Wang Tao

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Jerome Silbergeld and Friedrich Zettl

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Gloria Lara-Pinto and Rolando Soto

Central American country. It is bordered by Guatemala and El Salvador to the west and south-west and by Nicaragua to the south-east. Honduras has a 640-km coastline on the Caribbean Sea in the north and a narrow access to the Pacific through the Gulf of Fonseca in the south (see fig.). It is the second largest republic in Central America, its area of c. 112,100 sq. km dominated by mountainous terrain, with narrow coastal lowlands. Because of its elevation, much of the country has a moderate tropical climate, and the vegetation ranges from pine, oak and broadleaf monsoon forests in the temperate highlands to dense mangrove thickets, open savannah and vast tropical rain-forests in the humid coastal lowlands. Communications are relatively undeveloped, particularly in the east, and the population is mainly rural, about 70% living in the mountain valleys, where Comayagua, the former capital, and Tegucigalpa, the present capital, are also located. Honduras was colonized by Spain after ...

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Ernő Marosi, Tamás Sajó, Géza Galavics, Hedvig Szabolcsi, Vera Varga, Ida Bod-Bobrovszky, András Szilágyi, E. László and Lin Barton

[Magyar Köztársasag]

Country in east central Europe. It is landlocked and borders on Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Austria (see fig.). It covers 90,030 sq. km, composed primarily of a flat plain, with the capital at Budapest. The rivers Danube and Tisza, which flow southward through the country, divide it into three regions: gently rolling hills in the west, the Great Plain between the Danube and the Tisza, and the Little Plain in the east. The population is nearly 10 million (2007 estimate), of which the Magyars form 98%. Around 65% of Hungarians are Catholic and c. 30% are Protestant. The Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric group.

Ernő Marosi

In the last decades of the 9th century ad nomadic Magyar tribes crossed the Carpathians and settled in the Middle Danube basin. In ...

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Jan Royt and Karla Huebner

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Gary Schwartz, E. den Hartog, K. A. Ottenheym, Pieter Singelenberg, Cyriel Stroo, Hans J. Van Miegroet, Jan Jaap Heij, Willemijn Stokvis, H. A. Tummers, Ilja M. Veldman, Ype Koopmans, Maarten Broekema, Judith A. Neiswander, Petra Dupuits, Nicoline A. Zemering, Monique D. J. M. Teunissen, J. D. van Dam, Hillie Smit, Gordon Campbell, Timothy Schroder, Annelies Krekel-Aalberse, Peter Hornsby, Wilhelmina Halsema-Kubes, Monique Mokveld, A. Kenneth Snowman, M. W. F. Simon Thomas, Patricia Wardle, J. A. van der Veen, Annemarie Vels Heijn, J. A. H. Reynaerts, Rudolf E. O. Ekkart, Jochen Becker and Geert-Jan Koot

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Garry Apgar

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Erberto F. Lo Bue

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